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whole amount is equal to 4,320,000 hu- before Christ ; so that at present, in 183, man years. This duration was divided we live in the 4934th year of the Kaliinto four ages, which are to each other as Yug. Among those who were saved at 4, 3, 2, 1. The first age, Krita-Yug, the time of the third dissolution of the comprises 4000; the second, Treta-Yug, world, and passed over into the fourth 3000; the third, Dwapar-Yug, 2000; the Yug, was a pious king named Kistnei, fourth, Kali-Yug, 1000 divine years. under whose government virtue continued After each age, is a period of darkness, to flourish. But now the steer (the syrothe first of 800, the second of 600, the bol of virtue) stands only on one foot. third of 400, and the fourth of 200 divine and charity is the chief virtue to be pracyears, which complete the period of tised. At the end of this age, after ka. 12,000 years.

The whole period is called , lighi's appearance, fire and water will Maha-Yug, the great Yug, or Sadir-Yug, destroy every thing, and the first Yug a period of four ages. 1000 Maha-Yugs will be repeated, the sun, moon, and ali form the day of Brama, from morning to the planets, being in the same sign of the evening ; and an equal number his night, zodiac as at the beginning of the world. when he sleeps ; the consequence of Besides this, the Indians reckon by sevewhich is the dissolution of the universe ral other eras. (See Epoch ; also Hindos into its original elements ; so that every Mythology, in the article India.) thing is sunk in a great sea. When YULE; the name formerly given to Braina wakes, every thing revives. 360 Christmas. (q. v.) such days form Brama's year, and he YUMNA. (See Jumna.) lives 100 such years. Upon his death, a Yverdun, IVERDON, or IFFERTEN; S general dissolution again takes place, and town of Switzerland, in Vaud, at the lasts 100 years of Brama : tben Brama is south end of the lake of Neufchatel, at born again, and the worlds begin their the entrance of the river Orbe, on an old alternation of existence and dissolu- island, 16 miles north of Lausanne, 34 tion. The whole life of Brama is one south-west of Berne, 44 north-north-easi day of Vishnu, from morning to evening. of Geneva; population, 4000. It is de 360 such days make his year. He lives lightfully situated, is neatly built, and has 100 years, and remains dead an equal a public library, and a brisk traffic, chietty period. Siva, alone, is immortal. This in the transit of goods—an advantago is evidently the doctrine of the votaries which it owes to its command of water of Siva, while the worshippers of Vishnu carriage, boats going from it into the claim a similar preëminence for their Rhine, by the lakes of Neufchatel and god. In the Bhagavat-Purana, it is fur- Bienne, and the rivers Thiel and Aar. It ther observed, that, during a day of Bra- has also considerable manufactures of ma, or 1000 Maha-Yugs, fourteen dynas- linen, calico, &c. At this place is the ties (manvantaras) of men and gods follow school of the celebrated Pestalozzi, which each other: each, therefore, continues was first established here in 1804, and an about 71 Maha-Yugs. Each has the ancient castle appropriated to its accom name of its first ruler. We live in the modation by the government. There are seventh. Rhode has shown that Buddh- several other establishments for education ism and Bramaism are mingled in this The sulphur baths here were known even fable of the Yugs. The Yugs are also to the Romans. distinguished in a moral respect. As in Yvernois, sir Francis d', a Generad the Persian, so in the Indian theology, politician, was born at Geneva, in 1754, virtue is made to decline in each suc- and received an excellent education in cessive age. It is represented under the his native city. His restless ambition infigure of a steer, standing, in the first age, volved him in the disturbances which on four legs; in the second, on three; in distracted the little republic, and he was the third, on two; and in the fourth, on banished in 1782. After the revolutno one. The Zend-Avesta also says, in the in January, 1789, he returned to Genera first 1000 years Ormuzd and the good rule and became counsellor of state. But, be alone; in the second, Ahriman begins to ing unable to prevent the interference of appear; in the third the influence of Or- the French republic in the internal atfairs muzd and Ahriman is equal; and, in the of Geneva, or to play a prominent part fourth, Ahriman's power is superior. after the democratic party had attaited The present is the last age of the world, the ascendency, he went to England, and the Kali-Yug, which, according to the made various journeys in Europe as trarcalculation of the Bramins, began thirty elling tutor to lord Eardley. In the years after Krishna's death, or 3101 years mean time, Geneva had been united i.

