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language. The author thinks he should very information conveyed - the doubts dispelled imperfectly execute his task if he were “mere the chaos reduced to order — the mastery ly to treat of battles and sieges, of the rise over facts and views formerly so perplexing, and fall of administrations, of intrigues in the and now so pleasingly imparted, that have palace, and of debates in the parliament." given the book its great and universal charm, Accordingly, he observes, “ It will be my en- and settled it in the affections of all its worthy de to relate the history of the people as admirers.”* well as the bistory of the government; to With regard to the political objects of the trace the progress of useful and ornamental work, and to the principles it is designed to Arts ; to describe the rise of religious sects, illustrate, Lord Jeffrey remarks further : —"I and the changes of literary taste; to portray take it, that it was with a view to certain the manners of successive generations; and great truths that this history was undertaken; not to pass by with neglect even the revolu- and these, which I think it has made out betions which have taken place in dress, furni- yond all further contradiction, are first, the ture, repasts, and public amusements. I shall intolerable and personally hateful tyranny of cheerfully bear the reproach of having descend- the Stuarts ; second, the absolute necessity of ed below the dignity of history, if I can suc- at least as radical and marked a revolution as ceed in placing before the English of the nine- was effected in 1688 ; and third, the singular teenth century a true picture of the life of felicity with which that revolution was saved their ancestors.'

from the stain of blood, and all crimes of vioWe believe it is generally admitted by the lence, by the peculiar relation in which Wilmost competent judges that, in the portion of liam stood to the dynasty, and the still more the work already published, Mr. Macaulay has peculiar character and European position of executed his difficult undertaking with extraor, that great prince. Had he not been in the dinary ability and success. It has indeed line of succession, we should have had an at been objected, that he has only succeeded in tempt at a new commonwealth, and another presenting his readers with a graceful and en- civil war ; and had he not been partly an tertaining narrative ; and that, as regards the alien, and looking more to European than suggestive and instructive uses of historical merely English interests, the victory in that delineation, the book is commonplace and su- war must have been of one section of the peo, perficial. We presume that, being as it is to ple over another, with all the ranklings and à certain extent a party history, it will be aggravated antipathies which the mere presome time before its actual proportions of dominance of a sort of neutral party, or commerit and defect will be generally apprehended mon umpire, tended to suppress and extinand acknowledged. It may interest some, guish. These points I think Macaulay has however, to learn what was the opinion of made out triumphantly; and not by eloquent such a critic as the late Lord Jeffrey. “I and lively writing, but by patient and copious deny utterly,” says he," the two propositions accumulation, and lucid arrangement of facts - first, that Macaulay, has aimed chiefly at and details, often separately insignificant, but interesting and entertaining his readers ; and constituting at last án induction, which leaves second, that he has (either studiously or indo- no shade of doubt on the conclusion. This lently) put them on a scanty allowance of in- book, therefore, has already, in the course of struction, admonition, or suggestion. As to three little months, scattered to the winds, the last, I will maintain boldly that and swept finally from the minds of all thinkno historian of any age has been so prodigal ing Englishmen, those lingerings of Jacobite of original and profound reflective suggestion, prejudice, which the eloquence and perveray, and weighty and authoritative decision, sions of Hume, and the popular talents of Also, on innumerable questions of great diffi- Scott, and other writers of fiction, had reculty and general interest; though these pre- stored to our literature, and but too much cious contributions are not ostentatiously tick- familiarized to our feelings, in the last fifty eted and labelled, as separate gifts to mankind, years. This is a great work, and a great tribut woven, with far better grace and effect, umph; and ought, I think, so to be hailed into the net-tissue of the story. And then, as and rejoiced in. All convertible men must to his aiming only to interest and amuse, I now be disabused of their prejudices, and all say first, that though he has attained that end, future generations grow up in a light round it is only incidentally, and not by aiming at it which no cloud can again fiôd means to gathtruth, it is chiefly by his success in the higher This criticism, though of the defensive 801., object at which he did aim, that he has really may be accepted as a fair and sensible es tin delighted and interested his readers. The vi- mate of the prominent merits of the wo ct. vacity and color of his style may have been the first attraction of many to his volumes ;

* Jeffroy's Lifo and Corrospondence, vol. ii.,. but I feel assured that it is the impression of 459. the weight, and novelty, and clearness of the † Ibid, vol. ii., p. 460-1.

