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producing much heat. Its solution, de- hard and brittle; the fracture showing the composed by an alkali, affords the white broad facets like zinc, but of a duller gray hydrated oxide of zinc. This chloride color, with surfaces more rough and has been called the butter of zinc and mu- granular. Its specific gravity was 7.172. It riate of zinc. It consists of nearly equal consisted of 92.6 zinc and 7.4 iron.—The weights of zinc and chlorine. Bro- ores of zinc are five in number; viz.blende, mide and iodide of zinc may be formed red oride of zinc, electric calamine, calby processes similar to those for preparing amine, and white vitriol.-1. Blende occurs the analogous compounds of other metals. crystallized in rhombic dodecahedrons, Sulphuret of zinc may be formed by octahedrons, and in numerous intermeheating to redness a mixture of oxide of diate forms. It cleaves with facility parzinc and sulphur. This substance, as allel to the faces of the rhombic dodecafound in nature, will be described in the hedron, which is the primary form of its sequel, under the head of the ores of zinc. crystals ; lustre adamantine; color redThe salts of zinc possess the following dish-brown, black, yellow and green ; general properties: They generally yield streak white to reddish-brown; hardness colorless solutions with water ; ferro- equal to that of apatite; specific gravity prussiate of potash, sulphureted hydro- 4.5 to 4.8. It occurs massive also, as gen and alkalies, occasion white precipi- well as in crystals; structure curved, lameltates; infusion of galls produces no pre- lar, columnar, granular and impalpable. cipitate.-Sulphate of zinc. Dilute sul Composition, according to the analysis of phuric acid dissolves zinc, and the salt doctor Thomson :may be obtained in fine prismatic four

Zinc, sided crystals. It is commonly called

23.16 white vitriol. It may be formed also by


.. 8.08 dissolving the white oxide of zinc in sulphuric acid. But it is more extensively Blende occurs in primitive and secondary manufactured from the native sulphuret rocks, and is found associated with galena in the following manner : The ore is and copper pyrites. It abounds in Engroasted, wetted with water, and exposed land, Scotland, Saxony, Carinthia, and to the air. The sulphur attracts oxygen, other European countries. In the U. and is converted into sulphuric acid; and States, it is found at the Southampton lead the metal, at the same time being oxi- mine, and at several places in the neighdated, combines with the acid. After borhood. Localities of it are also known some time, the sulphate is extracted by so- throughout the secondary limestones of lution in water; and by evaporating the the Western States. It is the ore which solution to dryness, the mass is run into affords the zinc of commerce. Specimoulds. The taste of this salt is ex- mens from some localities are phosphores. tremely styptic. It reddens vegetable cent, with a yellow light simply on frieblues, though in composition it is strictly tion. This is the case at Schlackenwald, a neutral salt. Dilute nitric acid com- Bohemia, in the Hartz, and in Perthshire. bines rapidly with zinc, and produces The splendent fibrous variety from Przimuch heat, at the same time that a large bram contains a small proportion of the quantity of nitrous acid gas is evolved. rare metal cadmium. This metal has likeThe solution is very caustic, and affords wise been detected in the radiated blende crystals by evaporation of nitrate of zinc. of Freyberg and Derbyshire.-2. Red Muriatic acid acts very strongly upon oride of zinc. This interesting ore poszinc, and disengages much hydrogen. sesses only a lamellar structure, never Phosphoric acid also dissolves this metal. having been met with in perfect crystal The phosphate does not crystallize, but It yields to cleavage, parallel to all the becomes gelatinous, and may be fused by faces of a regular six-sided prism. Its a strong heat. Fluoric, boracic, carbonic, color is ruby or blood-red. It is transacetic and oxalic acids, each forms com- lucent, with a shining lustre. By long pounds with the oxide of zinc. Zinc exposure to the weather, it suffers de may be combined with phosphorus by composition at the surface. It is easily projecting small pieces of phosphorus on scratched by the knife; specific gravity melted zinc. The compound is white, 6.2. It consists of oxide of zinc 88 and with a shade of bluish-gray. Zinc forms red oxide of manganese 12. It is infusa brittle alloy with antimony. An alloy ble before the blow-pipe, excepting wben of zinc and iron has been observed in a mixed with sub-carbonate of soda, in zinc manufactory at Bristol. It lined the which case, it melts into a transparent tube leading from the retort. It was yellow bead. Its only localities are


Franklin and Stirling, New Jersey, It has a nauseous and metallic taste. It where it occurs along with ores of iron consists of and manganese. 3. Electric calamine.

