« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
TUISA oui, va YT
mul essa Tatkr is, perhaps, no c
country in which the Alligator | the river, and having allowed the carcass to become more generally abounds, than in India. It is found putrid, devour it with disgusting avidity. in most of the rivers, in the large tanks, and fre- An Alligator will watch a body thus obtained for quently, during the monsoons, in small pools of water several days together, until in a state of sufficient scarcely larger than the common pond of an English delicacy and tenderness from decomposition, to farm-yard. In the larger tanks these creatures are satisfy the relish of this epicurean monster. No commonly fed by the Hindoos, who venerate, though other Alligator dares approach during this anxious they do not, like the ancient Egyptians, worship vigil ; or should a stranger venture near the rotting them. They become so tame when daily supplied luxury, the watcher attacks him with the most with food by the superstitious Brahmins of the desperate determination, and generally manages to: temples near which they take up their, undisturbed protect his prize ; at all events, he never relinquishes 2 abode, that any person may fearlessly bathe in the it till after a fierce and lengthened struggle, tanks, without the slightest chance of molestation, In the Ganges, these creatures may be almost daily, these usually voracious reptiles being so pampered, seen watching the numerous carcasses which con. : as to have no further relish for human fesh. Istantly float down that contaminated river, awaiting have often seen them come to the sides of the the moment when they shall have attained a state reservoirs, and take their food with perfect gentleness of luxurious maturity. Sometimes a solitary vulture from the hands of those who daily feed them; and appears' sailing down the current, perched upon amor yet, in the rivers, where they are obliged to have human body, which the mistaken attachment of recourse to more contingent resources for those sup-superstitious friends had committed to the stream tor, plies which their natural voraciousness, demands, send on its road to paradise, tearing the scarcely cold they occasionally commit dreadful ravages, some- flesh from the bones, until chased from its horrid times seizing upon the bathers, or boatmen, as repast by the more dominant and not less voracious they are pushing their - boats over the shallows, and Alligator. still more frequently destroying sheep, and even It is a very common thing for the native princes oxen and horses, as they are crossing the fords. of India, living in the neighbourhood of large rivers, They lie in wait among the sedges, upon the low where Alligators abound, to have them caught for the banks of a deep stream, and as the ox approaches, purpose of entertaining their court and guests, by they strike his legs with their tail, and having thus making them fight, or causing them to be attacked suddenly cast him to the ground, they seize him by by other animals. These fights, as they are called, the neck with their fatally-armed jaws, drag him into I are so cruel and inhuman, that we will not offend our VOL. X.
Christian readers by attempting to describe them.
ON WINTER. The court of Lucknow used to be very celebrated for A " driving snow-storm" rages. The weather, too, is such horrid exhibitions, but I believe they are now intensely cold. It is Winter, indeed, “ reigning much less frequently seen in that city.
tremendous o'er the conquered year," and reminding The natural history of the Alligator is sufficiently the fortunate that even in a prosperous city, there interesting. It is the most formidable of the am. are indigence, destitution, even houseless misery, to phibious tribes, and is found in most of the large be found and relieved. The true spirit of benévo. rivers of Asia, Africa, and America. It was originally lence is most active, when its exertions can be most called by the American-Spaniards a lagato, which was efficacious. In looking forth we may shudder when corrupted by our countrymen to alligato, or alligator. we reflect how many must suffer all the fury and When full-grown, these animals frequently reach the bleakness of the day,—how many experience severe prodigious length of twenty-five or twenty-six feet, privation and loss, from inability to face its terrors, They resemble the lizard in almost all particulars - and what the dangers and the trials of those who except in their fierce and implacable character. approach or navigate our coasts, on a "tempest
The head of the Alligator is long and flat, and its troubled deep," with icy cordage and a hurricane of prodigious mouth armed with two rows of teeth, so sleet. The bark now struggles against all the extremely strong and sharp as to make a considerable elements,---against winds, waves, snows, and rocks. impression upon steel. This terror of the rivers in Miss Landon has been particularly happy in describing which it takes up its abode, has been said to have a some of the fearful traits of a destructive gale :peculiar conformation of the jaws, being incapable of
