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gate of the kingdom,” says one, “ they looked question whether you shall even enter it; for with no meek and far-off desire; they knelt and entrance is not by blood and inheritance, not by knocked with no suppliant air, breathing such right and of necessity, but only through the confessions of unworthiness as gave their secu- conversion of the beart back to the lowliness rity for gratitude; but turned on it the greedy and simplicity, and the gentle spirit of the chill; ege of property, and reached to it with intent and the greatest among those wbo enter is he to do what they liked with their own; so that who has has most of the little child in his heart the kingdom of Heaven suffered violence, and and life. the violent would take it by force. Searcely were What an answer to humble their proud amthey content with the notion of admission as bition, grasping with narrow selfishness the chief its subjects; they must be its lords and admin. gifts of place and power, seeking heights whence istrators too. For them, thought the Pharisees, to look down in triumph upon their brethren were its dignities and splendors created; for and the world! How abashed must have fallen them its patronage reserved ; and the glorious their conceited expectations before his sublime sovereignty of God was not to be over them but exaltation of humility! How deeply must they by them; so that, in every proffer of their ser-haze pondered in their hearts, “ what this meanvices to him, they contemplated not the humilits eth !" A little child! To enter the kingdom so ! of submission, but the pride of command.” A little child, the emblem of greatness ! It
The disciples of the Lord shared, of course, was indeed a new and a strange thought; perin these feelings, and anticipations. As often as haps they could make nothing of it; it was only their hearts experienced, more than usual, the an additional perplexity in regard to him whose goodness of their Master,—as often as he rose disciples they were. Perhaps it was only long majestically upon their revering minds.,-con- after, when the Holy Ghost had been poured out stantly as the thought sprang up amid their upon them, and changed them indeed, making meetings, or in the presence of some signal act those who had quarrelled together for crowns of power, that he was indeed the Christ, the and robes, and offices, the meek, earnest, perlong-looked for Prince and Saviour, the ques-sistent servants of the lowest of men for Christ's tion which most naturally suggested itself to sake,-perhaps it was only then that this saying them and formed the topic of their private de came to their hearts with all its heavenly signifibates, was, who should be greatest when he as- 1 cance. sumed his throne : which of them, wbo had left! It is a word of meaning and interest to us, no all, and followed him in his humiliation, would less than to those who listened while it fell from be nearest to bin in his exalted glory. Can we the Master's lips. It is what he speaks in his not imagine the earnestness with which the dis- spirit, and by his spirit, to each of us : “Verily, cussion should be carried forward, the mar. I say unto you, except ye be converted and beshalling of their clains, the comparing of the come as little children, ye shall not enter into dates of their service, the measuring of the the kingdom of heaven.” What meaneth this? quantity of their sacrifices, the counting up of Pride and conceit, self-sufficiency and boasting, the marks of their master's regard, to learn whom will not be able to tell us. he esteemed the most? Can we not imagine that The kingdom of Heaven ; what is this, that the dispute should often run high, words and we shall not enter save as a little child ? It is looks exchanged which revealed the bitter pas- not a place primarily. It is not a far-off region. sions at work in their bosoms? See how ready It is not a country like any of the earth. It is to burst forth their excited minds were, in that not a land whither we are to be transported. incident of the mother of James and John com- We must not entertain our imaginations with ing to Jesus with the petition to sit on his right visions of thrones and offices, and splendor, as hand and on his left in his kingdom. When the of earthly royalty. This were to make-the same ten heard it, they were much displeased with mistake with the Jews, and to bring up the same James and John, and Jesus interfered to allay questions which agitated their minds. The king. the irritation.