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France in 1798; but Yvernois and others the writings of Yvernois are his Réflexions had been declared incapable of ever be- sur la Guerre, in which he shows the coming French citizens. He afterwards necessity of reducing France to her old settled in England, and published political limits; and his Tableau des Pertes que la and literary works, in which he expressed Révolution et la Guerre ont causées au his hatred of France with eloquence and Peuple Français. Most of his other talent. This gained him the favor of the writings had only a temporary interest. British government, and the king of Eng- YVETOT ; a town of Normandy, in land knighted bim. After the downtall France, 90 miles north-west of Paris, of the French empire, in 1814, the repub- with about 10,000 inhabitants. It is the lic of Geneva appointed him its minister seat of some tribunals, and of considerain London, whence he proceeded, in the ble woollen, linen and cotton manufacsame capacity, to the congress of Vienna. tures. The lords of this place bore the After Napoleon's second abdication, in title of king from the year 524 till the 1815, he returned to Geneva. Among time of Louis XI.

z.

Z, the last letter of the English alphabet, building. It was here that the czar Peter is a sibilant and semivowel, representing the Great studied the art of ship-building; the same sound which the Germans rep- and the house which he occupied is still resent by 8, or the soft sound of the Eng- pointed out. lish s, the only difference between s and ZABIANS. (See Sabians.) z being that the breath is emitted less Zabira, George; a learned Greek, born forcibly in pronouncing the latter: the in Sialista, in Macedonia, and educated in organs of the mouth are in the same po- Thessalonica. About the year 1764, he sition in both cases. (For further obser- went, as a clerk, to Hungary. At Covations connected with this point, see lotscha, he learned Latin, and the modthe article S.) The z, in German, has a ern European languages, and collected a compound sound, corresponding to our ts; library. He afterwards visited several and modern German writers, therefore, German universities, and established himomit the t, formerly written before z, in self at Szabadszallas, as a merchant. In some German words. In Italian, it is 1795, he caused Cantemir's work on the sometimes sounded like our is, sometimes Cantacuzeni (q. v.) and the Brancowani like ds. In Spanish, it corresponds to to be published. Among his manuscripts our th. In French, when pronounced is the Ocarpov 'Elinvikov, a biographical at all, it has the sound of a forcible 8. Z catalogue of all modern Greek authors was originally a Greek letter (5). As a who have lived since the conquest of numeral, it signified two thousand, ac- Constantinople. He died September 19, cording to the verse

1804. Ultima Z tenens, finem bis mille tenebit.

ZACATECAS; formerly an intendancy,

now a state of Mexico, bounded north by When a dash was added at the top (Ž), it Durango, east by San Luis Potosi, south signified two thousand times a thousand. by Guanaxuato, and west by Guadalaxara; On French coins, 2 denotes those struck 85 leagues long, and 51, where widest, at Grenoble.

broad; square leagues, 2353; population, ZA ARDAM, or SAARDAM ; a town in 272,901. It is a mountainous and arid North Holland, near the Y, five miles tract, with a rigorous climate, and very north of Amsterdam; population, 10,717. thinly peopled. There are eleven conIt consists of two villages, East and West vents for males, and four for females, in Zaardam. It carries on an active trade the state. The table-land, which forms in timber, tar, train-oil, &c.; has exten- the central part, rises to upwards of 6500 sive manufactures of ropes, tobacco, and feet above the level of the sea. It is fapaper ; but the most important branch of mous for its rich silver mines. The capits industry is and has long been, ship- ital, of the same name, lies 240 miles northwest of Mexico; lon. 101° 35 W.; lat. mor. His works appeared in a second 22° 50' N. ; population, 30,000. It is sit- edition, in 2 vols. (Brunswick, 1772). An uated in a mountainous country, in the additional volume was published in 17ol. vicinity of some of the richest silver ZACHARIAH. (See Zechariah.) mines in Mexico, which are wrought by

. (.) great numbers. It is well built, and con

Zadoc Tisadoc). Seescented ducees.) tains a college, an hospital, a number of ZAFFRE is the residuum of cobalt, after churches, and a mint, in which were the sulphur, arsenic, and other volatile coined, from 1810 to 1826, 32,108,185 matters of arsenical cobalt, have been exdollars. Several other towns, as Som- pelled by calcination. The zaffre that is brerete, Fresnillo, Jerez, Pinos, and commonly sold, and which comes from Nochisltlan, have a population varying Saxony, is a mixture of oxide of cobalt from 14,000 to 18,000 souls. Maize, with some vitrifiable earth. It is of a wheat, chile, &c., are among the products. gray color.