It pauses to gather its fearful breath, moving the upper mandible ; but this is quite a And lifts up its voice like the angel of death ; mistake, the animal having precisely the same motion And the billows leap up when the summons they hear, of the jaws as other quadrupeds. There is, however,
And the ship flies away as if winged with fear, a peculiarity in the structure of the processes which
And the uncouth creatures that dwell in the deep,
Start up at the sound from their floating sleep, direct the action of the tongue; this member being
And career through the water, like clouds through the night, so strongly attached to the sides of the lower jaw by To share in the tumult, their joy and delight: a very tough membrane, that it cannot be projected And when the moon rises, the ship is no more, beyond the lips. The eyes are placed obliquely in Its joys and its sorrows are vanished and o'er, the head, and the eyelids being covered with wrinkles,
And the fierce storm that slew it has faded away, beneath which the fiery orbs glow with intense
Like the dark dream that flies from the light of the day. brightness, impart an aspect of extreme ferocity to Such an aspect of the skies and earth as we witthe fierce creature. The body is covered with hard, ness, invites the domestic circle, moreover, to double thick scales, which extend from the head to the ex- cordiality of intercourse and joint thankfulness to tremity of the tail, and are impervious to a musket. Providence for comparative security and comfort. ball. There are two erected ridges, protected in the Another contemporary poet has beautifully said :same manner, running the whole length, only com- Though boundless snows the withered heath deform, mencing at the junction of the hind-legs, which, as And the dim sun scarce wanders through the storm ; well as the fore-legs, are furnished with strong, sharp,
Yet shall the smile of social love repay curved claws.
With mental light the melancholy day. The colour of the Alligator is a dark-brown upon
It is a season to think of promoting not merely the the back, and a yellowish-white upon the belly. general welfare of those around us, but their particular These creatures will remain a long time without and detailed happiness; to resolve fondly and fixedly sustenance. It is said, that after a protracted fast to let all harsh sentiments, unkind purposes, and they swallow stones and other indigestible substances, angry phrases die within us, as the murinurs do in in order, by producing distention of the stomach, to
the sea-shells. Feeling; looks ; speech ; motion; alleviate the extreme craving consequent upon long are all to be strictly guarded, lest they express that abstinence. They are reported to live a great length which tends to produce an atmosphere near the very of time without any aliment. Brown, in his History fire-side almost as chilling and withering as the air of Jamaica, asserts that he has frequently seen them without, and to leave impressions or traces which can put into ponds, their jaws being previously fastened never be effaced like those of external nature. together with wire, in which state they have lived
When death strikes at home-when a relative or several months without being permitted to take any companion goes to the tomb,-nothing consoles the food. This animal is much tormented by a sort of survivor so much, as the recollection of a constant leech that adheres to the fauces and tongue, from kindliness of deed, and word, and manner,--an invawhich it is relieved by a small bird, which enters the riable restraint of temper and self-love, towards the monster's mouth, and devours the intruder.
deceased. Self-reproach may be the worst and most The female deposits her eggs in the sand, where durable source of regret and sorrow, even when much they are hatched by the sun. She lays about a
affection has been entertained and duty generally hundred in a year, these are not larger than the performed. Washington Irving has illustrated this egg of a goose, which they much resemble. Few of truth,—too often and widely neglected -- with exquithem come to maturity, being destroyed in vast site pathos in one of his tales. He tells that memory numbers by the ichneumon and vulture. The mo
will be more fresh and importunate, when the near ment the young are hatched they crawl into the and tender ties of life have been broken, in recalling water, and provide their own sustenance, never re
to the mourner the merits which may not have been ceiving any assistance from the mother. They are duly and steadily appreciated,—the perverseness, the about five inches long when they break from the shell, injustice, the severity shown,—the sallies of anger or and grow with extreme rapidity.