dom of heaven, says the Master himself, is within Now it was before these, thus agitating the you. And his Apostle says: “The kingdom constantly recurring question and referring to of God is righteousness and peace and joy in the Master himself for the answers, that Jesus the Holy Ghost." That kingdom is in the heart held in his arms a child-gazing on his face, no -in those swelling bosoms of ours in the depths doubt, with wonder, and yet with a pleased look of these closed and secret breasts—in those silent of trust, and said : “ Verily, I say unto you, ex- recesses of the soul, where passion is hushed cept ye be converted and become as little chil.) and the world's voices are still, -where God dren, ye shall not enter the kingdom of heaven;'' | dwells—where he sets up his abode, and talks as if he said, you dispute about the posts of with us in mercy and love—where He reveals power and authority, the seats of honor and the full ligbt of his presence, and the Holy Spirit glory in that kingdom, as if already you were of breathes upon every thought, affection and dethe kingdom, and in it; but look first to the 1 sire ;—where all heaven opens itself in glory and descends in raptures upon the heart, thrill- | the domestic rule control him, dating his rising ing with pious joy. That kingdom is the feeling and his rest,—his going out and his coming in,of God, the devout sense of his presence, the apportioning his duties and his mirth,-ordering sacred gladness of parental love. That kingdom secretly the very current of his thoughts, whether is the deep, unfaltering, unbroken, unalterable it sparkle with gladness or overflow with tears ! consciousness of divine tenderness, sympathy, Yet how rarely has he any painful sense of the care, mercy,-open to us every moment, and constraining force which is on him every mofilling the whole being with the peace of believ. ment! Hemmed in on every side by a most ing. That kingdom, -how shall one tell what vigilant power, yet look at his open brow, and it is, when it is so much, so great, so wonderful, say whether creature ever were more free. His and yet so simple, that it is the child's heart that life is an exchange of obedience for protection ; upderstands it best! It is in that soul where he gives submission and is sheltered. Folded God dwells and reigns in all the majesty of his in the arms of an unspeakable affection, he is power and in all the gentleness of his Fatherhood. saved from the anxieties of self-care, nor is he The soul where that kingdom is, leans in its ever left alone to choose a path by the dim, sad dependence on the arm of the Lord, that its lustre of his own wisdom, but is led gently on by feet may not stumble; keeps close by his side, the lamp of a father's experience and the meek that it may not wander and be lost; turns a star-light of a mother's love! In strangeness meek imploring eye to the face that bends and danger, how close he keeps to the hand that down upon it with the quiet smile of love, for leads him! In doubt, how he looks up to in. the needful supplies of its daily wants. The terpret the eye that speaks to him! In loss and soul in which that kingdom is, rests not in de loneliness, with what cries and tears he sits down pendence alone, but in holy trust; believing to lament his freedom! He asks, but claims in the Father's word, yielding to the Father's nothing; he pleads, but is silent when the final pleasure, walking in the Father's way. That word is given. If he strays, how quickly he way may lead where it will, -by green pastures looks about him in fear, soon as he realises that and still waters, over smooth places, and through he is indeed astray. If he disobeys, how soon gentle undulations of hill and valley, with the sky his heart is troubled, and cannot be at peace, till clear above and the breeze soft around ;-or it he has returned, confessing, in his simple way, may be rough, and hard, and stony, bruising the that the path of perfect obedience is the path of feet, so that they bleed as they go, marking the trust and liberty. Only so,—in a like dependsteps; the heavens may be very dark with thick ence--in a like trust, refreshing and reverential clouds, and blasts of stormy wind may beat upon -in a like obedience, free and joyous,-in a the wayfarer as he toils forward ; still, trust like consciousness of a presence, all sufficient holds his soul up, breathes courage, inspires un- and tender, from whom we withhold nothing, failing persistence, puts firmness into the will, not even ourselves, consists the very spirit of and sustains the same song, now rising in swel- the kingdom of heaven ; nor can we dwell on ling notes of joy, and now low as strains of earth or in heaven, finding it a kingdom of God, sweet music heard afar ;-still the same song, but as the loving child dwelleth within its “Even so, Father, for so it seemeth good in thy home.” sight; lead me in the way of thy choosing, for. But we all know that this temper is apt to be no harm can befal me, while thou art my de- worn away as we advance into manhood's life. fence.” The soul in which that kingdom is, When we come to stand out on the broad theatre loves, too, the service of the Father. The will of the world, leaving the security and shelter of of the Father is its law. It knows no other. It the quiet home, and are thrown upon the diffi. asks for no other. Daily it asks: “ Father, culties and roughness of a man's duties and exwhat wouldst thou have me to do?” What ser-periences, to meet and conquer them as we may, vice is appointed? What work is set before how apt are we to lose the spirit of childhood, my ready hands ? Obedience is the prompting and live at our own directions, how apt to cast of its love. The commands of the Most High, aside the early restraints, and spring forward to which seem to others so stern, so hard, and the appointed tasks with proud convictions of our shall we say it?-so exacting, they are written strength and wisdom! We set up for ourselves. on the heart, hidden in the breast, and wrought The feeling of dependence is displaced by the out in patience, and meek observance in the pride of power; the meek trust gives way to the hours and minutes of the passing day. | boastful pretension of self-sufficiency; the ready
