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1. Eloquence of the Camp-Napoleon Bonaparte, Dublin University Magazine,

193 2. Madame Louise,

Chambers' Journal,

200 3. The Isle of Man,

206 4. Origin of the Railway System,

208 5. Swift's Illness and his Remains,

212 6. Unpublished Letters of Oliver Cromwell, Fraser's Magazine,

214 7. Stanislaus—The Mill of Marieinont,

Sharpe's Magazine,

225 8. The Microscope,

North British Review,

227 Poetry.-Consolations for the Lonely, 205—M. F. Tupper to America ; Bachelor's Complaint,

213-Man's Love; Woman's Love, 231- Love; Compass Flower, 238. SCRAPs.- Imagination and Science ; Irish Churchman Forty. Years ago, 205—American Micro

scope, 231— The Military Class, 232—Dr. Morrison ; Dog-Chase, 233—Cotton Manufactures in Georgia, 235—New York Bank Notes, 236—Jamaica, 237-Grinding Organ, 238.

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Prospectus.—This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Lillell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ourtwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to ii hy many things which were ex- through a rapid process of change, to some new state of cluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the inerely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; 'The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very ully Quarterly, and other Reviews ; and Blackroood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivia descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery ; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement—10 Statesmen, Divines, Lawthe sparkling Examiner, the judicious Atheneum, the yers, and Physicians—to men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable Chris- and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that tian Observer ; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe hest articles of the Dublin University, Nero Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsoorth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mug- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnoring the wheat from the from ihe new growth of the British colonies.

chaff" by providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship has brought Europe, Asia, and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the same time it will all parts of the world ; so that much more than ever it I aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

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TERMS.-The LIVING Age is published every Satur Agencies.-We are desirous of making arrangements, day, by E. LITTELL & Co., corner of Tremont and Brom- in all parts of North America, for increasing the circulafield sis., Boston ; Price 124 cents a number, or six dollars tion of this work—and for doing this a liberal commission a year in advance. Remittances for any period will be will be allowed to gentlemen who will interest themselves thankfully received and promptly attended to. To in the business. And we will gladly correspond on this insure regularity in mailing the work, orders should be subject with any agent who will send us undoubted referaddressed to the office of publication, as above.

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and cannot legally be charged with more than newspaper Complete sets, in fifteen volumes, to the end of 1847, postage, (ifcis.). We add the definition alluded 10 :handsuinely bound, and packed in neat boxes, are for sale A newspaper is “any printed publication, issued in at thirty dollars.

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month, conveying intelligence of passing events.” Any number may he had for 124 cents; and it may be worth while for subscribers or purchasers to complete Monthly parts.-For such as prefer it in that form, the any broken volumes they may have, and thus greatly en- Living Age is put up in monthly parts, containing four or hance their value.

five weekly numbers. In this shape it shows to great

advantage in comparison with other works, containing in Binding.-We bind the work in a uniform, strong, and each part double the matter of any of the quarterlies. good style ; and where customers bring their numbers in But we recommend the weekly numbers, as fresher and good order, can generally give them bound volumes in ex- fuller of life. Postage on the monthly parts is about 14 change without any delay, The price of the binding is cents. The volumes are published quarterly, each volume 50 cents a volume. As they are always bound to one containing as much matter as a quarterly review gives in pattern, there will be no difficulty in matching the future eighteen months. volumes.

Washington, 27 Dec., 1345. Of all the Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which abound in Europe and in this country, this has appeared to me to be the most useful. It contains indeed the exposition only of the current literature of the English language, hut this by its immense extent and comprehension includes a portraiture of the human mind in the utmost expansion of the present age.

J. Q. ADAMS.

LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.-No. 195.-5 FEBRUARY, 1848.

From the Edinburgh Review.

all its difficulties, not only the greatest seamen,

but the greatest lawyers, the greatest physicians, 1. Verhandeling over de Stoombemaling van Polders

en Droogmakerien. Door G. Simons, en A. the most accomplished scholars, the most skilful Greve. (A Treatise on the Steam-Pumping painters, and statesmen as wise as they were just.” of Polders and Artificially dried Lands. By

The heart had been eaten out of the Italian Ğ. Simons and A. Greve.) 410, pp. 198. Venice before her fall ; and she remains an exRotterdam: 1844.

ception and a scandal to the north of Italy. Far 2. Gedenkboek van Neerlands Watersnood in Febru- different were the merit and the fortune of the

arij, 1825. Door J. C. Bever. (Memorials of Dutch Venices, of Rotterdam and Amsterdam. Netherlands Waterdanger in February, 1825. By J. C. Bever.) 2 vols. 8vo. Te s'Graven: Their republic indeed is gone ; but not its spirit, hage : 1826.

at least in its first, most creative, and characteristic 3. Algemeen Verslag van de Doorbraak in de development. It will be our business on the pres

Droogmakery van Bleiswijk en Hillegersberg ent occasion, after showing how Holland was the voorgevallen den 26 December, 1833. (Account work of the hands of its citizens, to show how the of the Breaking of the Dyke in the Drainage necessity of renewing it day by day has descended (Drymakery) of Bleiswijk and Hillegersberg on

on their successors; and with what ability and the 26th December, 1833.) 8vo, pp. 50. Rot

resolution this obligation is still discharged. terdam : 1836. 4. Algemeen Verslag wegens den Slaat van den The Rhine, escaping from the Alps of the

Landbouw in hei Konin grijk der Nederlanden Grisons and the Lake of Constance, flows northgedurende het Jaar 1845. (General Sketch of ward through six hundred miles of varied country The State of Agriculture in the Kingdom of the receiving by the way many minor streams—and Netherlands during the year 1845.) 8vo, pp. descends through the Rheinpfalz and the Rheingau 153. Te Haarlem : 1846.

