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and pained him terribly, felt comfortable in a rider. In such regions, and in wooded disthe cool grass, and did not disturb the linen tricts, you stalk the animals, whieh is not rag which I moistened every now and then. difficult; and if you keep yourself concealed Nor did I forget myself; I rested, bathed, you may kill several with ease, as they are and after a while evjoyed the liver and tongue not startled by the mere report of a rifle. of the old vagabond, until the evening breeze On the prairies, too, where the grass is rather had cooled the air, and I reached home partly high, you can creep up to them through its on foot, partly on horseback.

and if it be not sufficiently tall to hide you, Nature seems to have seleeted the buffalo you make use of some large skin; such as a before all varieties of game for the purpose of wolf's, and covered with this, crawl up within bringing to the door of the man who first dares range. This, however, is always*& dangerous to carry civilisation into the desert, abundant plan : for if you are noticed by a wounded food for him and his during the first years, buffalo, you run a great risk of being tramso that he may have time to complete the pled to death by it. On these crawling hunts, works connected with his settlement, and have I always had Trusty a short distance behind no trouble in procuring provisions. When me, who moved through the grass quite as this time is past, nature withdraws this cautiously as myself, and when it was necesliberal support from him ; in the course of a sary, I set him on, and had time to run to my few years he must go a long distance to ob- horse, while Trusty attacked the buffalo and tain this food as a dainty, which he grew pinned it to the spot. quite tired of in the early years, for the buf- I always preferred' riding after buffaloes, falo is not frightened by the pioneer's soli- for this is one of the most exciting modes of tary house and field, but as soon as several hunting I am acquainted with, as it demands appear, the animals depart, and are only seen much skill from the rider and agility and as stragglers.

training on the part of the horse. Horses The woolly hides of the buffaloes supply that have been used to the sport for any time. the new-comer in the desert with the most are extremely fond of it, and at the sight of splendid and comfortable beds. When laid the buffalo become so excited that there is a over the roof, they protect his unfinished difficulty in holding them in. The revolver house from rain and storm; he uses their lea- is the best weapon to use. You have the ther for saddles, boot-soles, making ropes of great advantage with it of firing several shots all sorts, traces, &c.; its meat, one of the without reloading. I always carried two in, most luxurious sorts that nature offers man, my belt, which gave twelve shots, and also seems to be given to the borderer as a com- two spare cylinders. I also had my double pensation for the countless privations and rifle with me, which lay unfastened between thousand dangers to which he subjects him me and the saddle-cloth. The American reself. Buffalo's marrow is a great delicacy, volvers are admirably made, and carry their and very strengthening. The fat can be used bullets very accurately for a hundred yards ; in many ways, and the boras converted into but at longer distances they cannot be dedrinking-cups, powder-flaska, &e; in a word, pended on, as it is difficult to take aim with the whole of the bnffalo is turned to account them. It requires considerable practice to in the settler's housekeeping.

kill a buffalo at a gallop, for you may send a These animals are hunted in several ways. dozen bullets into it, and yet not prevent it With an enduring, well-trained horse, you from continuing its clumsy-looking, thongh ride up to them and shoot them with pistols very rapid progress. The buffalo's heart lies or a rifle, for a horse accustomed to this chase very deep in the chest behind the shoulder. always keeps a short distance from the buf- blades ; it can be easily missed through the falo, and requires uo guidance with the reins ; eye being canght by the hump on the back; but this mode of banting can only be em- and besides, it requires very great practice to ployed on be plains, for in the mountainous hit with a pistol when going at full speed. If regions the buffalo has a great advantage in you shoot the buffalo at the right spot, it its sure footing over a horse that has to carry drops at once, and frequently turus head over

beels. The animal is in the best condition | fresh yonng grass. I was never better in in spring, when it has changed its coat. At clined to have a jolly chase than on this day, this season its head is adorned with long dark and the same was the case with Czar and brown locks, and its hind-quarters are covered Trusty. I let loose the reins, drew a rewith shining black hair, So long as old tufts volver, and dashed among the astounded herd, bleached by the sun are hanging about it, it looking for a plump bull. Surprised and is not in prime condition, and the experienced disturbed, these philosophers turned their hunter never selects such a quarry.