Oxide of zinc,

27.5 This ore occurs crystallized, stalactitic,

22.0 mamillary, and compact.

Sulphuric acid,
The crystal- Oxide of manganese,

0.5 line forms are numerous; the primary


50.0 form is that of a right rhombic prism of 102° 30 and 77° 30. The crystals are Before the blow-pipe, it is fusible with not often solitary, but mostly disposed in ebullition, giving off large quantities of radiating groups. It varies from trans- sulphureous acid, and leaving a gray scoparent to translucent or opaque. Its ria. It dissolves in boiling water. It ochardness is above that of apatite ; specific curs principally with blende, from whose gravity 3.4. Its colors are grayish, bluish decomposition it is supposed to arise. Its and yellowish-white, or possessed of localities are the Hartz, Austria, Sweden some tinge of green; and occasionally it and England. presents a brownish or blackish color. ZINGARELLI, Nicolo, a celebrated comIt consists of

poser, the last scion of the genuine NeaOxide of zinc, .


politan school, chapel-master at St. Peter's Silex, .


in Rome, was born at Naples, in 1752. In Water,


the seventh year of his age, he lost his

father, and was placed at the conservatory When gently heated, it is strongly elec- in Loretto, for the purpose of studying tric: some varieties become so by fric- music under Fenaroli. Cimarosa and Gition. Before the blow-pipe, it is infusible, ordanello were his school-fellows here. but loses twelve per cent. by ignition. To obtain a more complete knowledge of Coatings of it have been noticed upon the theory of the art, he also studied unthe throat of the iron furnace at Salisbu- der the abbate Speranza, and, on leaving ry in Connecticut. Its native localities the conservatory, received the place of are in primitive and secondary rocks. It master of the chapel at Torre dell' Anis found at Retzbania in Hungary, at nunziata. In 1781, he composed for the Bleiberg in Carinthia, and at Freyberg theatre San Carlos, in Naples, his opera in the Brisgau. In Scotland, it is found Montezuma, and, in 1785, brought forward in the lead mines of Wantockhead. It his Alzinda, in the theatre Della Scala in also occurs in Wales and England. - Milan, with great success. In this work, 4. Calamine. This valuable ore is found he adopted a more simple and easy style. crystallized, pseudimorphous and mas- His best operas are Pirro ; Arlaserse ; sive. The crystals are obtuse or acute Romeo e Giulietta. In 1789, he brought rhomboids, or long quadrilateral tables : out his Antigone, from Marmontel, in cleavage is parallel to all the planes of Paris; but the public events, then occuran obtuse rhomboid of 106° 30'; lustre ring, absorbed the attention of the public, between vitreous and resinous. It is and he soon returned to Italy, where, in more or less transparent, commonly of a ' 1806, he became director of the Vatican grayish or yellowish-white color, with chapel. In 1812, he was appointed chapsome shade of green or brown; hard- el-inaster in St. Peter's, and, soon after, ness equal to apatite ; specific gravity director of the new conservatory in Na4.1 to 4.4. It is composed of oxide of ples. Zingarelli has composed much zinc 65.2 and carbonic acid 34.8. Before church music; and his works are highly the blow-pipe, it is infusible, but loses esteemed for their expression. about thirty-four per cent. by ignition. It Zingis, Gengis, or Jenghis Khan. dissolves with effervescence in muriatic (See Gengis Khan.) acid. It is very abundant in England, in ZINZENDORF, Nicholas Louis, count Siberia, and in several countries of Eu- von, the restorer of the Moravians, or rope. Localities of it exist in the U, founder of the society of United Brethren States, in Missouri. It is an ore which is (see Bohemian Brethren, and United Brethhighly prized, on account of the facility ren), was born May 26, 1700, at Dresden, with which brass may be manufactured in Saxony, where his father was one of from it.-5. White vitriol occurs massive, the elector's ministers of state, and much stalactitic, botryoidal, reniform and in- esteemed. He died early, and the son vesting. The structure of the massive is was educated by his grandmother, Mad. fibrous and radiated. It is shining, soft, von Gersdorf, a pious and learned lady, brittle and translucent; specific gravity 2. who published a collection of hymns and


