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her descent from the Macedonian kings ed the two ordinances of 1799 and 1802, of Egypt. She was instructed in the sci- for the improvement of education in Baences by the celebrated Longinus, and varia, which have had such success that made such progress that, besides her na- the Bavarian system makes an epoch in tive tongue, she spoke the Latin, Greek the history of education. In 1819, he was and Syrian languages. She also patron- raised to the rank of nobility. In 1820, he ised learned men, and herself formed an was made minister, and, in 1823, minister epitome of Egyptian history. She was of justice. The Bavarian constitution is married to Odenatus, king of Palmyra, almost entirely his work. and accompanied him both in the war and ZEOLITE (mesotype, natrolite, skolezite) the chase; and the success of his military occurs in delicate crystals, whose primary expedition against the Persians is, in a forna is the right rhombic prism of 91° great degree, attributed to her prudence 20 ; hardness about that of apatite ; speand courage. Gallienus, in return for cific gravity 2.2; cleavage parallel to the services which tended to preserve the lateral planes of the primary form; color East to the Romans after the capture of white, or grayish-white; crystals transluValerian by Sapor, king of Persia, declar cent or transparent.

It is also found ed Odenatus" emperor; on whose death, massive, in radiating masses. Before the in 267, she assumed the sovereignty, un- blow-pipe, on charcoal, it becomes opaque, der the title of queen of the East. She and then vitrifies without intumescence. preserved the provinces which had been It is composed, according to Vauquelin, of ruled by Odenatus, and was preparing to

Silex, .

50.34 make other conquests, when the succes

Alumine,

29.30 sion of Aurelian to the purple led to a

Lime, .

9.46 remarkable change of fortune. That

Water, .

10.00 martial prince, disgusted at the usurpation of the richest provinces of the East by a Analysis by Gehlen :female, determined to make war upon

54.46 her; and, having gained two battles, be

Silex, ..
Alumine,

19.70 sieged her in Palmyra, where she defend

Lime,

1.61 ed herself with great bravery. At length,

Soda,

15.09 finding that the city would be obliged to

Water,

9.83 surrender, she quitted it privately ; but the emperor, having notice of her escape, Zeolite is found in trap and lava. _The caused her to be pursued with such dili- finest specimens occur in Iceland, Tyrol, gence that she was overtaken just as she and the Faroe islands. It has also been got into a boat to cross the Euphrates. met with, in small quantity, at several Aurelian spared her life, but made her places in the U. States. serve to grace his triumph. The Roman ZEPHYR ; a soft, cool, agreeable' wind; soldiers demanded her life; and, accord- in Greece, the

west

, or rather west-southing to Zosimus, she purchased her safety west wind. The Greek name, according by sacrificing her ministers, among whom to the etymology, signifies life-bringing, was the distinguished Longinus. She because, at the time when this wind bewas allowed to pass the remainder of her gins to blow, the plants are restored to life as a Roman matron; and her daugh- life by the balmy spring air.—Zephyrus, ters were married, by Aurelian, into fam- according to the Grecian mythology, as ilies of distinction. Her only surviving well as that of the Romans, was one of son retired into Armenia, where the em- the inferior deities—a son of Æolus, or peror bestowed on him a small princi- of Astræus and of Aurora, a lover of pality.

Chloris or Flora. By the harpy PoZENTNER, George Frederic, baron von, darge, he was the sire of the swift horses Bavarian minister of justice, was born in of Achilles, Xanthos and Balios. His 1752, in humble life, at Strassenheim, in love being rejected by Hyacinthus, he the Palatinate, studied at Metz, Göttingen was the cause of his death by blowing and Wetzlar, and was made professor of Apollo's quoit against his head. Some law in the university of Heidelberg, make him the husband of one of the where he began to lecture, in 1779, with Hours. Flowers and fruits are under his much success. At a later period, he was protection. He is represented as a genattached to the legation of the Bavari- tle, beautiful youth, naked, with a wreath an Palatinate, at the congress of Rastadt on his head, or flowers in the fold of his (9.v.), and, in 1799, was invited to Munich mantle. as privy counsellor. From him originat- ZERBST, or ANHALT-ZERBST, formerly