heads towards the mountains, raised their tai's On a spring morning –1 need not add a erect, and started in their awkward gallop, fine one, for at this season the blne sky rarely with the exception of one old fellow, the very I deserts us for more than a few hours- I rode one I had selected for the attack. He looked

at daybreak down the river toward the moun- after the fugitives for awhile, as if reproaching tains ; a cold, refreshing breeze was blowing, them with their cowardice; shook his wild which had an invigorating effect upon both shaggy mane several times, and then dashed men and animals. Czar was full of playful- | furiously at me with his head down. I was ness. He often pretended to kick at Trusty, so snrprised at this unexpected attack that I his dearest friend, who was trotting by his did not fire, but turned my horse to fly. The side, shook his broad veck, and could hardly buffalo pursued me some thousand yards, be held in. Trusty ran ahead, every now and keeping rather close, while his companions then rolled in the tall grass, kicked up the halted, and seemed to be admiring the chivalric earth behind him, and then looked up at me deed of their knight. At length he stopped, with a loud bark of delight. I, too, was in as he had convinced himself that he could not an excellent humour; the small birds-of-para- catch up to me, and stamped with his longdise, with their long black and white tails haired front legs till the dust flew up in a and crimson breasts, fluttered from bush to cloud around him. I turned my horse and bush. The humming-birds darted past me raised my rifle, to make more sure of hitting like live coals, and suddenly stopped as if the bull, as his determined conduct had imspell-bound in front of some flowers, whence bued me with some degree of respect. I they sucked the hopey for a few seconds with fired, and wounded him in the side a little too their beaks, and then hummed off to another far back; at the same instant he dashed ahead fragrant blossom. Countless vultures de again, but then thought better of it, and tried scribed their regular circles over my head ; to rejoin the flying herd. I now set Trusty above them gleamed against the ultramarine on him, who soon brought him at bay, and I sky the brilliant white plumage of a silver gave him a bullet from the revolver. Again heron, or the splendid pink of a flamingo; he rushed at me, and again fled. In this way. whilst high up in ether the royal eagles were pursuing and pursued in turn, I had given him bathing in the snnshine. The prairie was five bullets, when he left the herd in a perfect more beautiful this day than I had ever seen state of mania, and dashed after me. I made it; it was adorned by every designation of a short turn with my horse; the bull rushed bulbous plants, the prevailing flora in the past; I turned Czar again towards the buffalo; spring.

and as I passed, I put a bullet through bis Lost in admiration of these natural bean- heart at the distance of three yards. The ties, which words are powerless to describe, monster fell to the ground in a clond of dust, I reached the hilly ground near the mountain and raised up a heap of loose sand which it springs ; and first learned from Czar's tug. stained with its dark blood. ging at the bridle, and his repeated bounds, To my surprise I noticed that Trusty did that I had come in sight of a herd of about not come up to the fallen buffalo, but rushed forty buffaloes, that did not appear to notice past it, loudly barking, to the thicket at the me yet. Probably they were engaged with springs, whence I saw an immense panther that portion of the beauties of nature which leap through the prickly plants. I galloped most interested them : for, at any rate, they round the ponds and saw the royal brute all had their huge shaggy heads buried in the making enormous leaps through the tall prairie grass toward the mountains. Trusty , ther the jaguar was really dead, as I did not was not idle either, and was close behind it. wish to injure the beautiful skin by a second I spurred Czar, and kept rather near the ballet unnecessarily, then walked up and found mountains, 80 as to cut off the fugitive's re- that the bullet had passed through the left eye treat and drive it farther out on the plains, into the brain. It had one of the handsomest while my hunting-cry incessantly rang in his skins I ever took: it is so large that I can ears. It had galloped about a mile, when we quite wrap myself up in it, and now forms my got rather close to it; it altered its course bed coverlet. When I had finished skinning once more, and climbed up an old evergreen it and cut out the tusks with the small axe I live oak, among whose leafy branches it dis always carried in a leathern case, I rode back appeared. I called Trusty to heel, stopped to my buffalo, with the skin proudly hanging about fifty yards from the oak to reload my down on either side of my horse. On getting right-hand barrel, and then rode slowly round, there I led Czar through the narrow entrance looking for a gap in the foliage through which into the thicket, where I came upon a freshlyto catch a glimpse of this most dangerous killed, large deer, one of whose legs was half animal. The leaves were very close, and I eaten away. It was the last meal of the had ridden nearly round, when I suddenly savage beast of prey, and I was surprised it saw its eyes glaring at me from one of the had left its quarry. The noise of the buffalo main branches in the middle of the tree. I and the horse galloping, Trusty's bass voice, must shoot it dead, or else it would be a very and the crack of the revolver in such close risky enterprise ; and Czar's breathing was vicinity, must have appeared dangerous to it, too violent for me to fire from his back with and it had fancied it would slip off unnoticed. any certainty. I cautiously dismounted, keep- The buffalo was very plump, and supplied ing my eye on the panther, held a revolver in Trusty and myself with an excellent dinner; my left hand, brought the head of my rifle to for dessert I had the marrow-bones grilled on bear right between the eyes of the king of the fire, and split open with my axe. A little these solitudes, and fired: With a heavy old brandy, mixed with some spring water, bump the panther fell from branch to branch, served for champagne: my sofa was the body and lay motionless on the ground. I kept of the deer, covered" with the skin of its Trusty back, waited a few moments to see whe- l assassin.