Of its few inaccuracies of fact, of its occa- | Viewed under any of these several aspects, volsional dogmatism, and of the insufficiency of umes might be written upon the ring, and the the judgments given on certain questions re- amount of thought or ingenuity of fabrication specting which differences of opinion are still which, inevitable, there is nothing to be said which

Through climes and ages, would be likely to profit or interest the reader. have been bestowed upon personal decoration. These are questions which demand of readers * But, madame, beyond all the rings and pera familiar acquaintance with the sources sonal ornaments which you now possess, or here whence the materials of the history are drawn, after may become possessed of, let me refer you and may for the present be left to the consid- to the one plain gold ring which you constantly eration of those who have time and opportu

wear. I believe it to be, as far as cordial feelings in nity for minute investigation. Our object union with sacred rites can hallow any ring, a throughout has been to exhibit the leading gift far more precious than the most costly tiara peculiarities of Macaulay's genius ; to state

of diamonds could possibly be, and more valued the nature, and point out the most strik- as a pledge of affection than the whole collection ing characteristics of his writings, and to pre-collection, purchased from Mr. Isaacs by Mr.

which repose in Marie-Louise's casket.” [The pare the uninitiated to enter on the study of Croker for Lord Londesborough, in 1850, and them with an intelligent appreciation. This subsequently augmented by his lordship, is now object we have now in some sort accomplished, contained in the jewel-case of the Empress Marieand we accordingly leave the reader to extend Louise. ]—Spectator. his knowledge of these writings as opportunity may admit; distinctly assuring him, that the time and attention required for their perusal


DISCOVERY. — It has long been known to physiologists that certain coloring matters, if admin

istered to animals along with their food, possess ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL Rings. — We have the property of entering into the system and been favored with a copy of a catalogue, drawn tinging the bones. In this way the bones of up, for private reference, by Mr. Crofton Croker, swine have been tinged purple by madder, and of an interesting collection of rings and personal instances are on record of other animals being ornaments in the possession of Lady Londesbor- similarly affected. No attempt, however, was ough. The collection consists of two hundred made to turn this beautiful discovery to account and fifty objects of personal ornament, the nu- until lately, when M. Roulin speculated on what cleus of which was formed by Mr. George Isaacs might have been the consequences of administer

- rings, bracelets, fibulæ, and gems, British, ing colored articles of food to silkworms just Gallic, German, Italian, Égyptian, Greek, He- before spinning their cocoons. His first experibrew, and others ; and Mr. Croker's notes, with ments were conducted with indigo, which he their curious and entertaining information about mixed in certain proportions with the mulberry rings — talismanic, cabalistic, episcopal, or pon

leaves serving the worms for food. The result tifical, signet, gemmel, and betrothal rings

of this treatment was successful - he obtained convey some relish of the pleasure to be derived blue cocoons. Prosecuting still further his exfrom actual inspection of her ladyship’s jewel- periments, he sought a red coloring matter ca

pable of being eaten by the silkworms without "That objects at the first sight so apparently injury resulting. He had some difficulty to find trivial as rings should engage the attention of such a coloring matter at first, but eventually the curious,” says Mr. Croker in a pleasant alighted on the Bignonia chica. Small portions prefatory letter addressed to Lady Londesbor- of this plant having been added to the mulberry ough, “is not remarkable to any one who has leaves, the silkworms consumed the mixture, examined the learned and instructive though in- and produced red-colored silk. In this manner complete work of Licetus on the subject, with the experimenter, who is still prosecuting his the works of Gorlæus and Goria ; although it researches, hopes to obtain silk as secreted by must be acknowledged that they contain much the worm of many colors. — Times. more respecting the ancient gems which were set in rings than respecting the ring itself. How'ever, so important was this branch of goldsmith Outlines of Scripture Geography and His. ery considered in the middle ages, as to invest a tory; illustrating the Historical Portions of the body of artists with the distinctive title of Old and New Testaments. Designed for the use aneliers.

of Schools and Private Reading. By Edward .“ Nor should the claims that the ring has on Hughes, F. R. A. S., &c. our regard, through the vast cycle of ages over A well-executed compilation ; the matter dewhich its history extends, be forgotten — its rived from the best travellers in the East, and power and its poetry ; its alliance with religion the more remarkable descriptions quoted in their and with love; with chivalry and commerce ; own words. The outlines, however, are rather & with magic and the superstitious speculations of series of short papers on the places mentioned in our forefathers ; its influence upon art and al- Scripture, than å "geography” in the school chymy or chemistry, and their combined power sense of the term. Perhaps the Ante-Abrahamic upon the science of manufactures and medicines. I period is too fully gone into. — Spectator.


