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their finery to the enterprise of wanderers so infinite air breathing around him, and the stars humble.
raining their influences upon his head from the sky. Of course it is, as a rule, desirable that civili- It may be matter of wonder that the property zation, with all its processes, should replace bar- these men carry about with them—which, though barism. But it may be doubted whether, in many not great, must still be a temptation to dishonesty, parts of Southern Europe, society has yet arrived would not constantly expose them to the assaults of at that stage in which it ought to dispense with robbers. The explanation perhaps is, that the state pedlers. It is, however, a mere question of of society which requires pedlers nourishes those economy. The rent of shops, and the wages of an prejudices and feelings that operate as their proestablishment, greatly, when trade is dull, augment tection. There is in Corsica and Sardinia, and the price of commodities, because the weight of indeed in all other countries similarly circumsuch charges falls upon a few customers. When stanced, a sort of superstition attached to the the demand is brisk, when money changes hands pedler's character, which prevents even very rapidly, when people throng to shops in crowds, it desperate persons from attempting his life. He is possible to be content with a smaller profit, and makes his appearance among them trustingly and society becomes a gainer perhaps for the suppres- fearlessly-for pedlers never carry arms-and sion of nomadic traders.
wherever he comes, excites mirth and gayety in Frenchmen, even in their own country, are young and old. lle adorns the persons of their accustomed, when in poor circumstances, to subsist wives and daughters, makes their children look on a very homely and economical diet. Bread, a gay, and diffuses an air of cheerfulness and contentfew onions, and a sip of sour wine, they almost ment through a whole village. Experience of regard as luxuries. The same habit and iheory of kindness from others makes him gentle and kind in living follow them into other countries, especially his turn. He is polished by rubbing against the when, like our pedlers, their sole object is to save world, and learns at the same time resolution and money, to provide for the comforts of their old age, modesty. Full of stories and anecdotes of advenor, if practicable, to enable them to marry in tures and hair-breadth escapes, he has a perpetual middle life, and undertake the responsibilities of a fund of entertainment; and the cottage in which ho family. Of one luxury the pedler is careful not to passes the night is generally crowded with as many deprive himself—we mean of a little provision of neighbors as it will hold, who sit in a circle cigars—which he carries about with him, carefully around him, to listen to his narratives. wrapt in a bit of oil-skin, to protect them from the Occasionally, though not often, the pedler conweather; and on the bleak, rocky mountains of descends to become the messenger of love, and Corsica and Sardinia, smoking is indeed a luxury. bears from hamlet to hamlet tender epistles, which In civilized countries, in large cities, in capacious, he himself perhaps has indited at the request of comfortable, well-ventilated apartments, it may be lover or mistress. At times he assumes the a mere piece of extravagance to expend money on character of umpire and peacemaker, terminates Havanas. It would seem to be otherwise in the quarrels, crushes the germs of lawsuits, and, by a cases under consideration. The pedler, on quitting timely present of no great value, makes up matches, his humble cabaret, or still more comfortless cot- and diffuses happiness through a whole class. tage, in the chill damp mornings, his teeth chat- Once, in Sardinia, at a village high up in the tering, his whole frame half-shrunk by the night's mountains, a pedler, whom we afterwards met in cold, experiences an agreeable elevation of spirits Genoa, arrived about Christmas during very severo the moment he takes out his flint and steel, and weather. A farmer, whose daughter was about to kindles his cigar. It serves him also as a com- be married, kindly invited him to make some stay panion : as he puffs away, he fancies himself in at his house. The pedler accepted the invitation, friendly society, especially when the smoke and remained eight or ten days, kept a prisoner, as wreathes lovingly around him in some sheltered it were, by the hospitality of his host and a pernook or hollow in the way. Ease and opulence petual succession of snow-storms. He was present know nothing of such pleasures : everything with at the wedding, and at the merry-making given by them is comfort and regularity ; but the wild way- the family in the evening, where he noticed among farer, with all his earthly possessions on his back, the guests a young man of rather handsomo who carries at the same time his purse and his life appearance, who atıracted much attention by the in his hands—who has to face the storms of winter gloomy fierceness of his manner. Towards moet and the heats of summer—who is always lonely, persons he preserved a sullen silence ; but he relaxed uften sad, sometimes oppressed, dejected, and mis- with the pedler, laughed, and talked a great deal ; erable-derives gratification from small, and, it inquired what route he meant to take, and how long may be, equivocal pleasures, if sinoking indeed be it was likely to be before he would be among them one of these.