ALENTINE JANERAY DUVAL was flock, nursed him during an attack of the

born at Artonay, a village of Cham- small-pox, of which he lay sick for a month. pagne, in the year 1695. His father, a poor Thus carefully watched by his humane propeasant, died when the child was but ten years tector, the boy recovered. old; and Duval was constrained to enter the He now continued his solitary journeying. service of a neighbouring farmer. He now Turning eastward, in which direction, as he kept poultry; but was quickly dismissed from approached the sun, he believed he would his employment for some infantine misdemea- escape the inclemency of the weather, the foot nour. Determined, however, to prove no burden of the Vosges mountains was reached. There, to his mother, who struggled hard to provide nearly 150 miles from his native village, Duval for her numerous family, young Valentine set engaged himself in the service of a farmer of out upon his wanderings. It was in the year Clezantaine, where he remained two years in 1709, and a severe winter had set in. The the capacity of shepherd-boy. La Rochette poor boy, suffering incredible privations, walked then became his next destination. In the hither and thither, heedless of his destination, lonely hermitage, the boy discovered the reand ignorant of the surrounding country. In cluse Palémon, who, struck with the intellithis manner, worn out by hunger, weariness, gence of his observations and inquiries, offered and pain, he would undoubtedly have perished; him shelter, and the benefit of his instruction. but à compassionate shepherd of Morgat car- Duval accepted the offer of his new benerying him to the place where he tended his factor with heartfelt demonstrations of thanks.

fulness. To the perusal of such books as the affectionate and delighted pupils, were parhermit possessed he now devoted himself with tially laid by for the building of a commodious assiduity, until at length it was thought expe- and suitable habitation for them. In addition dient that he should take up another abode. he purchased a small estate, whose produce He was furnished with letters of recommenda- was sufficient to yield them a respectable tion to the Superintendent of another Her- yearly income; and a certain number of acres mitage, at St. Anne's, Lunéville, where he was was laid by as a nursery ground, for the received with more than cordiality. A small benefit of the poor inhabitants of the surherd of six cows was given up to his charge; rounding villages. but, besides attending to the business of his On the death of Leopold, Duke of Lorraine, calling, Duval commenced a course of writing Duval accompanied his son and successor, and arithmetic, and made great progress in afterwards the Empero: Francis I., to Florence. these branches. Like our countryman Fer- Here he became superintendent of the ducal guson, his nights were employed in examining library. The study of numismatics now enthe heavens; his observatory being constructed gaged his attention, and he visited the majority at the summit of an oak-tree, and built of of Italian cities, collecting as he went all the osiers, in the form of a stork's nest. A por- coins and medals procurable, and which were tion of Duval's time was devoted to the hunt- valuable on account of their rarity or antiing of wild animals. With their skins he was quity. Summoned in 1748 to the Court of wont to raise money for the purchase of charts Vienna, Duval commenced the establishment and maps, whose intricacies, of course, became of a cabinet of such coins, &c., and retained the objects of ardent and diligent study. by imperial decree its inspectorship. A house

A fortunate accident aided materially these was duly assigned him in an aristocratic laudable attempts at self-education. “One quarter, near the palace; and, we are told, he day," says Crask, in his “ Pursuit of Know- was occasionally honoured by an invitation ledge," " while pursuing his occupation, he to the royal table. Wus lucky enough to find a gold seal, which Thus basking, as it were, in the smiles of had been dropped by an English traveller of Imperialism, Duval still retained his ancient the name of Forster. Upon this gentleman simplicity. He indeed paid a visit to his native coming to claim his property, Duval jestingly village, purchased the cottage in whieh his told him that he should not have the seal father had lived and died, and erected on its unless he could describe the armorial bearings site, at his own expense, a suitable residence on it in correct heraldic phrase. Forster, who for the parish schoolmaster. He still kept up was a lawyer, entered into conversation with a correspondence with the gool fathers at the lad, and was so much struck with his in- Lunéville; and on one occasion, when paying formation and intelligence, that he both sup- a visit to his preceptor, Brother Marin, pot plied him with a number of books and maps, finding his hut as comfortable as it might have and instructed him in the manner of studying been made, he left behind him a sum of them.” On another occasion, a stranger, find money sufficient for its re-establishment. ing him seated at the foot of a tree, apparently À characteristic anecdote is told of Duval. absorbed in the contemplation of a map before One day, when leaving the Imperial presence, him, asked what he was about. “Studying the Emperor stopped him. " Whither art geography," was the reply. “ And where thou going with such speed, good Duval?” abouts in the study may you be at present ?" | " To hear La Gabrielli sing," was the reply. inquired the stranger. “I am seeking the “She sings badly, however,” said the royal way to Quebec,” said Duval. “To Quebec ? critic. “I entreat your Majesty to speak in a What to do ?” “ I wish to continue my studies lower tone.” “Why so ?” Because,” said in the university there," replied Duval. Where-Duval, “your Majesty should always be beupon the stranger, who belonged to the house- lieved, and no one will credit