J. H. C.
ill-humour,--than the main regard, and the benevo
lent intentions cherished, or the good offices done at Men should consider, that the more they enjoy, they are
intervals of happy sunshine, or in the absence of accountable for so much the more ; and as they are capable every provocative to umbrage or spleen. of doing the more good, so by neglecting these opportu
WINTER AND CHARITY.--Public calls are made nities, they expose themselves to the greater punishments. upon the charity of those who can afford alms to our CONYBEARE.
own suffering poor; to the necessitous who live
within our community, who" bow before the same sations of good are frustrated or abridged by man's altars," minister to our many wants, and are imme- folly and passion. This would seem to be the hisdiately thrown on our bounty by Divine Providence. tory of all human affairs. Let us think, now, only This is no appeal to vanity-no imposition on credu- of alleviating the effects of a sad vicissitude-of temlity—but a claim upon an unquestionable duty, an pering for ourselves what may be relatively dark and incitement to unequivocal beneficence—a channel precarious. The truly Christian and pious can have opened to our hearts for the tears of the destitute no difficulty in this work. With regard to themwidow, the cries of the famishing orphan, the groans selves, their content and security are uniform : of honest industry, wholly abortive in its attempts, or Religion ! Providence ! an after-state ! piteously deficient in its gains. Assistance is invoked Here is firm footing ! here is solid rock ! against the unusual inclemency of the season, for This can support us ! all is sea besides, which no humble labourer could be fully prepared; in
Sinks under us, bestorms, and then devours. behalf of wretchedness that does not stalk abroad or
His hand the good man fastens on the skies,
And bids earth roll, nor feels her idle whirl. raise an importunate lament, but shrinks forlorn in the hovel or the chamber, from the public glance ;
Young, one of the great moral instructors cowers in sad silence over the last embers on the among the poets, has given no truer lesson than hearth; and hails succour, when it comes, with the this ; none which the possessors of rank, power, or
He has blush of decent pride, and the gratitude of diffident wealth, have had more occasion to feel. merit.
expressed also, the peculiar inspirations of this season There is much of this species of truly, compas, mutual good-will-preference of mild and generous
-or what should be such—charitable sympathy sionable and severe distress, which may be discovered without extraordinary pains, and assuaged without emotions to the gratification of any of the impulses heavy disbursements; and the mitigation of which of selfish cupidity and fear. The Gospel breathes or will open-as the poet says of charity in general- enjoins that humanity be made the minister of mer"a little heaven" in the breast of each reliever and each is disgrace and death—but when diffused, honour and
ciful Providence; that wealth in the gross, and hoarded, sufferer relieved. We recognise a special efficiency, life-when well-dispersed, “incense to the skies." and a special dignity, in the concert of many sym. To be Christians, the creditor must now be doubly pathetic hearts, and open hands, pouring as it were a tide of comparative happiness within their own
liberal with his debtor ; the friend, more free in his proximate and proper sphere of action. Its generous distribution of their means.
aid ; the charitable, more ready and expansive in the enthusiasm is not vainly romantic; its operation is distribution of their means. The poor are suddenly palpably sure ; it is an exercise of the social obli- multiplied, and the pinches of indigence aggravated gations and affections which is followed by an immeo and unexpected straits every increase of these evils
-numbers of worthy persons are reduced to severe diate harvest, which, while it refines and strengthens threatens all others with some serious disadvantage or the municipal or local spirit, contributes to the good loss. General forbearance, then, on the part of the of the whole country or world, upon the principle that if each community or each individual were to
more prosperous ; some voluntary privations or perform duly the task allotted by Providence to each, sacrifices; a concert of public-spirited and philanthe aggregate of prosperity or blessings, the sum of thropic efforts ; the renunciation of mere prejudices success, would be the greater, or at the maximum. and the duties of this critical juncture. Let self-love
and party-ties ;—these are the true expedients of relief The application of charity has been well compared to the division of labour in a large and complicated be pushed or yielded to social—a considerate mood system.