VOL. X111. 28

a small German principality, which, in into those winds which generally blow 1793, on the extinction of the branch of before the dog-star appears, and are called the house of Anbalt in possessiob of it, Podromi by the Greeks. Their sister was divided between the three other Cleopatra married Phineus, king of Bibranches of that house. (See Anhalt.) thynia. Zerbst, the capital, sixty-five miles south- ZETHUS. (See Amphion.) west of Berlin, dow belongs to the duchy ZETOUN, or Zeitoun, GOLF OF (anof Anhalt-Dessau. It is situated on the ciently Malaic gulf ), is a gulf or bay on small river Neithe, near the Elbe, and the eastern coast of Greece, north-west has a population of 8000 souls: the palm of the island of Negropont, or Eubos ace of the former princes is outside of the By the protocol of February, 1830, the walls. Brewing forms a main branch of northern boundary of Greece, beginning its industry, and the Zerbst beer is fa- ai the mouth of the Aspropotamus, termous. Ornamental manufactures in gold, minated at the gulf of Zetoun. But, on silver and jewellery are also carried on the 21st of July, 1832, the sultan signed a here.

protocol, assenting to the extension of the ZERDESHT. (See Zoroaster.)

frontier, as desired by the London conZERENNER, Charles Christopher The- ference, namely, from the gulf of Volo to ophilus, director of the seminary for the gulf of Arta. school-masters in Magdeburg, and super- Zers. (See Jupiter.) intendent of the schools in that city, was Zerxis; a celebrated painter, who is born in 1780, at Beiendorf, near Magde- said to have begun to practise his art in the burg, where his father was a clergyman. fourth year of the ninety-fifth Olympiad He studied theology at Halle, and in 1802 (B. C. 397). He was a native of Heracles, became a teacher, in 1805 a minister in in Magna Græcia, and a pupil of ApolloMagdeburg, and in 1893 director of the dorus. He is said, by Quintilian, to have seminary for school-masters (see Schools been the first who understood the mapin that city. In 1819, a reform was com- agement of light and shade ; but, at the menced in the schools of that place, same time, he was thought to have given which has raised them to a degree of ex- too much of bulk and massiveness to the cellence that has attracted the attention human figure. He stood extremely high even of foreign countries. It is, in a in his profession, excelled all his predegreat degree, the work of Zerenner, and cessors, and many stories are told of the is described in his Brief Account of fidelity with which he copied nature. the newly-organized School System in One of his most famous pictures was a Magdeburg (1821–21), and more fully in Helen, which he executed for the Croto the first number of volume first of his nians (according to some, for AgrigenAmals for Popular Schools, which has tum), as an ornament for their temple of also appeared under the title of the Juno. This figure was celebrated by the School System of the City of Magde- poets and amateurs of antiquity, as the burg (Magdeburg, 1825). He also found- finest specimen of art existing; and ed a fund for the support of the widows the artist himself, who was very van of school-masters. la 1825, there were and ostentatious, inscribed under is the eighty-two students in his seminary lines of Homer, in which Priam speaks above mentioned. Zerenner is also the his admiration of the beauty of Helen. author of many works on education, and As models, he had selected five beautiful for the purposes of education, which have girls. He became very rich, and, at met with much and deserved success. length, gave his pictures away, affecting

ZETHES, Zetes, or Zetrs; a son of to regard them as above all price. One Boreas, king of Thrace, and Orithyia, who of his finest performances, a Hercules accompanied, with his brother Calais, the strangling some Serpents in bis Cradle, Argonauts to Colchis. In Bithynia, the with Alcmena and Amphitryon looking two brothers, who are represenied with on in terror, was presented to the Agria wings, delivered Phineus from the con- gentines. Of the circumstances of his tinual persecution of the harpies, and private life, little is known; nor is it redrove these monsters as far as the island corded how long he lived. Tradition, called Strophades, where, at last, they most likely erroneously, attributes bus were stopped by Iris, who promised them death to a very whimsical cause. It is that Phineus should no longer be tor- said, that, having painted an old woman, mented by them. They were both kill- on attentively surveying his work, he was ed, as some say, by Hercules, during the seized with so violent a fit of langbter Argonautic expedition, and were changed that he died on the spot. His contest

with Parrhasius is well known. Zeuxis age to Madras, and also to visit the terripainted some grapes so naturally that tories of the Mogul. In October, 1714, birds flew to peck them. Parrhasius he sailed for Europe, and reached Copainted a curtain so naturally as to de- penhagen in the following year. He was ceive Zeuxis himself, who asked to have received with great respect, and, after it drawn aside, and, on learning the de- completing a dictionary of the Malabar ception, acknowledged himself vanquish- language, which was printed at Halle in ed, as he had only deceived birds, while 1716, quarto, he visited England, where Parrhasius had deceived an artist. At he obtained an audience of George I, and another time, he painted a boy with the members of the royal family, and obgrapes, at which the birds again flew. tained a passage to India by the direct coun