you hold of one of the Princes of Lorraine, so have just said.” Such was the freedom of used his influence, that Duval was permitted intercourse existing between Kaiser and Proto follow his natural bent, and was admitted fessor. to the Jesuits' College at Pont à Monsson. In 1751, Duval was appointed sub-preceptor

His progress from this time was sure and to ihe Prince Imperial, afterwards Joseph it. rapid. In geography, history, and antiquities, But in the following year his failing health he especially distinguished himself. Eager to rendered a change of air a thing of vital imacquire knowledge, and to distinguish himself portance. He reached Paris, where he was in literary pursuits, he left no stone unturned received with the most flattering distinction ; in order to obtain materials. Thus, under the and on his return home, to Vienna, he resumed patronage of the Duke of Lorraine, Duval his customary employment and mode of living. was enabled to visit Paris, at the close of the Thus, in the enjoyment of a hearty and! year 1718. Subsequently visiting the Low vigorous old age, Valentine Janeray Dural, Countries and Holland, he was appointed, on reaping the rewards of an honourable and his return, Professor of History in the High useful life, passed the remainder of his days. School at Lunéville.

He died on the 3rd of Septeniber, 1775, at Grateful for the benefits conferred upon him the age of eighty-two. His life is not without by his old patrons at St. Anne's, the emolu- a lesson, which our readers will do well to take ments of his office, and sundry presents from to heart.

W. D. A.

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no instance has tradition so clearly Julklaps, or Yule-gifts, were so called from mittal of aucient customs. Things that are doors of the donors. To this day the Icecomposed of such changeable materials as the landers date the beginning of their year from opinions of a multitude do not seem calculated Yule in consequence of ancient custom, which for a long duration, yet some of these ancient the laws of their country oblige them to recustoms have survived shocks by which king- tain. They even reckon a person's age by the doms and empires have been overthrown, and Yules he has seen. have preserved, at least, some form by which they can be identified as the customs of old, during repeated changes both in the religious

YULE CLOG, opinions and the civil policy of states. YULE, OR CHRISTMAS.

Christmas-Day in the old church was One of the principal feasts among the always observed as the Sabbath-day, and, like northern nations was the Juul, afterwards that, preceded by an eve or vigil: hence our called Yule. Blount tells us that in Yorkshire, present Christmas Eve. On the night of this and other northern parts, they have an old eve, our ancestors were wont to light candles custom-after sermon, or service, on Christ- of an uncommon size, called Christmas mas Day, the people will, even in the churches, candles, and lay a log of wood on the fire, cry “Üle, Use!" as a token of rejoicing, called a Yule-clog, or Christmas-block, to and the common sorts run about the streets illuminate the house. This custom is in some singing,

measure still kept up in the north of Eng

land. Grove, in his “ Provincial Glossary," Ule, Ule. Ule, Ule

tells us that in farmhouses in the north the Three puddings in a pule, Crack nuts, and cry Ule.

servants lay by a large knotty block for their

Christmas fire; and during the time it lasts, In the country churches of Yorkshire, after they are entitled, by custom, to ale at their service, the people dance in the chureh, and meals. "At Ripon, in Yorkshire, on Christmascry or sing, “ Ule, Ule, Ule!” On Christmas Eve, the chandlers send large mould candles. Eve, in the West-Riding of Yorkshire, they and the coopers logs of wood, generally calleu vring in a large Yule log, or Christmas block, Yule-clogs, which are always used on Christand set it on fire, and sing

masse-eve; but should it be so large as not to Ule, Ule,

be all burut that night, which is frequently A pack of new cards and a Christmas stool. the case, the remains are kept till old Christ

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