Zach, Francis, baron von, one of the ŽAFTLEEVEN, or SACHTLEEVEN, Hermost eminent astronomers and mathema- mann, one of the most skilful painters of ticians of our day, was born at Presburg, landscapes, was born at Rotterdam, in in 1754, and died at Paris, of the spas- 1609. He lived in Utrecht, and died in modic cholera, in 1832. After having that city, in 1685. His views exhibit the entered the Austrian military service, and environs of Utrecht, or Rhenish scenery. passed some years in London, he was ap- D'Argenville says that Zaftleeven visited pointed grand chamberlain to the duchess Italy; but the Dutch writers deny this. dowager of Saxe-Gotha, who then resided He portrays nature under serene and at Eisenberg, and, in 1804 and 1805, ac- elevated aspects ; a smiling heaven overcompanied her on a tour through France. arches his cities and mountains, and a From 1787 to 1806, he had the direction warm air breathes itself over the sunny of the observatory at Seeberg. After that and retiring distance. His paintings are time, he resided chiefly abroad, and ac- scattered in different places Descamps companied the duchess to Paris and Italy. gives a list of his works. Zaftleeven also In the latter country, through his in- employed the etching needle.—His brothfluence, an observatory was erected at er Cornelius, born at Rotterdam, in 1612, Naples, and another near Lucca. Bar- was a successful painter of scenes from on von Zach also contributed much to common life. extend the field of astronomical science Zagatal. (See Tartary.) by his writings, in which are united ZAHARA, Desert of. (See Sahara.) clearness and profoundness. His Geo- ZÄHRINGEN; a village near Freiburg, graphical Ephemerides, and the continu- in what was formerly the Austrian Brisation of the same work under the titles gau, with the ruins of an ancient castle, of Monthly Correspondence for promot- from which the ancient dukes of Zahringing the knowledge of the Heavens and en, the ancestors of the grand-dukes of the Earth, and Correspondance Astro- Baden, derived their name. nomique, are works of great value. He Zaims, and TIMARIOTES, are possessors also published several treatises on par- of Turkish fiefs, who, according to a law ticular subjects, and was the author of of the sultan Amurath I, in the fourteenth many papers in different periodical pub- century, are bound to furnish spahis ar lications. Of his works we will mention cavalry, as the condition of enjoying their his treatise L'Attraction des Montagnes et fiets. The Porte maintains only about ten ses Effets sur les Fils-à-Plomb (Avignon, or twelve thousand spahis (q. v.), who are 1814, 2 vols.); his Tabulæ Motuum Solis paid by the government, and called kapinova et correctæ (Gotha, 1792, 4to.); and kuly. The rest of the spahis are furnished his Almanacca Genovese, which he edited by the possessors of timars. The numin Genoa.

ber of all the zaims (i. e. such vassals as ZACHARIE, Just Frederic William, one have a revenue of from 20,000 to 100,000 of the German authors who prepared the aspers annually from their fiefs) is about way for the advancement of German 6689. For every 5000 aspers, they must literature after the time of Gottsched, was send one horseman into the field in tine born in 1726, and died in 1777, professor of war, so that a zaim cannot send less of belles-lettres in the Carolinum at than four nor more than twenty spahs Brunswick. His Renomistthe German The number of the timariotes, however, word for disorderly students (see Russel's or of those vassals who have from 6000 Germany)—a comic epos, published in to 19,999 aspers annually, amounts to 1742, and some other works, display hu- 52,649. These must furnish one spahi