prevail wherever and in whatever form claims shall
be made. When pleas for indulgence or succour are The severity of the season is the visitation of God; and it seems to be a part of the ordination of real-when they have been rendered necessary by the human world, as he has constituted things in his abrupt embarrassment and misfortune—when lenity
or generosity may avert ulterior loss, or final ruinwisdom and goodness, that those whom he has blessed with abundant means should heal in part the
no good and wise man will hesitate to comply with the
times. evils which he allows to fall on others ;-should
In regard to individual and family comfort, there serve as auxiliaries and ministers of his ultimate mercies. He has endowed our race with the prin is an infallible rule :-resolutely to smooth the brow; ciple of benevolence, so that the gratification of it to reject sombre ideas and anticipations ; to allow all reacts most pleasurably, and its exercise seems indis- amusement and indulgence that is compatible with pensable for the excellence and felicity of our nature. duty and prudence. It is well, not merely to kindle
the fire in the hearth, and defeat the inclemencies and One great purpose of society is to furnish opportunities of mutual aid and support: to improve those glooms of the external sky, but to make the heart
and countenance glow and brighten until the cast of opportunities is to strengthen all the social bonds, to employ and heighten a salutary, genial instinct, to thought loses all paleness and wrinkle. A certain conform to the original temperament of the moral degree of relaxation in a particular season and for a frame.
given time, may be salutary for the whole moral
being.-Walsh. We do not dwell alone upon the clear and positive injunctions of revealed religion, and the lessons of Divine example in this respect ;-charity is a tenet Virtue is the queen of labourers: opinion the mistress of
fools: vanity the pride of nature; and contention the likewise of natural theology, as it is of the more
overthrow of families. general philosophy of man ;-the movements and
Virtue is not obtained in seeking strange countries, but relations of liberal and grateful sympathy, are mending old errors. primary properties, which refine and expand with the Pythagoras compares virtue to the letter Y, which is progress of reason and civilization. The philosophical small at the foot, and broad at the headl; meaning, that poet, Akenside, in the second book of the Pleasures to attain virtue is very painful, but its possession very
pleasant. of the Imagination, has splendidly discussed the pain
Real virtue may always continue unarmed: it is its and pleasure incident to compassion.
own sufficient guard ; for if it be real, it hath such an Malevolence too often mars the bounties of Heaven indomitable awe and reverence in its appearance, as will and the intentions of human wisdom : Divine dispen- always effectually daunt the dastard front of vice.-.
tion, in which the bagpipes and the pan-pipes are No. II.
combined. In this case it is not quite clear in WIND INSTRUMENTS.
what manner the instrument was used; perbups
the stream of air, forced through the whole of the MANKIND, by the invention of the trumpet, having pipes at once, produced a sound somewhat like a discovered the property possessed by a hollow tube of producing a certain sound; would naturally soon
17 ao 230961 discover, that the note varied according to the length
Et seolo: and capacity of that tube. We may suppose that
3 13 12 2391 some idea of combining these various notes so as to
POBIE bmi produce a tune, would soon arise; but, let the number
UL 129117 of notes employed be many or few, one performer
5910 would be required to produce each distinct sound,
A which would be a manifest waste of time. A com
bination of a series of tubes, in
Fig. 7. Ancient Bagpipes.
The Chinese, who are extremely minute and the specimen of an ancient Roman fanciful in all their systems, have divided all sounds Fig. 1. instrument of this description, into eight species, each of which, they say, can be Ancient Pau l'ipes.
fig. 1, appears to have been made produced from a certain substance only, from which of oblong square tubes.
substance the kind of sound takes its name, cas But a much greater improvement soon took place'; the sound of metal, produced by a bell; of stone, it was discovered that one tube would answer the frum pieces of sonorous rock, struck with a stick; of purpose of many, by boring holes in the course of its silk, from strings of that material stretched over a length, as in the flageolet, and producing various sounding-board, and played on with the fingers like musical notes by stopping with the fingers certain of the chords of a lute: of bamboo, used in the same manner these hules. Figs. 2 and 3 are specimens of simple as in our pan-pipes ; of a calabash, produced by the sin
gular instrument figured below; of baked earthenware, struck like the stone; of the skin of animals, as in
the drum; and of wood; a curious instrument to re300 I9W jer bi pitilst theorie
present this sound is in the form of a great wooden
chest, with a crouching tiger on the top; on the back Fige. 8 and 3. Roman Pipes.
