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his former commander, was willing to wards mid-channel. Bellot shouted to let go the serve under his orders. “You know,” rope—an effort was yet to be made, a hope rewrote Lady Franklin, when making this mains ; but the motion of the ice is so rapid, that, generous proposal, “ that the crew of the

before any measure can be taken, it is already at

an enormous distance from the shore. I then Prince Albert are ready to go with you went to the top of a hill to watch them,' says wherever you choose to lead them. How- Madden, in his deposition, and saw them swept ever, you shall be free to choose your own away from land towards mid-channel. I watched men; and


if you like, to take with from that spot for six hours, but lost sight of them you in this expedition two or three of two. When they passed out of sight, the men your own countrymen in whom you have were standing near the sledge, M. Bellot on the confidence.” The ground of Bellot's re- top of the hummock. They seemed to be on a fusal was no less noble and touching than very solid piece of ice. At that moment the

wind was blowing strongly from the south-east, the motive of the offer: “He was afraid and it was snowing. That moving mass of ice, lest this extreme confidence should pro- thus driven northward by a furious gale, carried duce a bad effect in England, and weaken away the unfortunate Bellot and two sailors with the sympathy with which Lady Franklin him, William Johnson and David Hook. After inspired her countrymen.”

vainly endeavoring to shelter themselves under the At length, finding that he could not tent with which their sledge was loaded, the three communicate his own enthusiasm to the men began to cut a house for themselves in the ice

with their knives. But let Johnson speak; his Minister of Marine, and resolved not to let deposition is precise, and, nevertheless, very toucha season pass by without making another ing: visit to the Arctic regions, Bellot asked ** M. Bellot,' he says, 'sat for half an hour in and received permission to embark in conversation with us, talking on the danger of our H. M. S. Phænix, Captain Inglefield, and position. I told him I was not afraid, and that upon the 10th of May, 1853, he was re

the American expedition were drawn up, and ceived on board that vessel as a volunteer they were ; and when the Lord protects us, not a

down this channel by the ice. He replied: “I know for the expedition she was then about to hair of our head shall be touched!" I then asked proceed on. This was the young seaman's M. Bellot what time it was. He said, “ About a last voyage, and the closing scene of it we quarter past eight, A.M.” (Thursday, the 18tlı), and shall relate in the words of his country- then lashed up his books, and said he would go man, M. Lemer. On the 12th of August and see how the ice was driving. He had only he left the Phænix and her companion, gone about four minutes, when I went round the the North Star, in Erebus and Terror Bay, look for him, but could not see him; and on re

same hummock under which we were sheltered to accompanied by the quarter-master of the turning to our shelter saw his stick on the oppoNorth Star and three sailors, and bear- site side of a creek, about five fathoms wide, and ing Admiralty dispatches for Sir Edward the ice all breaking up. I then called out, " Mr. Belcher:

Bellot !" but no answer (at this time blowing very

heavy). After this I again searched round, but “ It was supposed that Sir Edward was in could see nothing of him. I believe that when he Wellington Channel, in the neighborhood of Cape got from the shelter, the wind blew him into the Belcher. In that direction, therefore, the lit- creek, and his sou’-wester being tied down he could tle troop, set out, marching close along the not rise.? eastern shore of the channel. After encamp

“ David Hook, Bellot's other companion, deposing the first day three miles from Cape Innis, ed, that before the breach in the ice, and the atthe five men halted next day, on detached tempt to land, some one having said that it would blocks of ice, about three miles from Cape Bow- be more prudent to keep the middle of the chanden. On the night of the 14th, on quitting that nel, Bellot, hearing these words, replied, that cape, they had to cross a cleft in the ice, four feet Captian Pullen's orders were to keep along the wide, which they effected prosperously enough. coast to the right, within about two miles of it. They were three miles off land when Bellot pro- " This last trait, and the whole of this scene, posed to encamp, and he tried to reach it in the In- complete the moral portraiture of Bellot, a slave dia-rubber canoe ; but being twice driven back by to duty, sacrificing his own safety to it, and incesa violent gale from the south-east, he determined to santly disposed to devote his life, confronting have an attempt made by two of his companions, death like a man full of that sublime confidence, Harvey, the quarter-master of the North Star, and that holy faith, which keeps the soul always in Madden. The attempt succeeded, and once on readiness to appear before its Creator and its shore, the two men fixed a pass-rope between the Judge; that faith which inspired the navigator of sledge and the coast, by means of which three ob- the sixteenth century to utter the fine saying : jects could be transported. A fourth trip was 'Heaven is as near by water as by land.'" about to be undertaken, when Madden, who was up to his middle in the water, perceived that the

So ended the short career of Lieutenice was getting itself in motion off shore and to ant Bellot; and seldom, perhaps, has a

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human life been more replete with the ele- | loring in which the generous enthusiasm ments of genuine happiness than his. of youth depicted the future. Being dead “Whom the gods love, die young.” Bel- he yet speaketh, teaching, by his own stolot lived long enough to win, by honest ry, the uses, personal and social, of legitimeans, the respect of two great nations, mate and honorable ambition; and, by the and, better still, to earn and secure the manner of his death, uniting France and esteem and love of many friends. He England in a common desire to do honor died before the experience of manhood to the memory of one of the truest and had cast its shadow over the brilliant co- loyalest of Frenchmen.