If,” said he, “ the boy had been painted tenance of the East India company. He as well as the grapes, the birds would not accordingly embarked at Deal, in March, have approached.”

1716, and arrived at Madras the following ZEYD. (See Seyd.)

August, whence he proceeded to TranZerst, or Zeist; a village of above quebar, and resumed his functions. In1200 inhabitants, with a fine castle, in the spirited by the encouragement which he province of Utrecht, in the Netherlands, had met with in Europe, in 1718, he took a league from the city of Utrecht, in an an extensive journey by land, and was agreeable country containing many gar- fulfilling the object of his mission with dens and walks. It formerly belonged to great zeal and success, when he was atthe counts of Nassau, and was sold, in tacked by the cholera morbus, and died 1752, to a merchant in Amsterdam, who Feb. 23, 1719, in the thirty-sixth year of gave it to the Moravian Brethren for the his age. He was the author of some acestablishment of a settlement, which at counts in German of the particulars of present consists of 300 members. They his mission ; of Grammatica Damulica have built here brother and sister houses, (Halle, 1716, 4to.); Brevis Delineatio Misand manufactories, where they make sionis Operis (1717); Explicatio Doctrina gloves, leather, ribands, gold and silver Christiane Damulice (1719, 8vo.); Biblia work, soap, candles, &c., of excellent Damulica (1723). In some of these works quality. Not far from Zeyst there is a he was assisted by his brother missionaheath, where the French-Dutch army ries Grundler and Schultz. raised a pyramid of earth a hundred and ZIETEN. (See Ziethen.) forty-eight feet high, on the occasion of ZIETHEN, Hans Joachim von, Prussian Napoleon's assuming the crown. general of cavalry, knight of the order of ŻIA. (See Zea.)