poetical contemplations, and corresponded them, and to educate their children. At in Latin with the learned Schurtzfleisch. length, he conceived the idea of founding At that time, the opinions of the Pietists a religious community,—not a sect, as the (9. v.), in Germany, attracted much atten- United Brethren do not consider themtion. The pious Spener (q. v.) often vis- selves a sect--and, for this purpose, made ited Mad. von Gersdorf. His visits, and known his opinions in various writings, the pious meetings, held daily in the sometimes contradictory to each other, house, contributed to awaken early re- which excited much opposition. But the ligious feelings in young Zinzendorf, obstacles in the way of his plan could not which soon ran into extravagance. While induce him to give it up. In 1734, be a child, he used to write little letters to went, under an assumed name, to Stral the Savior, and throw them out of the sund, passed an examination as a theologiwindow, boping that the Lord might find cal candidate, and preached for the first them. When ten years old, he was sent time in the city church. He now travto the academy of Halle, then under the elled into different countries, in order to direction of its founder, the devout Franke. extend his society, from which already (q. v.) Here he established pious meet- missionaries proceeded; but, as may be ings, and founded a mystic order of the imagined, he did not every where mert mustard-seed. His uncle and guardian with a favorable reception. In 1736, he did not view his turn of mind favorably, was banished from his country. The as he wished to prepare him for practical causes assigned were the innovations, life, and sent him, in 1716, to the univer- conventicles and dangerous principles sity of Wittenberg, the theological teach- that he had introduced, by which the auers of which were known under the name thority of the government, and the estabof the Orthodox, and were the most vio- lished forms of religious worship, were lent opponents of the Pietists of Halle. brought into disrepute. But, in 1747, this The feelings of Zinzendorf, however, re- order was repealed. Zinzendorf, in the mained unchanged, and, in 1717, when mean time, had been consecrated bishop the centennial celebration of the reforma- of the Moravian church in Berlin. As tion took place at Wittenberg, he shut he could not preach publicly in that city, himself up in his chamber, and mourned he held for a lime private meetings in his over the degeneracy of the church, with house, which were very much frequented. fasting and weeping. Besides his other In 1739, he wrote a kind of catechism,studies, he applied himself, without as- the Good Word of the Lord,--and made a sistance or guidance, to theology, and, at voyage to St. Thomas and St. Croix, in the this early period, resolved to devote him- West Indies, where the Brethren had alself to the ecclesiastical profession. He ready established missions. (q. v.) His obleft Wittenberg in 1719, and travelled ject was to put these on a firmer footing. through Holland and France. These With the same view, he went, in 1741, 10 travels he described in a work bearing North America, whither a daughter, sixthe title Pilgrimage of Atticus through teen years old, accompanied him. He asthe World. During this period, he spent sisted here in establishing missions among his time chiefly in conversing with some of the Indian tribes. On all these er. distinguished clergymen on religious peditions, he was incessantly occupied, not subjects. In 1721, he received an ap- only with preaching, corresponding, and pointment in the government at Dresden, attending to the general concerns of the but, in 1727, resigned it, having, during society, but in writing books. He wrote, his term of office, taken little share in during this time, more than a hundred business, and chiefly occupied himself books, some for the edification and inwith the study of theology and pious ex- struction of his society, others in answer ercises. In 1722, he married a countess to attacks on himself and his followers of Reuss von Ebersdorf, and gave some and others giving accounts of the origin emigrant Moravian Brethren permission and organization of the society, and of his to settle on his estate of Berthelsdorf, in own labors. Many excellent and elevated Upper Lusatia. This settlement received, passages are to be found in them, which in 1724, the name of Herrnhut (q. v.), J. G. Müller, in his sketch of Zinzendorf which signifies “protection of the Lord.” (in the Confessions of Remarkable Men, The settlers were at first few, but soon 3d vol., p. 166 et seq., 222 et seq.), bas increased in number; and the count, in collected; but many parts of them are conjunction with a Lutheran minister, such as most readers would consider exnamed Rothe, the clergyman of Berthels- travagant, and many expressions appear dorf, and some others, lah ored to instruct indecorous and objectionable. These are