From Dickens' Household Words.



The citizens of London and the citizens of dead domestic animals; the bones of of Paris can be compared and contrasted others whose death and skeletonhood in almost the same terms as the cities dates three reigns back; the “temporary” themselves; the one sombre, heavy, large, posts and barriers now decayed with age; continually expanding, seldom changing; and the stenches from Cow Cross; alí the other bright, compact, open, lively, continue to seethe and breed pestilence in and ever improving. The pace of Lon- the hideous gap dug out of the centre of don improvement is that of the overgrown this metropolis nearly a quarter of a cenalderman, or of his own beloved turtle. tury ago. *Yet, during that time, there It takes a lustre to pull down and re-build has been activity of another kind close by. a house or two in Chancery Lane, a de- Hundreds of dinners have been eaten; cade to re-construct Cannon street, and a thousands of turtle have been slain and lifetime to open out an entirely new tho- washed down with oceans of cold punch; roughfare. In our youth, a nest of rook- millions of money in coal-dues and corneries was demolished on the Clerkenwell dues have been squandered, and diverted side of Holborn Bridge, under pretense from their legal purposes, into ever-runof continuing Farringdon street to be an ning channels of gormandizing and jobopen route for the Northern and Western bery. Farther off in the world a vast Railways : we are now more than middle- amount of work has been done, of preaged, our second son has attained his ma- cisely the same sort as that which our jority, and Farringdon street still stands citizens have wretchedly shirked. Withwhere it did. It is neither longer nor in the territories of the United States, broader than it was when Fleet Ditch whole cities have been built, peopled, and ceased to be navigable for merchant ships, organized, of not much smaller extent than and when Fleet Market afterwards flour- the city of London proper. Miles and ished above that covered estuary. It is miles of ground have been covered with not a foot nearer to Bath, nor Liverpool, habitations in other parts of the globe, nor Berwick-upon-Tweed. The loose and called San Francisco, Melbourne, Port bricks; the unconsidered tiles; the rusty, Philip, what you will. Even while the diitted fragments of pots and kettles; the wise men of the east have been haggling rugged mounds of filth; the slimy holes about one little piece of open ground and puddles; the jagged profiles of tene- called St. Paul's Cathedral, a considerable ments half torn down, half standing; the portion of the capital of the great French arches of empty coal-cellars; the carcases empire has been not only razed, but rebuilt ; re-built with a degree of solidity City Improvements Committee with any not easily conceivable in this our city of conscience or any observation, can not bricks and stucco; and in a style of splen- walk through Paris without feeling ashamdor which would have startled the late ed and humiliated. Mr. John Martin, notably the most ex- “But, sir, we live in a free country-in treme idealist of gorgeous architecture a country where private property is reever known.