of the tiger are what are intended for twenty-five
hairs, but more like the teeth of a saw; these hooks Roman pipes of this description. Fig. 4 represents a are struck with a small stick to produce the required double pipe of the same nation, thus increasing the sound. 1024] of the
The Cheng, the instrument that
Fig. e. produces the sound of the cala
1:54 bash, displays considerable ingenuity. Formerly a calabash, a species of gourd, was employed
to make the cheng; it was dried, 24 0014 Fig. 4. Doublo Roman Pipe.
and the upper part being cut off, power of the performer. In some ancient sculptures its place was supplied by a flat we find representations of pipes of this description,
piece of wood, bored with as in which a number of pipes are employed, but in there should be tubes, the num
holes as it was intended most instances these would require a greater expen- ber of these varying, being 24, diture of breath than would be at the command of 19, or 13. The tubes are formed the musician. Fig. 5 is a modern Russian pipe.
of bamboo, and close to the in-
sertion of each into the calabash
by the side of the instrument, Bing Fig. 5. Modern Russian Pipe. showing the lower part of one
. This necessity would lead to the invention of the That portion which is inserted
1700 O b92251 918
bagpipes. Fig. 6 is into the calabash is cut smaller, bade1995 YT9 170
one of the earliest having a shoulder to prevent od bar 2004 BYLO
forms of this instru- its entering too far; the lower edi oார் BM ylloo y199 ON
ment; the skin of an orifice is plugged up with wood, bas IVSTI ad
animal, sewn up so as and a small hole is bored, so *.98009
to contain the air, ap-
00 02 1971 11៩២។ម្ម pears to have been cane at its lower end, above the
employed. The next shoulder ; below this, and near 28 1899 engraving, fig. 7, re- the lowest extremity, a tongue of
1995: & doua faol sd bent
presents an instru-thin metal or hard wood is fixed, Svai Fig. 6. Ancient Bagpipe.
The Cheng, or Chinese ment of this descrip- with the upper end free. The
mouth-piece of the cheng is in the form of a goose's
** A CHARADE.IZUKC neck, and arises from the body of the calabash; PRONOUNCED as one letter, and written with three, through this the breath is forced, and the sounds Two letters there are, and two only in me. are produced by stopping with the fingers any of
I am double, am single, am black, blue, and gray, the small holes at the foot of each tube.
I am read from both ends, and the same either way. A Most of our modern wind-instruments are but
I am restless and wandering, steady and fixed,
And you know not one hour what I may be the next, improvements on the ancient inventions; but we can- I melt and I kindle, beseech and defy, not well close this paper without a short account of I am watery and moist, I am fiery and dry. the progress of the most splendid of all instruments I am scornful and scowling, compassionate, meek, of this kind, namely, the Church Organ.
I am light, I am dark, I am strong, I am weak. The earliest notice we have of an instrument
I am sluggish and dead, I am lively and bright,
I am sharp, I am flat, I am left, I am right. called an Organ is in a very ancient Greek author,
I am piercing and clear, I am heavy and dull, Athenæus, who says it was invented in the time of
Expressive and languid, contracted and full. the second Ptolemy Euergetes, by Ctesibius, a native I am careless and vacant, I search, and I pry, of Alexandria, and by profession a barber, or rather And judge, and decide, and examine, and try. that it was improved by him ; for“ Plato gave
I'm a globe, and a mirror, a window, a door, the first idea, by inventing a water-clock, clepsydra,
An index, an organ, and fifty things more.
I belong to all animals under the sun, which played upon flutes the hours of the night, at
And to those which were long understood to have none. a time when they could not be seen on the index."
By some I am said to exist in the mind,
And I wore them all three on the day I was born. the reverse of which is represented 'an Hydraulic
I am covered quite snug, have a lid and a fringe, Organ, with two men, one on the right and one on
Yet I move every way on invisible hinge.
A pupil I have, a most whimsical wight, *** the left, who seem to pump the water which plays Who is little by day, and grows big in the night, it,' and to listen to its sounds. It has only eight Whom I cherish with care as a part of myself, pipes, placed on a round pedestal, and as no keys or For in truth I depend on this delicate elf, performers are visible, it is probable it was played on
Who collects all my food, and with wonderful knack, by mechanism.