And now is not all this that we have been obedience to another's law, to the arrogant affectrying to say, altogether and simply the spirit of tation of being a law unto ourselves. And thus childhood ? Does not the thought of childhood it comes to pass that we lose, with the earthly bring up before us a picture like this? Why, home and its spirit, the kingdom of heaven and look for a moment, at a little child in its home. its childlike heart. We lose our dependence on Beautiful and true is this representation of his the Great Father, our complete trust, our affecposition. “How silently, yet how surely, does tionate allegiance, through “our own babits of command.” We forget we are still children of | from Sinai, through all the chambers of a man's God, dwellers in his mansion, to be led by his being, bidding him beware how he longer lives in will and supported by his love. And so we fall disobedience and a prodigal. Sometimes he unaway, often taking our portion of goods and roofs the very house of our security, and shows us straying off on our own account; and by and by that what we rest in may suddenly pass away, and it gets to seem strange and impossible to lean leave us homeless and desoiate. Sometimes by a completely on the unseen Arm of Power, that is quick and sudden blow he extorts the cry of ready to fold us round and does fold us round, dependence, moving in the heart a deep sense though we know it not. It seems strange, and of relation to that which is above, as well as to like a simple tale of a dreamy or weak and ef- that which is around and beneath. But oftener feminate miod, to hear of a perfect reliance, un- he pleads with us in the persuasive accents of a doing all its self-sufficiency and yielding up all loving father, calling most patiently after the to the will of Him, who is the giver of life and children whom he hath nourished and brought the ordainer of life's experience. It seems up, but who have rebelled against him. * * strange, and almost incredible, to hear of an * * * * He pleads with us in the gentle obedience for the man, which is as ready, as un knocking of his spirit at the closed door of our reserved, as joyful, as that which he gave the hearts,--knocking, knocking, if we will let him gentle parent who watched over and guided his in,-in the holy hours of quiet meditation, in childhood.
movings of the soul that we can give no account And how should it seem otherwise to us, till lof, when, somehow, we feel near to heaven, and we be changed back again into the spirit of its light shines upon our path, even though childhood ? How can we enter into the con- drifting earth-clouds eclipse it again. God knows sciousness of this condition of the heart, except we need to be converted and so he will not let the spirit of early days returns upon us and gives us alone, but calls, varying his entreaties, as our back to us " whatever was blessed in childhood, hearts require, “ My son, give me thy heart." without abating our glory of manhood,”—making! And, oh! when we are truly converted, when the mansion of God's house peaceful as a fath- childhood is born again in our souls : when we er's abode? How simply true, then, is it that are ourselves again in the spirit of childhood ; Christ saith: “Except ye be converted and be when the freshness of our early years is shed come as little children, ye cannot enter the king over the wisdom and experience of maturity, then dom of Heaven.” For can we otherwise ? One how simple are all our ways and thoughts and rapid glance at our hearts will teach us that we tastes ! "How we love the unaffected, chaste, cannot in any other manner. Let theologians homely modes of life! The formal, stately, osargue as they will ; let them set forth, in their tentatious, ceremonious ways of the world grow ways, what conversion is, as a dogma, we all distasteful, and the modest, quiet, humble, grow know what it must be, as a doctrine of erperi- clearer and holier. ence. If, to enter the kingdom, we must become When again we kneel at a Father's feet, and as little children, then most plain it is we must walk by a Father's side, and look up into a be changed,—we must be converted, Till we Father's face, then with what large belief are, we are not as little children, with the heart in his love and constancy are we ready to go of a child in us, but as grown men, with the right over rough as well as smooth ground, proud heart of a man in us. And this we know right on through sunshine and darkness; right too well. For unless that change has come over on through sickness, bereavement, loss, trouble, us, are we leaning upon God, with the whole and long-pressing agitations, knowing that our weight of entire dependence? Are we walking afllictions, which endure but for a moment, work in the meekest trust in his most blessed will ? Ja far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory; Are we, with cheerful obedience, running to do knowing, too, that if our earthly house of this his pleasure? In weakness, is He our strength; tabernacle were dissolved, we have a building of in perplexity, our guide; in failure, our hope; God, a house not made with hands, eternal in in temptation, our refuge? And yet, this is the heavens.
J. S. T. C. what it is to dwell in the kingdom of heaven, tobe a subject of thate nipire,—to be a child of Him who is its Head.