spected and private right a palladium. Indeed, since the tradition of Cadmus France, sir, is a despotic country. There and the magical realities of the gold dis- your house is not your castle: you can tricts, we know of no instance of rapid have it pulled down about your ears at a building to equal the recent transforma- moment's notice merely to promote pubtions in Paris. In the three years during lic convenience. Our government can not, which this short work has been mainly in with one stroke of a pen or after a oneaction, there have been swept away a great sided discussion with civic authorities, demany narrow, crooked streets, which reek- populate a neighborhood to have it built ed with open streams of fætid refuse ; up again. We must wait until capital has which were without side-pavements-foot- accumulated from the proper sources ; passengers, horses, vehicles and filth, all until leases have fallen in, and ground mixing there in continual confusion; which landlords fallen out; until paving-boards were seldom lighted by the sun by day, have been conciliated, and commissioners in consequence of the height and close of sewers are agreed; until acts of parliaproximity of the opposite houses, and ments are, at an incredible cost and waste, which were but dimly lighted by night fought through both houses, surveyors with miserable lamps slung across the consulted, fees guaranteed to high-minded road; which were densely thronged from architects, building contracts—wickedly the cellars to the roofs by a variety of in- paraphrased by the vulgar as "jobs"mates, whose salient characteristic was solemnly_sealed and legalized. Sir, the wicked squalor; into which prudent peo- boasted Parisian improvements have been ple never ventured after sunset, and where made, I will venture to say, at the single imprudent people were frequently robbed will of the emperor, and against the seveand sometimes qualified by the coup de ral wills of thousands of ousted tenants clef, or some other sudden passport, for and ruined' landlords; for despotism can the Morgue; nests, in short, of disquiet, do in ten minutes, what sober, constitudisease, and iniquity. Not only have en- tional legality is obliged to be busy ten tire neighborhoods such as these been years about.” swept away wholesale, but every part of So says the honorable deputy for the the city has been more or less improved ward of St. Vitus's Backlane: but that in detail. Streets of moderate width have eminent and respected public nuisance is had their narrow entrances enlarged ; in error. He will perhaps be surprised to sharp turns have been squared, and cor- hear, that not a jot of private right was ner houses made to form double instead invaded; that every stone in Paris which of single angles-so that these widened formerly stood on the area of improvecross-roads are never crowded, and seldom ment was paid full value for, before a obstructed; projecting houses have been slate was removed or a pickaxe lifted; forced back into line with the rest ; con- that every owner and occupier was fairly venient thoroughfares have been opened compensated not only for loss and rethrough blind blocks of buildings which moval of property, but for damage done separated one quarter from another. Yet, to his business-compensated, too, not utility was not the sole motive power with the off-hand tyranny of “ take that which has executed these improvements. or none;" but, in case of dispute, by juries The love of ornament and a passion for selected from his own class. If the wordisplay, always attributed to the French, thy St. Vitus's deputy could divest himhave been brilliantly and beautifully ex- self of his London Corporation prejudices, hibited; especially in the Rue de Rivoli and could inquire into the subject, he and Boulevard de Sebastopol. But above would perceive that nearly every expethese common sense (the most uncommon dient, every administrative arrangement, sense known) proclaims itself from every every mode of negotiation and adjustimproved street and altered house. An ment between the authorities of the city English architect, or a member of the of Paris and the imperial government, is



applicable to the speedy improvement of a fund, applicable to the work, already his own or any other pent-up, ill-planned, existed in its coffers amounting to about ill-governed city in these liberally-gov- sixty millions of francs. The credit of a erned dominions.

corporation so flushed with ready money The nucleus of the Paris improve- is in itself a bank; and, when more money ments is the Hôtel de Ville. Around it, was wanted, an additional sum of fifty the first great shattering and shocking of millions of francs was eagerly lent by vile streets took place; and in it are per capitalists. No sooner are proposals for formed the administrative and financial a loan announced, than the scrip rises to operations by which the wholesale changes a high premium, and the competition for are set in motion. The chief municipal it is so strong, that ten millions more authorities do all their work in this gor- francs have been raised, by lottery, upon geous Guildhall, partly of their own free the excess in premiums alone. Five milinspirations and will, and partly under the lions of pounds sterling have therefore direction of government. There, the plans been raised since the year eighteen hunfor changing some of the worst parts of dred and fifty-two, for buying up property the capital into palatial habitations, are to improve Paris, besides vast sums realdevised, deliberated on, and adopted; ized by old building materials and fittings. thence come out the loans for carrying on Two years more of well-spent and costly the work, which capitalists eagerly “take activity have yet to elapse, before the up;" and there the work is paid for when contemplated regeneration will be comit is finished. As, however, it is thought plete. possible that a body of gentlemen of equal The doomed quarters having been status to the aldermen and common-coun- marked out, notices to quit are served cilmen of London, are not solely sufficient upon the occupiers. The bargain with for deciding upon works of such magni- each proprietor differs little, in the first tude, their proceedings have to be ratified instance, from that entered into between by the conseil des bâtiments civils, an im- an ordinary buyer and seller. The muperial committee, composed of five of the nicipality is willing to give so much; the most eminent French architects and eight vendor demands so much; if terms can non-professional colleagues, whose busi- not at once be arranged, the dispute is ness it is to report upon all plans respect- referred to a compensation jury, composed ing public structures. The sanction and of members of the council-general of the cooperation of the Minister of Finance is department of the Seine. Upon the also necessary to the monetary opera- whole, our inquiries led to the belief that tions.; because, as the construction of the sums awarded are fair. Some cases several public offices and other public of under-payment and hardship could, of works is included, a certain quota of ex- course, be adduced on the one side, as pense is paid out of the imperial treasury. well as instances of exorbitant demand on It must not be supposed that these and the other. There are, indeed, whispers other excellent regulations were framed to of tradesmen living in the line of projectdirect this single outburst of architectural ed improvement, making out beforehand renovation; they are the law of the land, on their books, enormous transactions made and provided for all such cases, by which only existed in their books, to the astonishingly far-seeing and compre- mystify the jurors into extravagant payhensive Code de Napoléon—a code which ment for loss of trade by forced removal. Britain, though she did rise out of the Even lodgers are compensated by indemazure main to the singing of Guardian nités locatives according to the value of Angels, has some cause to envy.