to be attributed to the warmth of his im- from Moravia, and had been, for many
agination, and his habits of rapid compo- years, superintendent of the “single sis-
sition, connected, perhaps, with a desire ters” at Herrnhut. Zinzendorf died May
of appearing original, and a want of taste. 9, 1760, at Herrnhut.—See David Cranz's
His hymns, in particular, which stand Alte und neue Brüderhistorie, and Spang-
unaltered in the old hymn-book of the enberg's Leben des Grafen N. L. von Zin-
Herrnhuters, are full of quaint, ambigu- zendorf (Barby, 1772—1775, 8 vols.), of
ous and indecent expressions and images, which Reichel and Duvernois have pub-
and are often far from bearing the stamplished abridgments. Herder, in his Adras-
of poetic inspiration, especially those tea (4th vol., number i), has made some
hymns in which he represents the myste- excellent observations on Zinzendorf and
rious union of Jesus, the Bridegroom, his works.
with his bride, the church; and not Zion. (See Sion.)
less objectionable was his doctrine of the Zircon. This rare mineral, which is
office of mother (Mutteramte), which he sometimes a gem, occurs in crystals,
ascribed to the Holy Ghost. Sometimes whose forms are octahedrons and right
a whole hymn consists of but one image square prisms surmounted by four-sided
variously presented. These absurdities pyramids. The primary form is an ob-
had even extended to the religious ser- tuse octahedron, whose planes over the
vice. Zinzendorf himself, in the latter summit incline under the angle of 84° 20'.
part of his life, would gladly have blotted Cleavage takes place parallel to the faces
out many of these passages from his of the primary figure, but with great dif-
writings, and strove to give a better di- ficulty ; lustre adamantine; color red,
rection to his community, in which he brown, yellow, gray and white; streak
was not without success. Certainly part white; specific gravity 4.5 to 4.7; hard-
of the praise which must be given to the ness rather superior to quartz. It varies
Moravians for their activity, their indus- from transparent to opaque. Before the
try, their peaceable manners,* and good blow-pipe, alone, it is infusible, but with
behavior, wherever they have settled, is borax, melts into a transparent glass. It
due to their founder. When he returned, consists of
in 1743, to Europe, he made a journey to


64.00 Livonia, where he had adherents; but the


34.00 Russian government prohibited him from

Oxide of iron,

0.25 proceeding farther; and he was sent back

Oxide of titanium,

1.00 to the frontier under a military escort. He then made several visits to Holland Zircon occurs imbedded in sienite and and England, where he spent above four granite. It is also found imbedded in years, and, countenanced by archbishop several simple minerals, and occurs in the Porter, general Oglethorp, and others, ob- sands of rivers. Its localities are Fredertained an act of parliament for the pro- ick-Schwerin in Norway, Kitiksul in tection of his followers throughout the Greenland, at which places it is found in British dominions. Though the number sienite. It occurs at several places in the of his opponents constantly increased, he mountains of gneiss, in New York and had the satisfaction of seeing new socie- New Jersey; also in magnetic iron ore, ties of his followers arising, which sent at Monroe in New York. Very distinct missions to other parts of the world; e. g. detached crystals are brought from Bunthe East Indies, Tranquebar, &c. He also combe county, in North Carolina. Loose succeeded in establishing a Moravian acad- crystals of fine colors are found in the emy, and in obtaining a commission of sands of rivers in Ceylon, with spinelle investigation into their principles, which ruby, sapphire, and iron sand; likewise commission declared the Moravian com- in the district of Ellore, in India, and munity true adherents of the Confession of in the brook Expailly, in France. All Augsburg. (See the article United Brethren.) the varieties of zircon which possess His second wife was Anna Nitschmann, transparency, are cut and polished by the who, in 1725, had come with her parents lapidary, but, in general, are not greatly A remarkable proof of the peaceable and

esteemed. The exposure of some colors sober character of the Moravians, is to be found

to heat deprives them of their hues, in in the fact that, during the late revolt of the slaves which condition they are said to have in the island of Jamaica, in wbich the feelings of been sold for diamonds. the whites were excited to the highest degree Zirconia. This earth was discovered against the missionaries, so that they were in gen. by Klaproth, in 1789, in the zircon. To eral ordered to leave the island, and a few were executed, the Moravians alone' were allowed to obtain it, powder the zircon very fine, remain undisturbed.