again. Sometimes the track of the pedler lies through In due time the pedler quitted the farmhouse, and districts so desolate, that he can find at night no proceeded on his way. The country just there habitation, however humble, in which to take was very thinly inhabited, the woods frequent, and shelter, but must betake himself to some cavern or of considerable extent, and here and there were hollow among the rocks. Here his flint and steel caverns of various dimensions. In one of these the come into requisition. He gathers dry leaves and pedler one snowy night found himself compelled to bits of decayed wood, and kindles himself a fire, take refuge. He had had the precaution to take close to which he lies down, and enjoy the sem- some food with him; and, the cold being piercing blance at least of a summer dwelling; by the light he collected a quantity of wood, kindled a fire, and of it also he eats his humble supper-a little bread, sat down to enjoy his supper beside it. He had hard and dry crust of cheese, or a piece of anti- not taken many mouthfuls before he observed a man quated sausage, with, it may be, an onion or two, enter the cavern covered with snow, which he or a clove or garlic. Water from the neighboring shook from him as he advanced. There was an well or stream quenches his thirst; and then he immediate recognition : it was no oiher than the betakes himself to sleep on the hard rock, with the farmer's wedding-guest! He accosted the pedler
with a strange constrained civility-saying he was all night; and in the morning we will separate, come to sup, and spend the night with him. each to pursue his own way."
“You are welcome,” said the Frenchman with In the morning, as they were about to bid each as much self-command as he could assume. other adieu, the Sardinian took out his dagger, and
“ Perhaps, however," replied the Sardinian, “I cutting off one of the buttons from his coat, handed shall not continue to be so when I shall have it to the Fronchman, saying, “ Take that and keep explained my errand ?"
it till I restore you your money. Observe, it is of i. We shall see: explain yourself."
silver, and has been handed down in my fainily for “ Listen, then."
many generations. I would not part with it for all “ I listen: proceed. But allow me first to offer you possess; and when I intend to repay you the you a little supper. Here, pray take a slice of hundred dollars, this is the course I shall pursue : German sausage and a little of this wine, which I I will say I have lost my button, and will offer a have luckily brought along with me. Taste it; it hundred dollars to any one who shall find and bring is very good."
it to me. You will present yourself: you will No," answered the Sardinian ; “ I will nei- produce the button; and I, as in honor bound, ther eat nor drink with you until I find whether it will give you the sum agreed on.
Do we part will be necessary to kill you or not !"
friends?" “ Kill me?”
The pedler, who, notwithstanding his loss, could “ Yes, you ; unless you accede to the request I not but be amused by the strange character and am about to make. Listen : I am in love with a ideas of the Sardinian, gave him his hand, and they girl whose father will not give her to me unless I parted friends. can prove myself to be in possession of one hundred Next year he passed the same way again, and dollars. Now I wish you to lend me that sum, sure enough found his friend married to a very which I will faithfully repay to you: not at any pretty woman, who liad already brought him a son.. stated time, observe, for I may be unfortunate ; but He secmed very happy; but coming up to the I swear to you here on this dagger that I will repay Frenchman, he said, "Now I have lost a button : I it sooner or later." And he held up the glittering am not yet rich enough to buy one to replace it :) weapon in the light of the flames, ready to press may be more lucky next year." it to his lips should the pedler accede to his re- 'The pedler understood ; and, after having been quest.
