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satisfaction. This double connection of humanity with the first Adam and the Second explains that strange intermingling of good and evil, sorrow and joy, which would else be the great riddle of life. For redemption as little destroyed our freedom as the Fall, and those who are led of the spirit of Christ must be content to share in this world the common penalties of the race, just as those who in heart reject Him are still, as yet, His brethren after the flesh. When, lastly, Christ had made by the Sacrifice of the Cross an overflowing redemption (copiosa redemptio), and gone down into Hades to pay to the uttermost the debt of sin, He rose transfigured from the grave and ascended into heaven, to send back the Spirit, who had been chased away by sin, as the Teacher of all truth and Comforter in all trials and temptations. Thus was the work of redemption perfected, and summed up in the baptismal formula in the name of the Holy Trinity. The Divine Spirit had, as we have seen, at the beginning united the dependent creature with the self-existent God, and now that same Spirit came once more to sanctify and re-unite the ransomed race with Him. As the work of re-creation is properly allotted to the Son who is the Creative Word, so is the work of re-union assigned to the Spirit who is the Bond of Love. The Church of the Old Dispensation was the representative of the coming Christ, the Church of these latter days is the representative of the Word made Flesh, who must be ever present in it as the infallible Interpreter and great High Priest with His abiding

Sacrifice. His life-long obedience to God and His life-long toil for man were concentrated and sealed in the act of death, the “bright bloom of the world-redeeming work of Christ.” Therefore, that sacrificial act must continue to be the supreme and characteristic worship of God on earth, from which all other kinds of worship derive their consecration and their worth. Mankind cannot celebrate its solemn Easter without the Easter Lamb. It was impossible but that the Cross should become an altar, the material sacrifice of Christ offered up in blood be perpetuated in an unbloody rite, that is in the sacrifice of the Mass. But the Mass is a Sacrament as well as a sacrifice; the sacrifice sets forth the death of the Son of Man in its relation to God, in the Communion is shown the death of the Second Adam in its relation to humanity; in the former He is present as representative of the race, in the latter as the Fountain of their new life. As in the Mass there is offered with the Body and Blood of Christ the whole family of believers, so in Communion the redeemed are made partakers of that Body and Blood, that they may have life in themselves. And thus are His words fulfilled; “ If I be lifted up, I will draw all things unto Me."

With these specimens of recent Catholic theology, our record of the past may be closed. For the future, since the fall of the old Sorbonne, and during the pre

See Note II. at the end of the Chapter, for some examples of 'Recent Lutheran Theology. The subject of justification will be treated in the next volume of Kuhn's Katholische Dogmatik, which is promised to appear shortly.

sent lull of theological energy in Italy and Spain, we look with anxious hope to the Catholic thinkers of Germany, that nation once the sovereign power of Christendom, but into whose hands in these later days the torch of sacred as of secular science has been committed, and which, like Greece of old, in the decay of political greatness is conquering for itself a nobler and more enduring empire in the leadership of European thought. We turn to the land where Boniface preached and suffered, the cradle of the Anglo-Saxon race, and ask its people to repay their kinsmen in the fruits of sanctified intellect, from whom in earlier days they received the heritage of faith.



It has been already observed that Sacrifice, that is, the self devotion of the whole being, is the rightful homage due from the creature to the Creator, and therefore was from the beginning the proper idea of divine worship (Aarpeia.) It is what constitutes, in technical language, the differentia of the supreme worship of God, as dis. tinguished from all subordinate and derivative kinds of worship, some of which may also be offered to our fellow-creatures, whether living or departed. Thus, incense is not only presented at the altar, but to the officiating clergy and congregation also ; so, again, we may ask the Saints at rest or friends on earth to pray for us, which is a kind of worship; or, to take another instance, outwards acts of devotion, as bending the knee, are paid to earthly sovereigns. But to offer sacrifice, if only by an internal act of the mind, to any created being is the essence of idolatry, and a sin against the first and great commandment. The true worship of God, then, always consisted in sacrifice, both internal and external; though the outward expression might vary according to time and circumstances, and was in fact essentially changed by the Sacrifice of Christ. Meanwhile the idea itself had been modified by the introduction of sin into the world, which gave it a new character of reparation (cf. supr. p. 196), and made all human sacrifice imperfect. One alone could now offer a full and perfect satisfaction and oblation: in the life and death of Christ the idea received not merely its highest, but its sole adequate fulfilment. In the eternal purpose of God He was “the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world,” and all acts of human worship were accepted, so far as they were accepted, in and through that One spotless Sacrifice, though the worshippers knew it not.

But when in the fulness of time the Lamb had been slain not in predestination but in fact, that One Sacrifice once offered became, from the nature of the case and in reality, not in symbol, the true and characteristic worship of the Catholic Church. Types were necessarily abolished ; commemorations there might be, but they are not properly sacrifice, and are therefore insufficient; to repeat the One Sacrifice is impossible; to attempt a supplement or a substitute would be both useless and profane. Therefore the same Sacrifice must abide for ever in the Church.

Two things then are clear: (1) that the distinctive and supreme worship of the Church must still, as of old, be a worship of sacrifice, or it would not, strictly speaking, be worship at all; (2) that since the One great Oblation has been actually offered, to which nothing can be added, and which cannot be repeated, the Christian Sacrifice must be, not prefigurative like those of the law, or commemorative merely, but identical with that of the Cross. For no other sacrifice is henceforth possible or conceivable. Every Christian prayer, indeed, commemorates the Sacrifice of Christ, and is accepted through it; but the central act of worship must be that very Sacrifice itself, though offered in a different manner on the altar and on the cross. It is not repeated but continued in the Church on earth, through the ministry of His representatives, as in the courts of Heaven directly by Himself. And from this follows also the reality of His Presence. The same Body and Blood which were offered on Calvary must be offered in the Christian Sacrifice (though the manner of the Presence as of the oblation differs), or the Sacrifice could not be the same. Bread and wine, however sacred from consecration to a sacred use (like the water of baptism or the oil of confirmation or of the last unction), could never become the material of more than a commemorative rite. If the oblation is the same, the thing offered must be the same too. And therefore the Real Presence of the Divine Victim is essential to the reality of the Sacrifice.”

* This is not the place to enter on the doctrine of the Real Presence. The philosophical side of the question is discussed with great acuteness in Dalgairns' Holy Communion (Duffy, 1862); Cardinal Wiseman has exhibited the scriptural argument, with special reference to Oriental languages, in his Lectures on the Blessed Eucharist (Dolman, 1836); and the patristic argument is drawn out in Wilberforce's Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist (Mozley, 1853). See also Cobb's Kiss of Peace, 2nd ed. (Hayes, 1868).

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