for every 3000 aspers; therefore each of er, and both were imprisoned in Joseph them from two to six spahis. Thus the stadt. When set at liberty, he went to minimum of their collective quotas is Paris, and was made general of brigade 134,054 men. In 1792, it was resolved to in the French army in Italy. The Polish unite all the timars with the imperial do- legion did great service in that war, and mains, after the death of the possessors; Zajonczek distinguished himself. He acupon which the government was to sup- companied Napoleon to Egypt, and afterport the army. The number of troops, wards commanded a division of French therefore, has not changed much. Be- troops in Italy. In 1812, he accompanied sides these troops, the Porte maintains an- Napoleon to Russia, where he lost a leg. other corps of cavalry, consisting of the He then quitted the French army. In former rifle makers and amorers. This 1815, the emperor Alexander appointed kind of cavalry, called jebedilshy, is di- him viceroy, or namiestnik, in Poland. In vided into sixty ortas, each of which, ac- '1818, he was made a prince. Nicholas cording to rule, should contain 500 men; confirmed him, in 1825, in his dignities but the number is never complete, and and privileges.' He died at Warsaw, July the ortas together never contain more 28, 1826. than 18,000 men. Since the introduction Zaleucus ; the lawgiver of the repubof the European military system into lic of Locris, a Greek colony in Græcia Turkey, and the abolition of the janiza- Magna. (q. v.) He lived, according to ries (in 1826), part of the cavalry has also some, 500 B. C., and was a disciple of received another organization. Yet in Pythagoras; according to others, he lived many provinces, the military fiefs still re- as early as the seventh century B. C. main, and are held upon the conditions Only a few disconnected notices of his above mentioned.

life and laws can be gleaned from ancient Zaire, or Congo; a river of Africa, authors. His laws seem to have been which is supposed to rise in about lat. very severe. In order to suppress ex10° S., and which takes a northerly course travagance of dress, he ordained that to lat. 3o, in Congo (q. v.), after which it prostitutes alone should wear jewels and takes a south-west direction, and runs ornaments of gold. Adultery was to be into the Atlantic at Fathomless point; punished by the loss of both eyes. The lon. 12° 20 E. ; lat. 6° S. It is less than son of the lawgiver himself was convictthree miles wide at the mouth, has a very ed of this crime: the people, actuated by impetuous current, and pours a great esteem for the father, prayed him to acmass of water into the ocean. In 1816, quit his son; but Zaleucus remained in. an expedition was fitted out from Eng- exorable. In order, however, to satisfy land to explore this river; but the com- the demands of parental love, as well as pany were unable to navigate the river, the requisitions of the law, he condemned either with their sloop or with boats, far- his son to lose one eye, to which he add ther than 120 miles. Leaving their sloop, ed one of his own. This is said to have they proceeded on foot 150 miles farther; had such an effect, that, as long as the but, meeting with insuperable difficulties, lawgiver lived, no adultery was heard of they were compelled to return.-See in the republic of Locris. In order to Tuckey's Expedition to explore the Zaire maintain the authority of his laws, he oror Congo (4to., 1818).— It has been sup- dained that every man who should proposed by some, that the Zaire, or Congo, pose a new law should appear with a rope is the outlet for the waters of the Niger; round his neck, in order to be immedibut the discoveries of Lander have refuted ately strangled if the proposed law was this supposition. (See Niger.)

not preferred to the existing one. ZAJONCZEK, Joseph, prince, senator, ZALUSKI; a Polish family, known in general of infantry, viceroy of the king- the literary and political history of their dom of Poland, born, in 1752, at Kami- country.-Andrew Stanislaus, bishop of nieck, of a noble but poor family, like Cracow, died in 1758, and left his library other young Polish noblemen, entered the of 20,000 volumes to the university of army, became, in 1784, lieutenant-colonel, that city.–His brother, Joseph Andrew, in 1793 colonel and commander of a regi- bishop of Kiow, published the Leges, ment. He served in the war of Poland Statuta, Consuetudines et Privilegia Regni against Russia, and was made major-gen- Polonia (Warsaw, 1732, fol.). His Specieral. But Poland was overcome, and Za- men Historicum Polonicæ Criticæ is also jonczek, with many others, emigrated to much valued. He died in 1774.—A count France. On his way thither, he was ar- Joseph Zaluski, aid-de-campof the emperor rested in Gallicia, together with his broth- Alexander, was made curator of the uni

VOL. XIII. 27

versity of Cracow, in 1826. (See Cra- prepare a digest of the laws, in which he cow.)