made very welcome at his house, went his way. The Frenchman naturally felt exceedingly un- A second and a third year he returned, and every comfortable; for, from the savage aspect of his time found a young son or daughter added to the guest, he did not doubt he had reason to dread the family: At length-pleased with his reception,
with the constant hospitality shown him, with the The Sardinian continued : “ Should you be so pleasant wife and cheerful increasing family--he foolish as to refuse me, I shall kill you, take all took the Sardinian aside, and presenting him with your property, marry, and make use of it. But his button : " Allow me to restore you this article because I am an honest man, I wish you in that of yours, which I have found.” case to tell me who is your nearest of kin in France, No, no," replied his host ; " keep it another since it will be my most earnest endeavor to repay year: by that time I shall be able to redeem it, and him the money as soon as Providence shall have at the same time to spend a very merry evening put it in my power.”
with you. Come this way next winter, and you Here he paused, to observe what effect his words shall see.' had produced on the pedler, who for some time was The months rolled round: the pedler, regular as too much terrified to reply.
the season, came again ; and the Sardinian invited “Well," resumed the guest, “ you are unde- him to supper. All the children had been sent to cided? It is just what I expected : it is very bed, and he and his wife only remained with their natural. However, I will stay all night with you, guest. that you may have time for reflection ; because I Agatha," said he to her,“ do you know that it would rather not kill you if I could help it. Still, is to your friend here that you are indebted for a I have made up my mind to be married next week, husband ?" and I would kill fifty pedlers rather than postpone His wife looked surprised. the ceremony."
“I beg your pardon, dear Agatha,” said he ;“that “ Under these circumstances," replied the is not what I ought to have said. I mean I am Frenchman,“ I must lend you the money, since I indebted to him for a wife, as it was he who suphave no choice."
plied me with the hundred dollars, without which “ You resolve wisely : you have no choice. your father would have refused you to me. One observation more, however, I must make, and "Oh, how heartily I thank you !" exclainied the then we will sit down comfortably to supper. It is wife ; c. for he is a good hushand and a good father.” this : when you next come to our village, you will “ But I robbed him," said the husband. He of course see me and my wife, and you will take up then related the whole circumstance, remarking at your residence with us in preference to any other the conclusion, “ I intrust my secret to you, Againa, persons. You will say nothing, however, of the because my honor is as dear to you as my life. Here. present transaction, neither to her nor to any one friend,” exclaimed he, placing a little bag von the else. You will not seem afraid of me, as indeed table, “ here are your hundred dollars ; 80 now you need not be, but will be merry, and reckon con- restore me my button, which you have doubtlessly fidently on being repaid the sum with which you kept carefully.' now accommodate ne.
Yes, here it is !” exclaimed the Frenchman, All this the peller promised.
taking it from his purse ; " and now we are esen, “ Now,” exclaimed the young man, "give me except that I owe you ruch, very much, for the your hand: we are friends : let us sit down to constant hospitality you have shown me.' supper. Afterwards you can reckon me out the • Nay,” replied the husband; “it is to you that money; we will keep up a good fire, and chat by it! I am indebted for my wife and children ; you have
Up spoke our own little Mabel,
Saying, “ Father, who makes it snow?” And I told of the good Allfather
Who cares for us all below.
been in some sort a father to us all ; and therefore, so long as I have a house over any head, pray consider it yours.”
Pedlers are sometimes generous. Taking up the bag of dollars, and turning to the wife, the Frenchman said, “ Allow me, madam, to present this to your youngest child as a birthday present. I am in a condition to afford it. I have made much money in your country, and intend next year to marry, and retire to Provence, my native land.”