their holdings. Where one family in It was originally intended that the vast London is put to the rout by the demolialterations to be made in the map of Paris, tion of a house, from four to five families should occupy fifteen

years ;
but the


are ejected in Paris, where the inhabitants sent emperor had his reasons for ordering are nearly all lodgers; each house bethat they should be finished in five years; ing separated into tenements, and each so that a considerable amount of capital floor containing a complete and distinct had to be raised in a very short time. household.* The consequence of the sudFortunately the task was not difficult; for, as municipal tom-foolery and gluttony

* In eighteen hundred and fifty-one, according to are not the business of the Hôtel de Ville, the Census, the average number of individuals living den sweeping away of habitations, caused The ground cleared, at the expense shelter to become uncommonly scarce. already indicated, had to be covered; and Enormous rents were, for a time, demand- the four thousand master-builders who ed, even for the meanest garrets and the habitually find business in Paris—though dampest cellars; and the poorer and in- taking upon themselves a fair share of dustrious classes suffered intensely. Eject- such work as adding some half-mile to ed families, in a most piteous plight, were the arcaded Rue de Rivoli (already one seen in the streets, following the tumbrils of the grandest streets in Europe)-were or the handcarts in which their household not able to provide capital for realizing appliances were piled, unable to find a all the gigantic projects demonstrated in roof to cover them. Many were obliged the plans laid out on paper. The univer. to remain out of doors in the midst of sal remedy in such a case, a joint-stock frost and snow, until the government company, instantly sprang into existence; caused certain waste places to be hutted, and the covering of those acres of rugged in which they gave the houseless shelter, waste known as the Place de Carrouselfree of charge. After a time, new houses with its noble triumphal arch and its tall, were ready, and these inconveniences dis- grim coffee shop that stood for many years appeared.

a solitary and shaky spectre of the past; There are, it must be remarked, some with its second-hand book, curiosity, and circumstances which render these sudden stuffed-bird stalls; with its clamorous shoechanges in Paris much more easy than in cleaners and politely importunate dealers London. House-building must always be in second-hand umbrellas, canes, and cataa more rapid operation in most parts of logues of the picture gallery-has been France than in England. Hitherto, un- gorgeously accomplished by the Société derground works have not cost much des Immeubles de Rivoli, assisted by the time there; and although the ancient funds of the Société de Crédit Mobilier, fosses surrounding the garrison were con- The palace of the Louvre and the palace verted at an early period into main sewers, of the Tuileries--recently not much less and a great straight sewer, running east than a quarter of a mile apart—are now and west under the city, was constructed joined by galleries and arcades of great in thirteen hundred and seventy-yet few architectural beauty, set with gateways of the houses are drained into them to and pavilions adorned with caryatides and this day. But, by a decree of the sixth allegorical groups of the most elaborate of December, eighteen hundred and fifty- design and execution. The new edifices three, a system of tubular drainage into thus enclosing the Place de Carrousel, them, and into a new sewer running par- comprise two inner squares, immense barallel to the Seine, on the south side, was racks, public offices, an extensive ridingestablished; ten years being allowed to school, stables, and great additions to the the proprietors of house-property to cause Tuileries palace itself. The same the necessary connection to be made. pany have also built, close by, the largest The main sewers will be eventually dis- hotel in Europe. The Hôtel du Louvre charged into the Seine a few miles below standing opposite to the north face of Paris; but, so far above tidal influence, these structures, in the Rue de Rivoli, that the sewerage will be carried away. covers more than an English acre and a Not all the grand new streets and beauti- half of ground. It has eight hundred ful houses, nor the noble monuments and rooms, and presents as splendid a specipublic buildings, will improve Paris so men of interior decoration and furnishing thoroughly and fundamentally as this as is known to exist. Four years ago, measure. The abolition of cess-pools cen- when the Place de Carrousel was a void, turies old, with which its foundations are this magnificent traveller's rest was the honey-combed, and of the pestiferous site of several back streets. voiries of Montfaucon and Bondy into It is needless to detail all that the which they have for ages been emptied, Société des Immeubles de Rivoli has efwill increase the hygienic condition of the fected; and, to those readers not thorcity beyond all calculation.

oughly acquainted with Paris as it stood

in eighteen hundred and fifty-one, a dein each house in Paris was twenty-six. In eighteen scription of the other improvements would hundred and seventeen the average was twenty-four be tedious. What has already been said inmates per house.

will give a faint idea of the power of capi




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