mix it with two parts of pure potash,


and heat them red hot in a silver crucible dry for about four months, is cultivated, for one hour. Treat the substance ob- and made to produce a crop of millet and tained with distilled water, pour it on a hay. At the end of that time, the water filter, and wash the insoluble part well. rises with great impetuosity, and fills the It will be a compound of zirconia, silex, lake in the short space of twenty-four potash, and oxide of iron. Dissolve it in hours. This singular phenomenon is owmuriatic acid, and evaporate to dryness, to ing to its having two subterranean outlets, separate the silex. Redissolve the muri- by which the water is discharged, and ates of zirconia and iron in water; and, to through which it again rises. separate the zirconia which adheres to Zisca, or Zizka (pronounced Shishka) the silex, wash it with weak muriatic acid, John Zisca, of Trocnow, the formidable and add this to the solution. Filter the general of the Hussites, was descended fluid, and precipitate the zirconia and from a noble Bohemian family, and was iron by pure ammonia; wash the precipi- born about 1360, on a farm belonging to tates well, and then treat the hydrates his parents, at Trocnow, in the present with oxalie acid, boiling them well to- circle of Budweis, in the open air, under gether, that the acid may act on the iron, an oak. He lost his right eye in his boyretaining it in solution, whilst an insolu- hood, but did not, as some have supposed, ble oxalate of ammonia is formed. It is derive the name of Zisca from that eirthen to be filtered, and the oxalate washed, cumstance. This was the name of his until no iron can be detected in the water family, and does not signify one-eyed. He that passes. The earthy oxalate is, when went as a page to the court of Wenceslaus dry, of an opaline color. After being well VI, king of Bohemia, where he subsewashed, it is to be decomposed by heat in quently became a chamberlain. He dis a platina crucible. Thus obtained, the played great talents from early youth, but, zirconia is perfectly pure, but is not af- at the same time, a gloomy and solitary fected by acids. It must be reacted on disposition. His first military service was by potash as before, and then washed un- in the band of volunteers who went from til the alkali is removed. Afterwards Bohemia and Hungary to assist the Teudissolve it in muriatic acid, and precipi- tonic knights against the Poles. He took tate by ammonia. The hydrate thrown part in the battle of Tanneburg, on July down, when well washed, is easily solu- 15, 1410, in which the knights suffered a ble in acids. It is insoluble in water and great defeat. Zisca then fought in the the pure alkalies, but the alkaline carbon- Hungarian service against the Turks, and ates dissolve it.' Heated with the blow- afterwards with the English against the pipe, it does not melt, but emits a yellow- French, at the battle of Agincourt (1415). ish phosphoric light. Heated in a crucible After his return, he remained at the court of charcoal

, bedded in charcoal powder, of king Wenceslaus, and shared in the inplaced in a stone crucible, and exposed to dignation of a great part of the Bohemian a good forge for some hours, it undergoes nation, at the fate of the two reformers, a hasty fusion, which unites its particles Huss (q. v.) and Jerome of Prague. (q. v.) into a gray opaque mass, resembling por- A monk having dishonored his sister, who celain. In this state, it is sufficiently hard was a nun, and abandoned her, Zisca beto strike fire with steel, and scratch glass. came bent ou vengeance. Wenceslaus Specific gravity 4.3. Potassium, when himself one day told him, that, if he knew brought into contact with zirconia ignited any means of taking revenge for the disto whiteness, is converted into potash, and grace inflicted on the Bohemians at Condark particles of zirconium, the metallic stance, he had his consent to use them. base of the earth, make their appearance. Zisca now left the court, tried the disposiThey are as black as charcoal, and, at a tion of the people, and soon returned to temperature slightly elevated, burn with Prague. Nicholas of Hussynecz had algreat intensity. It combines with sulphur, ready placed himself at the head of the inand forms a sulphuret of zirconium. surgents, and Wenceslaus called on the

ZIRKNITZ, or CzirkniTz; a remarka- citizens of Prague to give up their arms; ble lake of the Austrian states, in Carnio- but Zisca led them armed into the castle la, twenty-three miles south-west of Lay- (April 15, 1418), and he said to the king, bach. It is situated amidst lofty moun- “ With these weapons will we fight for tains and frightful precipices, containing thee;" and the citizens retained their arms. vast subterranean caverns, which commu- Zisca was considered, from this time, the nicate with each other by openings, in gen- head of the Hussites. On the occasion of eral small. The lake is six miles in length, a procession (July 30, 1419), the priest of and three in breadth, and presents a curi- the Hussites was hit by a stone. They imous phenomenon. The bottom remains mediately stormed the town-house, at the

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