the black eagle, &c., one of the most disZIEGENBALG, Bartholomew, a celebrat- tinguished generals of Frederic the Great ed Protestant missionary, was born at in the seven years' war, was born in 1699, Pullnitz, in Upper Lusatia, June 14, 1683. at Wustrau, a village in the county of Having gone through the usual course of Rappin, in Brandenburg, and began his school education at Gorlitz and Berlin, military career when fourteen years old. he removed, in 1703, to the university of After some time, he left the service, but Halle, where he applied himself closely returned to it in 1726, and was appointed to biblical literature. About this time, lieutenant A quarrel with his captain the king of Denmark being desirous of occasioned his im risonment for a year. sending some qualified missionary to In- A duel in which he was engaged, soon dia, Ziegenbalg was particularly recom- after his release, caused his dismission mended to him ; and, in 1705, he was or- from his corps. In 1730, however, he dained at Copenhagen for that purpose. was again taken into the service. In 1731, He sailed to India the same year, and ar. he was made captain of cavalry, and, in rived at Tranquebar, in July, 1706, but 1735, made bis first campaign against met with great opposition on the part of France. In 1736, he was made major, the Danish authorities, who, for a short and, in the course of the first Silesian time, even confined him ; nor was he al- war (q. v.), lieutenant-colonel. A few lowed to proceed in a translation of the days after, he came near taking his forNew Testament into the Malabar language, mer teacher, general Baronay, prisoner, which he had commenced. Orders, how- upon which Frederic made him colonel, ever, arriving from Copenhagen for the and gave him a regiment of hussars. In Danish authorities to protect the mission- the campaign of 1742, he approached aries, and also receiving great pecuniary very near Vienna, with a corps of 15,000 assistance from England and Germany, men. When the second Silesian war he was enabled, in 1711, to make a voy- broke out, in 1744, Ziethen was made major-general. He distinguished him- delineatum, quo omnium optime tracti self greatly in many engageinents, and, on planarique posse videtur (part i, ibucha one occasion, marched through the Aus- 1787); Veritas Christ. Relig., seu Theol. trian army, having ordered his soldiers to Christ. dogmalicæ (parts i and 11, Augsburg turn their cloaks inside out, so that the 1789–1790); Fides Eristentis Dei, are white lining looked like the Austrian uni- de Origine hujus Fidei, unde ea derirari pe form. He was wounded, Nov. 23, at sit et debeat crilicum Eramen, &c. 17.1. Catholic Hennersdorf. His enemies suc- Among his philosophical works are to ceeded in making Frederic ill disposed losophical Doctrine of Religion (1 vol! towards him; but he became reconciled Docirine of the Idea of the Absolute to him shortly before the breaking out (1805); Philosophical Inquines sespert: of the third Silesian war. The recon- ing the general Degeneracy of Mankind ciliation took place in a manner which (3 vols., 1809). The three last are m is creditable to Frederic. Ziethen was German. very active in the course of that war, and ZIMMERMANN, John George, chevaber greatly distinguished himself. At Kollin von, an eminent physician and miscellane he was wounded. At Leuthen he broke ous writer, was born in 1728, at Brug, in the path to victory. At Liegnitz he was the canton of Berne, of which his tuner made general of cavalry on the field of was a senator. After receiving a regular battle. The battle at Torgau was decided education, he made choice of the mer by him, though he received undeserved protession, and repaired to the univery censure from Frederic. Soon after the of Gottingen, where he studied under peace of Hubertsburg, in 1763, he mar- Haller, a relation of whom he subsequrriried a second time, when sixty-five years ly married, and soon after was appute! old; and the first son of this union was public physician to his native town of made a cornet in the cradle by Frederic. Brug. In this retired situation, be eteFrederic gave him many and repeated ployed his leisure in the publication of marks of his favor. Though seventy- pieces both in prose and verse, and, ammo nine years old, he wished to take part in others, the first sketch of his pupula the Bavarian war of succession; but work On Solitude. This was followed Frederic declined bis repeated offers. by his essay On National Pride, when Ziethen was a man of a noble and frank passed through several editions, and was spirit, and a favorite with the whole na- translated into various foreign languages tion. He died in 1786, in Berlin. His In 1763, he composed his work on the lite was written by L. J. Leopoldina von Experience of Medicine, which be kvBlumenhagen (Berlin, 1800).

lowed up by several other professum ZIGETH. (See Szigeth.)

treatises ; in consequence of which bere ZIMARRA. (See Masks.).

ceived an offer of the post of physician to ZIMMER, Patricius Benedict, a Catholic the king of England for Hanover, w turto theologian, born at Abtsgemünd, Feb. 22, he accepted, and removed, in 174**, bo 1752, studied at Ellwangen and Dillingen, that capital. His work On Solution received orders in 1775, and was made, was published in four volumes on in 1783, professor of dogmatics in the vo. In 1786, he attended Fredrne university at Dillingen. In 1795, he was his last illness, which afforded hurtir nu dismissed for reasons not assigned, and for medical skill, but enabled him to put became pastor at Steinheim ; in 1799, lish an account of his conversats un was appointed professor of doginatics at that celebrated sovereign ; e... On Fred Ingolstadt, and, in 1000, was transferred to eric the Great, and my Converaing : the university of Landshut; in 1806, was him shortly before his Death (League dismised, probably for favoring the 1783), and Fragments on Fredere the philosophy of identity, so called; but, Greai-works which did not increase tu after six months, was appointed professor reputation. He also undertook a dere of archeology and exegesis. In 1819 of that prince from the censurs of and 1820, while rector of the universi- beau, which writings exposed him to ty, he was elected deputy of the second vere criticism. His mind was further chamber of Bavaria, where he was chair- quieted by the part which br tekin er man of the committee on the laws. He controversies which arose out of the je died in 1820. Among his theological cussions that led to the French prestre writings are Diss. de rera et completa Po- Attached by court habits and berib ter testate ecclesiastica illiusque Subjecti (Dil. cause of royalty and arisucracy, be me lingen, 174); Theologie Christiana the- with extreme jealousy every thung wird oreticæ Systema e Neru atque Ordine exhibited the slightest tendency to ad