From the Economist. nation. We have often thought of late that THE ASYLUM OF THE WORLD. Englishmen were growing so lazy, so sensible, We do not know whether there was any slap in the face would rouse them into indig

and so unsensitive, that nothing short of a foundation for the assertion of the Times, that some foreign governments were about to show nation, or win from them anything beyond a such a degree of futile and foolish irritation gentle and a pathetic smile. But if anything as to apply to Great Britain for the espulsion less startling could

awaken us from our torpor, of the refugees from various countries who goad us to put forth our whole strength, and have sought safety on our shores ; - but most

unite us all as one man to repel insult or agassuredly, if there has been any such inten- gression, it would be a proposal on the part tion, the firm, manly, and temperate language should violate the duties of hospitality towards

of the triumphant autocrats of Europe that we of Lord Palmerston in the House of Commons the victims of their oppression and the fugion Tuesday night will have sufficed to prevent tives from their vengeance. its being carried into execution. In reply to an inquiry froin Lord Dudley Stuart, Lord

The absurdity of such a demand would be Palmerston (in the absence of Lord' John only equalled by its ungracefulness. With Russell) said:

what face could a proposal that we should

refuse asylum on our shores to proscribed and In answer to the question of the Noble Lord as outlawed politicians be made by men who to whether an application has been made by have themselves sought and found protection foreign powers to the government of this country here when the fortunes of war or of civil confor the expulsion of foreign refugees now living test went against them? What! we have in the United Kingdom, I have to state that no sheltered in their hour of need those whose such application has been made. In reply to the other question of the Noble Lord, as to what conduct had outraged every feeling of our course would be pursued in the event of such an nature and every principle of our creed, and application being made, I can only repeat that are we not to shelter in their turn those with which I think has been stated on former occa- whom we sympathize from the very bottom sions in this house, that any such application of our hearts! We have opened our doors to would be met with a firm and decided refusal. the escaping guilty : are we to close them It is, indeed, obvions that it must be so, because on the dying unfortunate? We have stood no such measure could be taken by the govern- between the oppressor and the popular yenment of this country without fresh powers by Act geance which he had long courted and at of Parliament; and I apprehend that no govern, length aroused; - are we not to stand between meut could, even if they were so inclined - and the oppressed and those who would pursue the present government are not so inclined him into the sanctuary and seize him at the apply for such a power with any chance of success, inasmuch as no Alien Bill, I believe, very horns of the altar? We received Louis within the course of this century has been Napoleon, though we could not suppress our passed ever giving to the government the power contempt at his silly and miserable descent of expelling foreigners, except with reference to upon Boulogne, and though his attempt had considerations connected with the internal safety been against the throne of a close, and then of this country. The British government has a faithful, ally. We received Charles X., never undertaken to provide for the internal secu- though he had forfeited his throne by an atrity of other countries ; it is sufficient for them tack upon that liberty of the press which we to have the power to provide for the internal se- cherished as our dearest privilege. We recurity of their own. But I cannot confine myceived Louis Philippe, though he had deceived answer simply to that statement. I will ask to us meanly, and though the demand which upbe allowed to add, that while, on the one hand, set him was

We the British laws, and the spirit of the British offered a refuge to Metternich, though the

“ Parliamentary Reform. constitution, give to foreigners of all political opinions and of all categories, a secure and policy which he had long pursued and for peaceful shelter within this country, I think that which he was compelled to fly was one which those foreigners who avail themselves of the hos- we abhorred from our inmost soul.