The present was accepted ; but the farmer, not to be outdone in generosity, forced on him next morning a handsome horse of considerably greater value. The same pedler had been engaged in many other little adventures, which he used to relate with that case and naïveté so characteristic of the French. We fell in with him just as he was about returning to Provence, where we daresay he still enjoys the property which he amassed with so much toil, honesty, and perseverance. The English merchants who supply this class of men are less prudent and economical, and commonly spend their whole gains in what is technically called “ making an appearance." They, moreover, marry Italian women, settle at Genoa, and soon lose all desire to return to England. Thus deprived of the chief spur to economy, they contract indolent habits, and devote themselves to amusement and pleasure ; and, while tho men whose knapsacks they supply rise to independence, and often even to opulence, contract debts and embarrassments, and terminate their lives in poverty. Of course there are exceptions to this rule. But it is the rule, we fear, in Northern Italy, where, through a superior agency, a much larger amount of British goods might be annually distributed, especially if our manufacturers could study the taste of the people, and supply them with the colors and patterns most agreeable to them. On the coast of Spain the operations of the French knapsack-men are encountered and checked by smugglers from Gibraltar. Still, in both cases, the goods are chiefly English; so that, as a people, it is immaterial to us through which of these channels they find their way into the Spanish market.
Again I looked at the snowfall,
And thought of the leaden sky
When that mound was heaped so high. I remembered the gradual patience
That fell from that cloud like snow, Flake by flake, healing and hiding
The scar of that deep-stabbed woe. And again to the child I whispered,
“ The snow that husheth all, Darling, the merciful Father,
Alone can make it fall!” Then, with eyes that saw not, I kissed her,
And she, kissing back, could not know That my kiss was given to her sister Folded close under deepening snow.
J. R. L.
From the National Fira
From the Anti-Slavery Standard.
And busily all the night
With a silence deep and white.
Wore crmine too dear for an earl, And the poorest twig on the elm-tree
Was ridged inch-deep with pearl. From sheds new roofed with Carrara,
Came Chanticleer's muffled crow, The stiff rails were softened to swan's-down,
And still fluttered down the snow.
The noiseless work of the sky,
Like brown leaves whirling by.
Where a little head-stone stood,
As did robins the babes in the wood.
BY THOMAS S. DONOHO.
On the frozen ground.
Through the night,
Lo!" 't is light!
Back to day.
From the Independent.
So much is this felt to be the case, that it is com
monly asserted, on the part of the conservatives, THE JEWS OF EUROPE.
that the whole originated, and still centres, in them. BY OUR ENGLISH CORRESPONDENT.
Of course this is an exaggeration ; but the general
prevalence and the felt strength of the assertion lię It would be scarcely possible for any man, in the acknowledged fact, that if their influence having a heart capable of human emotion, to has not been exclusive, it has been very great. A ascend the tower of observation with Lucretius, large majority of the democratic societies have and while the storm is still raging and multiplying Jews for their leaders and chief speakers. If its victims, attempt to estimate the havoc which has smaller in point of numbers, they have generally been made, and to count the numbers of the dying what is of equal importance in such times—daring
in these unions the ascendency in talent, tact, and, and the dead which strew the storm-lashed and The two levers of greatest power at present in the wreck-strewn shore. Neither may we look upon political world, are money and the press. In bleeding and agonizing nations in order to count respect to the former, the Jews have had long the their throes and speculate upon the probabilities supremacy. They rule the exchange in the greater of life and death. But we may, with a deep part of Europe. Even governments have been though calm and sad interest, fix attention for known to tremble in the ante-chamber of a Jew. awhile upon some who are monuments of sin and of suffering, who have endured and still endure a But the press of continental Europe is no less in discipline unexampled in the history of nations, literature, more especially, swarms with Jewish
Jewish hands; every department of periodical and yet without the ends of the correction being laborers.' In the majority of cases, the newspaper attained.
press is conducted by Jews, as editors, sub-editors, A few months since the Jew in Rome rejoiced and occasional contributors. The correspondence in his emancipation; now the degrading and infa- is almost entirely managed by them. These men mous Ghetto again incloses him. Yesterday, in are, without doubl, the leaders of public opinion on Germany, the Jew held his head aloft, and in his the continent, and are covertly, or more openly, as pride and ambition was willing to accept political it suits the circumstances of the moment, underequality and an open path to Jewish ascendency national faith.