Throws it into a net which I keep at my back; 5 The first Organ that was seen in Europe is believed
And, though heels over head it arrives, in a trice
It is sent up to table all proper and nice. to have been sent to France from Constantinople in
I am spoken of sometimes as if I were glass, 757, as a present from the Emperor to King Pepin. But then it is false, and the trick will not pass. It is uncertain at what date Organs were first used in A blow makes me ran though I have not a limb; churches, but it seems certain, that they were com
Though I neither have fins, nor a bladder, I swim. mon in Europe in the tenth century.
Like many more couples, my partner and I,
At times will look cross at each other, and shy; - 37
Yet still, though we differ in what we're about, Uyl#
One will do all the work when the other is out. As daily experience makes it evident, that misfortunes are I am least apt to cry, as they always remark, unavoidably incident to human life, that calamity will When trimmed with good lashes, or kept in the dark. neither be repelled by fortitude, nor escaped by flight; Should I fret and be heated they put me to bed, neither awed by greatness, nor eluded by obscurity; philo- And leave me to cool upon water and bread. sophers have endeavoured to reconcile us to that condition But if hardened I grow they make use of the knife, het which they cannot teach us to merit, by persuading us that Lest an obstinate humour endanger my life. most of our evils are made afflictive only by ignorance or Or you may, though the treatment appears to be rough, perverseness, and that nature has annexed to every vicis- Run a spit through my side, and with safety enough. situde of external circumstances some advantage sufficient Like boys who are fond of the fruit and their play, to over-balance all its inconveniences.-Rambler.
I am seen with iny ball and my apple all day.
My belt is a rainbow, I reel and I dance; How can any person have faith to believe that all the I am said to retire, though I never advance. wonderful things of this world were made by chance,-and I am read by physicians as one of their books, vet stagger at so plain, and easy a proposition, as that they And am used by the ladies to fasten their hooks. must be made by some intelligent being !-GILPIN.
My language is plain, though it cannot be heard,
And I speak without ever pronouncing a word. Sych facetiousness is not unreasonable or unlawful, which Some call me a diamond; some say I am jet; ministereth harmless divertisement and delight to con- Others talk of my water, or how I am set. 3 versation ; harmless, I say, that is, not intrenching upon I'm a borough in England, in Scotland a stream, piety, nor infringing charity or justice, nor disturbing And an isle of the sea in the Irishman's dream. . peace. For Christianity is not so tetrical, so harsh, so The earth without me would no loveliness wear, !,17 SAP? envious, as to bar us continually from innocent, much less And sun, moon, and stars, at my wish disappear; from wholesome and useful pleasure, such as human life Yet so frail is my tenure, so brittle my joy, doth need or require. And if jocular discourse may serve That a speck gives me pain, and a drop can destroy. to good purposes of this kind; if it may be apt to raise our drooping spirits, to allay our irksome cares, to whet our blunted industry, to recreate our minds, being tired and If you should happen to meet with an accident at table, cloged with graver occupations; if it may breed alacrity, endeavour to preserve your composure, and do not add to or maintain good humour among us; if it may conduce to the discomfort you have created, by making an sweeten conversation and endear society, then it is not in- fuss about it. The easier such things are passed over, the convenient or unprofitable. If for these ends we may use better. I remember hearing it told of a very accomplished other recreations, employing on them our ears and eyes, our gentleman, that when carving a tough goose, he had the hands and feet, our other instruments of sense and motion, misfortune to send it entirely out of the dish, and into the why may we not so well accommodate our organs of speech lap of the lady next to him; on which he very coolly and interior sense ? Why should those games which excite looked her full in the face, and with admirable gravity and our wit and fancies be less reasonable, since they are per- calmness, said, “Ma'am, I will thank you for that goose." formed in a manly way, and have in them a smack of rea- | In a case like this, a person must necessarily suffer so son; seeing, also, they may be so managed as not only to much, and be such an object of compassion to the comdivert and please, but to improve and profit the mind, pany, that the kindest thing he could do, was to appear as rousing and quickening it, yea, sometimes enlightening unmoved as possible. This manner of bearing such a and instructing it, by good sense, conveyed in jocular ex- mortifying accident gained him more credit, ihan he lost pression --BARROW.
by his awkward carving.-The Young Lady's Friend