We pitality of England are bound by every principle sheltered even Ledru Rollin with his associof honor, as well as by every regard, not only to ates, though we loathed his brutal doctrines international law, but to the law of this land and his sanguinary plans; we sheltered him, are bound to abstain from entering into any in though the attentat for which he was obliged trigues, or from pursuing any courses intended to fly was rather a crime against society than for the purpose of giving umbrage to foreign a mere political offence; we shelter him still, governments, and of disturbing the internal though he has repaid our hospitality by tranquillity of any foreign countries.

pouring out his frothy venom against our Every sentiment of this terse, vigorous, and nation and our institutions. And, finally, well-considered answer will be reëchoed by we should again afford the protection of our all ranks and classes, whatever be their party island (if it were again needed) even to the connections or political predilections. Lord Emperor of Austria and the Emperor of France Palmerston has spoken the mind of the whole 1 - possibly even to the Pope and the King of

Naples — though we hold the first to be a With regard to Mazzini the case is still lawless despot, and though words can do but stronger. England has shown him no sym. feeble justice to the detestation with which pathy, invited him to do fêtes, cheered and the last is regarded at every English hearth. strengthened him by no popular encourage

And having done all these things —ques- ment; it is even believed that she owes him tionable perhaps and certainly against the grain atonement for a great wrong committed some - are we to abstain, at the bidding of those years ago. She has merely given him, what whom we so thanklessly served, from similar she has given to his worst and meanest enecharities, when we can render them with a mies — shelter. He has lived among us in clear conscience and a ready will? Having the most profound retirement — avoiding all harbored — and sinned perhaps in doing so — public appearances — his very residence known the fugitives from freedom, are we to be de- only to a few intimate friends. What he barred from harboring also the fugitives from may have done in the way of correspondence, oppression - and thereby atoning for our exhortation, secret planning, we know nothprevious misplaced benevolence ? Are we to ing, and the Austrian government have not warn away Kossuth and Mazzini from their been able to discover. While among us he last asylum ? It was natural enough that has conducted himself, in all respects and to the former reception of the Hungarian Patriot all appearances, as a peaceful and well-conin this country should have given umbrage to ducted citizen : — and this is all that we are the Austrian authorities, for it was ostenta- concerned with or have a right to inquire tious, noisy, and unprecedented in its enthu- about. If he has been the originator of the siasm and spontaneity. In that popular dis- outbreak in Lombardy, at all events he has play we did not join, nor did many of not directed it from England; he appears to the higher classes of Great Britain ; for, be somewhere in or near Italy, and the Auswhile acknowledging the great powers of the trians must look after him themselves. Magyar Leader, his wonderful eloquence, his While, however, we are prepared to deearnest patriotism, and the love and almost fend the right of asylum against all assailworship with which he is regarded by his ants and impugners, we are bound to say countrymen at homo we believed then, and that that right is abused and endangered by believe still, that to his injudicious zeal in those refugees who seek our shore, not for proclaiming the severance of Hungary from safety, but as a fortress from which, secure Austria and the establishment of a republic, themselves, they can prepare plots against may be traced all the calamities which have our neighbors and allies. Such conduct is subsequently overwhelmed that unhappy coun- indelicate, ungenerous, and dangerous. Our try — the intestine divisions which lost their laws and customs give us no means of watchcause, the interference of Russia, the surren-ing or controlling such behavior. In case of der of Vilagos, and_the destruction of their any overt act we can and do interfere. If ancient liberties. But the majority of the any of these refugees were to procure or send British people, who received Kossuth without arms and ammunition,or to fit out vessels for such exuberant welcome, did not enter into a descent upon foreign shores, we should be these considerations ; they merely knew that bound at once to arrest both the proceedings he was the idol of the Hungarian people, and and the culprits — and we should assuredly their chosen governor ; that the Emperor of do so with the utmost promptitude. It is not Austria, by perjury and violence and foreign alleged, however, that any of the obnoxious aid, had trodden down a constitution similar refugees who have found shelter with us to our own, and had violated hereditary rights have proceeded so far as this. Once, and as sacred and as long-descended as those of once only, so far as we are aware, has

anywhich we make our boast ; and that of this thing of the sort been attempted with success constitution and these rights Kossuth had and in that instance the conspirator was been the representative and the defender. the present Emperor of the French ! Still, They expressed their sentiments as English- though our institutions and our feelings both men are wont; and we can well imagine that forbid interference with or surveillance over their acclamations must have been gall and those who have sought refuge with us, these worm wood to the cabinet at Vienna. But fugitives ought to feel that every consideration that is now an old story. Since his return of position, of honor, and of prudence, forfrom America, the Magyar Chief has been bids them to make use of the shelter afforded silent and unnoticed — keeping his own then to carry on machinations or conspiracies counsel, and biding his own time ; and there against States with which we are at peace and is not the slightest evidence that he had the aunity. It is hard, no doubt, that they should remotest concern either with the outbreak at be prohibited from the great solace of an exile Milan* or with the attempted assassination life; it is painful to feel that their hands are at Vienna.