mining at once the national institutions and the in exchange for a worn-out faith in a Messiah to Yes, some who were looking to Chris
The absolutist spirit of the London Quarterly tianity—to mere nominal and despised Christian- Review would naturally excite distrust and watchity—as a means of escape from political and fulness regarding its statements, but the facts consocial inferiority into the region of influence and tained in the following extract are beyond question : power, gladly accepted the alternative which revo
Nor should we omit to mention another influenlution and political change offered to them. In tial body who have played a distinguished part in these new circumstances they needed not the aid all the revolutions of Germany-we mean the of Christianity in order to their advancement, and Jews. At least one third, if not one half, of the as little desired or expected any other Messiah. public journals in Germany have for a long time So of the Jew in Hungary. In the firm estab- been conducted by Jewish editors. In Austria, lishment of the national independence he saw the have been Jews. Dr. Jellinck, for instance, who
the most forward among the extreme democrats means of realizing Jewish hopes and aspirations.
was executed with Dr. Bekker on the 230 NovemHow have these hopes been dashed! At this ber of last year, at Vienna, and whose journal had hour the Jews of Hungary, as one man, are been an organ of the Red party since the month of stripped and peeled with a remorseless ferocity, at March last, appears to have been a Jew, born on least equal to that to which he was subjected by the frontiers of Moravia and Hungary. The the rabber baron of the middle ages, who wrung names of Börne and Heine, both of whom died by torture from the Jew the last remnant of his refugees in Paris, both occupying a prominent
position in the most advanced section of revolutionwealth. But it is not a mere blind ferocity or ary writers, are doubtless familiar to our readers. the greed of wealth which leads the butcherly Both of these daring adventurers were Jews. In Haynau lo despoil and trample upon the Jew. Austria, the Jews have of late played so prominent The active and powerful Jewish intellect has been a part in revolutionary politics, that out of ten leadthe precursor of revolutions. Jewish energy and ing men six or eight will be found to belong to daring have been conspicuous in the actual that nation. In Prussia, likewise, the most violent struggle. These facts are imperfectly under- journals are in the hands of the Jews, whose leader stood even now, although a slight acquaintance the extreme left.
in the chamber at Berlin is Jacobi, a member of with the state of society in Germany and an intelligent observation of the course of events
Such is the remarkable aspect which the Jew during the last few months supply sufficient evi- presents when contemplated merely in his position dence of their truth. In a highly interesting in respect to the nations of Europe. By his inpaper prepared by Rev. Mr. Smith, of the Free tellectual power and superiority he guides opinChurch of Scotland, who was some time in Ger- ions ; by his boldness and daring courage he gives many, the following statement is made : force to actual insurrection. But while arrested
by this spectacle, and led to ponder on a multitude The Jews have taken a leading hand in all the of thoughts, the Christian man, the Gentile graft late revolutionary movements on the continent. of the wild olive-tree, would fain look deeper into
the Jewish mind, and with solemn questionings | the term “ Phanuel.” M. D'Abbadie has brought inquire, what now is the religion of the Jew? with him copies of these books. He further learned How does he view his ancient faith? Is he draw- from his informant that to the south of their country, ing nearer to the Hope of Israel and the Saviour in the country of the Gazoo, there was a Jewish thereof? Will he indeed look upon Him whom by other evidence, altogether independent of that
kingdom ; a statement confirmed to our traveller he hath pierced and mourn? Or is that deeper of the Halashahs. He also said that he met in darkness which precedes the dawn settling down Abyssinia a most interesting native Jewish youth, upon his mind?
who was most anxious to go to Europe, in order With the permission of The Independent, a few to acquire there correct notions on Judaism, which, shoughts, or half thoughts, on these questions will on his return to his native country, might be propprobably be offered in a future communication.
agated among his brethren. This youth made
M. D'Abbadie solemnly promise that he would THE JEWS IN ABYSSINIA.
endeavor to interest European Jews for that object,
and inform him of the result within a twelvemonth. One of the brothers D'Abbadie, the well-known The traveller regretted his want of acquaintance African travellers, has recently passed through with Jews, which he was afraid would render his London on his return from Abyssinia, where he exertions abortive.