For Friends' Intelligencer. Who of us does not need conversion ? God I observed in the last intelligencer, some acknows we need it, and therefore He will not let count of Arthur Howell, and I remember, too, us alone, but is always ordering his providence the remarkable occurrence related in the days of to bring us back to himself. Sometimes He my youth, which corresponds with the account you pleads with us in his gentle tones, which we may have published. I remember the man himself in hear in hours of gladness and prosperity; some several of the first Yearly Meetings I attended. times in deeper voices, that startle the too drowsy His manner in meeting was devout. He sat soul, in hours of peril and disaster ; sometimes with his face downwards, and partially covered he sends a word, awful as that which once spake with his bat. When he spoke, "his words were
few and savory," and always to the point, and grateful remembrance the divine interposition to the main point. I have sometimes enquired to save him from harm, through the instrumenhow it was that there never was a memorial for tality of Arthur Howell. Arthur Howell, as the object of those documents 3d month 12th, 1857. is for the benefit of survivors, and few I believe can be found whose example and ministry shone FRIENDS' INTELLIGENCER. more brightly than his. It was said by the Di. vine Master in relation to the woman in the PHILADELPHIA, THIRD MONTH 28, 1857. house of Simon the leper, that “the things she has done shall be told as a memorial of her;”. We have not alluded to the case of Dred here is the important service and use of a me.
Scott, because, at the time this article was writmorial ; “ the things she has done, and some of the things done by Arthur Howell I am now ten, the opinion of Chief Justice Taney of the about to relate.
Supreme Court has not been published, it being Being with some Friends on a religious visit understood that it is retained until the arguin the year 1819, we tarried a night ata Friend's ments addressed by the minority can be answered. house, (J. B.) He was the only one of the family
It is probable some of the points upon which a belonging to the Society of Friends, and in the course of conversation he related some incidents majority of the Court appear to have agreed, that induced him to become a member. He may be somewhat modified, but the fact that said, when be was a young man and newly set the slave power is gradually, but surely extendtled in the world, he concluded to better his ling itself, however humiliatiog the confession, condition by purchasing a farm that was for sale! in the neighborhood. He made his calculations,
cannot be doubted. Ever since the so-called and concluded within himself that he could easily
Compromise of 1850, a system of measures has make the payments, and he would soon have a been pursued, which, if continued, may introduce comfortable home of his own; and he was care- by law slavery into the free states, and fasten ful, too, to keep his own secrets, least another
upon us a system which our education and humight deprive him of a good bargain. So he set out to make the purchase, and while he was
anity alike testify against. walking along the road he met two elderly! We have often before called attention to these Friends on horseback, the one a few perches be- aggressions of the slave power, and it may appear fore the other, and the hindermost one he like a “thrice told tale;" but a periodical devonoticed had bis hat drawn partly over his face, I ted to the interests of the Society of Friends and appeared to be in a deep, thoughtful mood. He passed them without speaking; but he had would not be true to its position, if it did not walked but a little way before he was startled upon every occasion like the present utter a with a call of “young man!” He turned and solemn protest against this complicated system found the last Friend he had passed was riding of iniquity. after him. The Friend said to him in substance : “ Thou
Out of the nine judges of the Supreme Court, art an entire stranger to me, but in passing thee
five are understood to be slaveholders, and two a few minutes ago, I felt a divine impression to others from the free states have joined in affirm. say to thee, that if thou engages in the business ing the decision of the majority. thou hast in prospect, it will be thy ruin, and Judge McLean of Ohio and Judge Curtis of thou hadst better abandon it and return home.”
Massachusetts have given adverse opinions, which The Friend proved to be Arthur Howell, “ who preached to me (as he said) the most powerful are too elaborate for general publication. As sermon 'I ever heard. He almost told me, as they will be extensively circulated, such as are was said by the woman of Samaria, all things interested in examining the grounds assumed can that ever I did;' but he did not leave me comfort
ne comfort- | procure and read for themselves. It is probaless. I turned about and went home, and soon after I had good reason to believe that if I had
ble we shall again allude to this subject, but in bought the farm it would have been the ruin of the mean time we would refer to an abstract myself and young family.”
ily.” The Friend some
The Friend some from one of the papers. time after applied and became a member of the Society, and, many years afterwards, he removed
THE CASE OF DRED SCOTT. nearer to Friends, as he lived at the time of his The recent opinion of the majority of the convincement ten miles from meeting. I con- Justices of the Supreme Court of the United versed with him freely but a little while before States, in the case of Scott vs. SANFORD, has his decease, which occurred several years ago ; filled all persons of calm and conservative views he was in a tender state of mind, and held in with regret and alarm.