tied, their time wasted, and their faculties * Since the proclamation published in his name

idle and rusting; it is irritating to think that turns out a forgery.

they can no longer aid their follow-country

men who have remained at home in their the coming convulsion! The fact is, that in struggles for the common cause : — but these the universally civic organization of ancient are the tacit conditions on which a place of times, as well as of those Italian states which refuge has been afforded them. If they were occupy so large a portion of modern history, not prepared to accept it on such conditions, conspiracy was really a powerful and efficient they should not have sought it, and they mode of operation. But in our later systems should now quit it:- only on the shores of a of government, whether representative or nation at war with their oppressors, or amid merely monarchical, with populations of milthe concealments and fastnesses of their own lions to appeal to, depend upon, disgust, or land, can they honorably or conscientiously conciliate, anything like individual conspiracy plot, conspire, or levy war against the rulers must dwindle into insignificance, unless it be who have defeated them. If, from the shelter identified with that great conspiracy into of Claremont or of Brighton, Louis Philippe which a whole people silently enter without had planned and procured a counter-revolution consulting each other, and from the mere in France, or Metternich had arranged an tacit sympathy of common resentment and expedition against Hungary - we certainly disaffection. If rulers would but look to this should have held neither of them guiltless ; large conspiracy and appease it, without idly - and we are not disposed to have one rule inquiring who are its chiefs, for in fact it has for them and another for their rivals and an- no chiefs, they would be doing something tagonists.

towards the consolidation of their thrones.

No better proof of the folly and futility of

conspiracy could be adduced than the late outFrom the Examiner, 5th March. break at Milan. But it is at the same time a THE REFUGEE QUESTION.

proof of the equal futility of the police system

opposed to it; and these blockheads of AusIf the great events of late years have been trian jailers and police, who cannot do the remarkable for the production of few material work for which they are paid, though to do it results, they may at least be considered to they are empowered to tyrannize over the have established some striking and salutary Gnest country in the world, are said to be truths. Of these there is none more fully about to come to us to ask Englishmen to perdemonstrated than the idleness of seeking to form their police work for them, and to issue bring about revolution by conspiracy. From edicts of proscription against Mazzini and 1815 to 1848 Germany could show an inter- Kossuth, as if their own miserable system of minable series of conspiracies ; France was exaction and tyranny did not create Kossuths not less fertile in them; and we now know and Mazzinis in every village, or as if leaders that not one of them succeeded. Premature could ever be wanting when the inevitable esplosion and treachery invariably disclosed folly of such governments gives the signal for such plots, which had simply the effect of im- a starting up from oppression. plicating and causing the deaths or exile of Does any one believe that either Kossuth many brave men. But if individual parties or Mazzini at present obtain anything in Eng. have thus proved signally, powerless in bring- land in aid of their designs beyond that gen ing about great political changes or catas- eral protection which is extended to every trophes, the unanimous sentiment of a people exile! The mere question is preposterous. uníting in abhorrence of a system of govern- They draw no force from this country: Whatment, or in detestation of a prince or of a line ever forces or whatever resources they may of princes — when a mere accident has oc- have or command must come from their recurred to ignite that popular combustible — spective countries, not from England; and if has been found to defy alike precaution or so derived, the Austrian cabinet is answeraresistance, and to carry all before it, both ble for it, not England. Nor do we see that thrones and their defenders, with a violence the locus standi for conspiracy is better here and fulness of destruction unexampled in than in America. If Mazzini sailed from Lonancient times.

don to Genoa, as is alleged, he must have If the question be asked how Charles the employed from fifteen to twenty days in the Tenth, or Louis Philippe, or King Frederic, voyage. One-half of that number of day! or the Emperor Francis, could have saved would have brought him from the United themselves from the terrible revolutions which States. The exiles of European liberty there in some places definitively, in others for a time, are now, when at Boston, as near to the seat overturned their thrones - can it be answered of their exploits and to the populations over that any vigilance of police, any elimination whom their influence is dreaded, as thirty of dangerous characters, any exile of turbulent years ago they were when living in some humand seditious persons, either from their own ble suburb of London. Will the despots of dominions or from those of their neighbors, Europe, after striving to induce England to would in the least have contributed to banish from its shore every man guilty of the strengthen their position, or secure it against crime of patriotism or the heresy of constitu

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