AGRICOLA. has been during the last eleven years. While in London he communicated to an Israelite some par
GEOGRAPHICAL AND ETHNOLOGICAL CONSIDERticulars relating to the Jews in Abyssinia, which
ATIONS FROM LT. MAURY'S RECENT PAPERS are not without interest :
ON COMMUNICATION WITH THE PACIFIC. - The Halashahs (strangers) are held in abhorrence by the Abyssinians, and when their chiefs
LONGITUDINAL RIVERS. came to M. D'Abbadie the Abyssinians fled, being afraid of contracting an impurity by coming into
A RIVER that runs east or west crosses no contact with individuals of that hated race. In the parallels of latitude, consequently, as it flows conference which the French traveller held with towards the sea, it does not change its climate, ihem, he laid before them a letter addressed to him and, being in the same climate, the crops that are by the well-known Italian Hebrew scholar, S. D. cultivated at its mouth are grown also at its Luzzato, containing various questions bearing on Jewish matters. The letter, originally written in sources, and from one end to the other of it there French, had been translated by M. D'Abbadie into is no variety of productions ; it is all wheat and Ethiopic. The traveller carefully wrote down corn, or wine, or oil, or some other staple. Astheir replies, and intends to publish them in some sorted cargoes, therefore, cannot be made up from French paper. The Halashahs appear to entertain the produce which such a river brings down to some extraordinary religious notions, altogether market. incompatible with Judaism as understood by the other Jews. They hold celibacy in high honor; south crosses parallels of latitude ; changes its
On the other hand, a river that runs north or and when asked in what part of the Bible that state was recommended, they point to the example of climate at cvery turn; and as the traveller the prophet Elijah, who, according to their opinion, descends it, he sees every day new agricultural was never married, no allusion being made in his staples abounding. Such a river bears down to history either to his wife or children. They also the sea a variety of productions, some of which consider suicide from religious motives as highly some one or another of the different nations of meritorious. Persons disposed to sacrifice their the earth is sure to want, and for which each one lives repair to the brink of a river, and there sol- will send to the markets at its mouth, or the port emnly inquire of God whether their end is come or not. If the signs taken as a reply be in the whence they are distributed over the world. The affirmative, suicide is committed ; but if the reply assortments of merchandise afforded by such a be in the negative, they wait for a twelvemonth, river are the life of commerce. They give it when the same inquiries are again made.
energy, activity, and scope. Such a river is the They are totally unacquainted with Hebrew, and Mississippi, and the Mississippi is the only such read the Scriptures in their native language, into river in the world. which, according to M. D'Abbadie, they were translated from the Arabic. Besides the books
THE INTERTROPICAL SEA. held by all Jews as authoritative, they also consider the Apocrypha as sacred. These books, in But the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean as far as they were examined by our traveller, per- Sea-call them the intertropical sea of America, fectly agree with the Vulgate, except the book of for they are in fact but one sea—are supported by the Maccabees, in which he discovered great discrepancies. They also possess a commentary on the most magnificent system of river basins in the each of the sacred books, except the book of world, and the grandest back country on the face Ezekiel, which has been lost. In addition to the of the earth. The rivers which empty into this five books of Moses, they possess a sixth, which American sea drain more back country than do all they call “ Coofaclaw.” The names of the other the seas of Europe ; and they drain more climates books agree with ours, and appear therefore to be than do all the other rivers which empty into any Ethiopic translations of the Greek words, “Genesis, Exodus,” &c. In their liturgy, however, which one of the three great oceans. is also in Ethiopic, M. D'Abbadie thought a good
This intertropical sea is the receptacle and outHebrew scholar might trace many Hebrew words. let for all the variety of produce that is known Among others, he remembered to have found in it to the climates and soils of seventy degrees of