There is every reason to believe that this case the Constitution regards men of African descent got into the Supreme Court collusively. Dred as mere property, and not as persons, the majoriScott is a poor, ignorant negro slave in Missouri. ty of the Court build the novel dogma that slaves It is not possible that he has the opportunity or can be held like any other property by mere virthe means to prosecute a protracted and expen- tue of the Constitution. This idea was first sive litigation up to the highest Court in the broached by John C. Calhoun, and was generalland. When the case came near argument there ly scouted, at the time, as a gross heresy. And was no counsel to represent Dred Scott; but a so it is; unless all the great writers on the Law Boston lawyer was procured on the spur of the of Nations, and on Civil and Common law, and occasion, by some strangers to Dred, who were all the previous decisions of every respectable interested in his favor.
Court in this country, and in the civilized world, Dred Scott, originally a slave in Missouri, are wholly in error. For every one of these was taken by his owner, Doctor Emerson, to authorities, for centuries back, has explicitly the free State of Illinois, where master and slave held that slavery is the mere creature of positive resided two years. Then Doctor Emerson took law; that it cannot exist a moment without posiDred to Fort Snelling, in that part of Missouri tive law; that it cannot exist merely by being Territory where the Act of 1820 prohibited not prohibited, but only by explicit and special slavery. At Fort Snelling, Dred was married establishment; that a slave is not property to a colored woman who had also been brought naturally, but only technically and legally, by from Missouri to that post, and who resided there virtue of specific municipal law. Every tyro in with her owner. About that time, and at Fort jurisprudence is aware that these principles are Snelling, Dred and his wife were sold to Mr. primary and elementary. It follows, then, that Sanford, the defendant in this case. After a a slave is not property, like a horse or a wagon. lengthened absence, Dred and his family were for these are owned by virtue of the law of nataken back into Missouri, by their alleged owner. ture and nations, and of common right; whereas, In Missouri Dred sued for the freedom of himself a slave is owned, as all the jurists say, against and family. The Supreme Court of Missouri natural right, and only by force of local law. decided against Dred's claim. He then sued These simple and universal truths were axioms, Sanford, who is a citizen of New York, in the as every school-boy knows, with our Fathers Circuit Court of the United States, was cast who framed the Constitution ; and every school. there, and took his writ of error to the Supreme boy knows, too, that while the Fathers were Court, whose decision finally adjudges him to careful to leave the States perfectly free to disremediless bondage.
pose of slavery as they saw fit, they were equally Upon this state of facts, the first point assum- careful to avoid establishing or recognising proed by the majority Judges is that no person of perty in man under any mere Federal jurisdicAfrican descent can sue in any United States tion. Unless, therefore, the people of a Territory Court! The retrograde barbarism of such a choose to establish slavery, or at least to give it dogma is painfully obvious. Negroes and mu- special allowance, a human being cannot be held lattoes may be an inferior race-they may be too as a slave by any force of the United States Conignorant and uncivilized to be entrusted with all stitution. To affirm the contrary is to say the franchises of citizenship-it may be proper that a Virginia or a South Carolina slaveholder to keep them under tutelage or restraint - but it carries into Kansas or Minnesota, not only his is monstrous that the Courts of a nation pro- family and his horses, but also the local laws of fessing regard for common right and fairness his own State. should exclude the humblest and meanest inhabi- Dred Scott was taken by his master into the tant from the poor privilege of sueing for ordi- Free State of Illinois 10 reside, and they did renary justice. To exclude persons from the Coprts side there for two years. Now no principle of because they are not citizens, would shut the civil, common and international law is more cleargates of justice not only against negroes, but ly settled by a long succession of illustrious against minors, aliens and women. But the authorities and precedents than this, that as opinion of the majority, in the very vein of a slavery is the mere creature of local law, so, if quasi-Brahminical caste exclusiveness, reduces a master voluntarily takes his slave into a State the African race, bond or free, to the condition where slavery is prohibited, with the intent of of wretched Pariahs, makes all rights depend, residing there, the very act works emancipation. not on the possession of manhood, but on the And yet, in spite of the facts, and in contempt color of the skin, and shocks the moral sense of of the clearest law, the majority Judges say that every civilized being with the revolting declara- Dred is a slave! Some of them argue that Dred tion that “ negroes have no rights which white waived his freedom by going back to Missouri. men are bound to respect," and are not entitled, But he cannot be supposed to have gone back under the Constitution, “to be ever thought of voluntarily, for a slave has no volition ; and, if he or spoken of except cas property."
did, no man can make himself or his offspring Upon the baseless and absurd assumption that slaves by contract, either express or implied.