them. He even proceeded so far as to ad- habitants, according to the latest Discovedress a memoir to the emperor Leopold, ries, in five volumes. In 1779, he wrote recommending the suppression of certain on the compressibility and elasticity of societies, of which he disapproved, by the water. He died in 1815. hand of power, and involved himself in Zinc is a metal of a bluish-white color, a prosecution for libel, for a charge which somewhat brighter than lead, of considhe brought against the baron de Knigge, erable hardness, and so malleable as pot for an unavowed publication. While his to be broken with the hammer, though mind was in a state of agitation from incapable of much extension in this way. these causes, the approach of the French At a temperature between 212o and 300° towards Hanover, in 1794, almost sub- Fahr., it is both malleable and ductile. verted his reason. He could think of Its specific gravity is from 6.9 to 7.2. nothing bat the pillage of his house and When broken by bending, its texture is ruin of his fortune, and, under this morbid seen to be coarsely granular. On account irritation, wasted to a skeleton, and died, of its imperfect malleability, it is diffiabsolutely worn out, in 1795, at the age cult to reduce it into small parts by filing of sixty. Most of his works have been or hammering ; but it may be granulated, translated into English ; and his Solitude like the malleable metals, by pouring it, was, at one time, very popular. His when fused, into cold water; or, if it be writings towards the end of his life al- heated nearly to melting, it is then suffimost destroyed the reputation which he ciently brittle to be pulverized. It melts had earned at an earlier period.

at about 700° Fahrenheit, and soon afterZIMMERMANN, Eberhard Augustus Wilc wards becomes red hot, burning with a liam von, a German writer of note in the dazzling white flame of a bluish or yeldepartments of geography, ethnography, lowish tinge, and is oxidized with such anthropology and zoology, was born, in rapidity that it flies up in the form of 1743, at Velzen, near Celle, in Hanover. white flowers, wbich are called flowers of He studied at Göttingen, where he zinc, or philosophical wool. These are wrote on the analysis of curves, and at generated with such rapidity that the acLeyden, where he conceived the idea cess of air is soon intercepted, and the of dividing the animal kingdom with combustion ceases unless the metal reference to climates, and of directing his be stirred, and a considerable heat kept attention to the migrations and the rami- up. If the metal be heated in close vesfications of the races, beginning with sels, it rises without being converted into man himself—an idea which he kept in oxide. Chemists are not agreed as to view in all his travels and in his writings. the number of oxides of zinc; but the one He visited England, Italy, France, also above mentioned is the only one of imRussia and Sweden. To England he portance. At common temperatures, it is went three times, and published in Lon- white; but when heated to low redness, it don, in 1788, a Political Survey of the assumes a yellow color, which gradually present State of Europe, with sixteen disappears on cooling. It is quite fixed in statistical tables. In 1797, he published the fire, and insoluble iu water. It is & General Observations on Italy, also a strong salifiable base, forming regular treatise on the Molfetta in Apulia. His salts with acids, most of which are colorGeographical Annals were continued for less. It combines also with some of the althree years. In 1795 appeared his France kalies. It consists of thirty-four parts zinc and the Free States of North America, and eight parts oxygen. When metallic and, at a later period, his General View zinc is exposed for some time to air and of France, from Francis I to Louis XVI, water, or is kept under water, it acquires and of the Free States of North America a superficial coating of a gray matter, (1800, 2 vols.). In 1766, he had been ap- which is called a sub-oride of zinc. pointed professor of natural philosophy When zinc is burned in chlorine, a solid in the Caroline college at Brunswick. substance is formed, of a grayish-white The emperor Leopold raised him to the color, semi-transparent. This is the rank of nobility for his writings against chloride of zinc. It may likewise be made the spirit of the revolution. His most by heating together zinc filings and corroimportant work is his Geographical Pock- sive sublimate. It is soft as wax, fuses at et-book, which appeared in twelve annual a temperature a little above 212° Fahr., numbers, from 1802 to 1813, and describes, and rises in the gaseous form at a heat in an agreeable manner, a great part of much below ignition. Its taste is inthe earth. A sort of abridgment appear- tensely acrid, and it corrodes the skin. ed under the title the Earth and its In- It acts upon water, and dissolves in it,

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