restored the rights of the third estate (PoZambeccari, Francesco, count, cele- lish, Warsaw, 1778, 3 vols., fol.; German, brated as an aëronaut, was born in 1756, at by Nikisch, Warsaw, 1780). The king Bologna, and was descended of an ancient approved of this excellent work, but the family, one of the forty senatorial families diet would not accept it. Soon after the of the city. He was carefully educated, and great political change in 1791, the count made great proficiency in mathematics. died, in January, 1792. His name was Having entered the Spanish naval ser- every where held in reverence. He was vice, Žambeccari was captured by the a philosopher in the true sense of the Turks, and carried to Constantinople, word, just, wise and benevolent. He where he was put into the bagnio. His gave the first example of the abolition of liberation was finally effected by the inter- bondage on his estates. His wife, Conposition of the Spanish ambassador; and stantia, a princess Czartoryska, was an the count made a tour in the Levant and uncommonly accomplished and noble woin Africa, and afterwards visited the Eu- man. She died in 1797. ropean capitals. He then returned to his Zamolxis, the Getian; according to native country, and occupied himself with some, the slave of Pythagoras and his the study of aëronautics. He had devised disciple; but, according to Herodotus, he an ingenious contrivance for taking advan- belongs to an earlier age (Hist. iv, 94 and tage of the different currents of air at dif- 96). He was esteemed in antiquity as a ferent elevations, so as to give what direc- wise man, and one who conferred great tion he should choose to the balloon. His benefits on his people. He is said to idea was to cause the balloon to rise or have taught them the immortality of the sink at pleasure by increasing or dimin- soul (Herodotus iv, 93), and to have given ishing the quantity of gas, and to guide them wise laws; on which account divine its course by oars. In 1812, he attempted honors were paid him after his death. to carry this project into execution, al- ZAMORIN. (See Calicut.) though the weather was highly unfavora- Zamosc; the strongest fortress of the ble; but the balloon, having become en- kingdom of Poland, in the woiwodeship tangled in a tree, took fire, and the unfor- of Lublin, between this place and Lemtunate aëronaut perished, a victim to his berg, in a south-eastern direction from zeal for science.

Warsaw, on the river Wieprz; lon. 23 ZAMOISKI. Among several distinguished 15 E.; lat. 50° 42' N. In 1809, the Poles men of this name are, 1. John Zamoiski took it from the Austrians, and, in 181% (in Latin, Samoscius), born in 1542, the the Russians from the French. The place greatest Polish statesman and scholar was an entailed estate of the Zamorki of his time. He studied at Paris and family, and was built in the Italian style, Padua, became chancellor of the realm by the famous general and chancellor and general-in-chief, and died in 1605. John Zamoiski (q. v.), after he had deIt was chiefly through his means that feated the archduke Maximilian of Aus Sigismund III obtained the Polish crown. tria. In 1820, the state bought the town, He raised an army, partly at his own ex- with the environs, from the senator count pense, and defended the frontiers of the Stanislaus Kostka de Zamoiski. Zamise republic against the Swedes, Russian and was now deprived of its extensive subur's 'Tartars. At the same time, he promoted and changed into a fortress. The coal of the sciences by inviting foreign scholars arms of the Zamoiski family is still, or into the country, establishing libraries, and at least was till of late, preserved on the founding learned institutions. He wrote, walls. The place contains a large palace, among other works, De Senatu Romano several other large buildings, among which (in Grævius's Thes. ant. Rom. I); De per- is an arsenal, four churches, of which one secto Senatore.-2. Andrzey Zamoiski, is Greek, two convents, a theatre, &e. high chancellor, the distinguished de- Population, exclusive of the garrison, fender of the independence of his coun- 3500. There is here a gymnasium, a titry, was early a military officer of signal brary, and a printing-office, all established courage and talent, subsequently a senator by John Zamoiski, already mentioned. and high chancellor (1764). He strove to ZAMPIERI. (See Dominichino.) suppress the disturbances at the election ZANESVILLE, a flourishing town and sest of king Stanislaus Poniatowski, and after- of justice for Muskingum county, Ohio, is wards resigned all his offices, because he situated on the east bank of Muskinguin could no longer serve his country. In 1776, river, immediately adjoining the falls, in he accepted the invitation of the diet tó lat. 40° N., lon. 8° W., and seventy-four

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