to the low country below Cleves. Here its muddy 5. Over de Noodzakelykheid van de Beoeffening der

Natuurkundige Wetenschappen voor den Land- waters, struggling for an exit, divide into two bouw in Nederland. Door A. H. VAN DER main arms—the Waal and the Lower RhineBoom Mesch. (On the necessity of the Prac- which wind through the flat land between the moor tical Application of Natural Science to Agri- of Cleves on the left hand, and that of Gueldres culture in the Netherlands. By A. H. PAN on the right. Der Boom Mesch.) 8vo, pp. 59. Te Am

The right arm, or Lower Rhine, soon sends off sterdam : 1816.

a branch-the canal of Drusus-into the Yssel at 6. Die Marschen und Inseln, der Herzogthümer

Schleswig und Holstein. Von J. G. Kohl. Doesburg, and through this river to the Zuyder (The Marshes and Islands of the Grand Zee. Lower down it is called the Leck, and the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. By J. G. Oude Rhyn, the Kromme Rhyn, and the Lower Kohl.) 3 bänd 8vo. Dresden und Leipzig : Yssel, form partial outlets for its waters—the 1846.

main body becoming incorporated with the Maese, 7. On the Great Level of the Fens, including the before it reaches the city of Rotterdam. Fens of South Lincolnshire. By John ALGER

The left arm the Waal-passing Nömegen, NON CLARKE. 8vo, pp. 54 (in the Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. through a flat alluvial country, descends to Ġorcum, Vol. VIII., Part I.)

and loses itself in the Biesbosch. Meanwhile the

Maese, coming from the borders of France, through SPEAKING of the fall of Venice, Mr. Rogers the forest of the Ardennes and the romantic scenery observes—" There was in my time another repub-above Namur, has passed Liege and Maestricht, lic, also a place of refuge for the unfortunate skirted the southern border of the moor of Cleves and, not only at its birth, but to the last hour of and the kingdom of Nýmegen, and in its windings its existence—which had established itself in like gently touched on the Waal at the head of the Bommanner among the waters, and which shared the meler Waard, till, mixing finally with its waters same fate ;-a republic, the citizens of which, if above Gorcum, it falls with it into the Biesbosch. not more enterprising, were far more virtuous ; Below this point it is impossible to convey by and could say also to the great nations of the world, words any clear idea of the maze of streams and • Your countries were acquired by conquest or by outlets which intersect the scarcely dry land, and inheritance, but ours is the work of our own hands. everywhere inosculate with each other. The We renew it day by day; and, but for us, it might Biesbosch, formerly a lake produced by one of the cease to be, to-morrow!'-a republic, in its pro- great river floods, is now nearly silted up, and gress, forever warred on by the elements, and how forms a rich marshland, traversed—or irrigated often by men more cruel than they! yet constantly rather-by the innumerable fingers into which the cultivating the arts of peace, and, short as was the main arm of the river here divides itself. The course allotted to it, (only three times the life of scene, in which land and water, lying to the eye man, according to the psalmist,) producing, amidst on the same level, are scarcely distinguishable

16

CXCV.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XVI.

beds;

froth each other, is most interesting to look upon. Hills of drift sand had penetrated far into the counThe name of the Maese is preserved to that por- try, from certain parts of the coast; and on the tion of the waters which escapes from the Bies- moors of Guelderland and East Frieseland, an atbosch towards the north and west, and which, mosphere, ever loaded with moisture, had encourswallowing the Leck in its course, passes Rotter- aged the growth of vast thicknesses of the spongy dam, and falls into the sea at the so-called mouth hill-side peat, which now cover and enrich them. of the Maese. The larger portion, which flows Modify this picture by the prolonged exercise of southward and then west, forms the Hollandsche human skill, especially by the energetic perseverDiep, and, winding among the many low islands ance of a free people, and the surface of modern and slimy banks which make up the province of Holland is before our eyes. Zealand, mingles partly with the waters of the The geologist still distinguishes the sites of Scheldt, before it loses itself in the sea.

broad lakes and marshes in the wide polders,* as In brief, the great east and west valley which also the ancient beds and changing courses of the lies between Dutch Brabant on the south, and the rivers in the ribbands of rich alluvial soil which high land of Utrecht and Gueldres on the north, is wind through the marshes towards the sea. The covered by a network of streams and streamlets, actual surface divides itself before his eyes into the channels, canals, and dieps, which partly receive sandy downs that border the sea, and here and and partly transmit the flowing waters of the there, within the land, display their round and Rhine and the Maese. Loaded with mud, which flitting forms—the sandy scanty-herbage-yielding they cheerfully deposit in every stiller part of their moors of North Brabant, Gueldres, Groningen, course, these streams have often filled up their own and East Frieseland—the alluvial, sometimes

have in consequence frequently shifted their sandy, but most frequently clay deposits which channels, and, through lapse of time, have not only skirt the actual course of the rivers, or occupy the raised the general level of the valley, but have long lines of their ancient beds—the rich warp or extended their deposits seaward, forming the nu- sea-sludge that forms the islands at the extreme merous islands and the low coast-line of the Neth- mouths of the Maese and the Scheldt, fringes the erlands.

shores of the Zuyder Zee, and lines the inner coasts Thus the lower provinces of Holland are chiefly of the Texel and of the entire necklace of islands a gift of the river — otauov dugor—the slowly which guard the northern limits of this inland sea accumulated deposits of sand and mud and slime, -the low mosses (laage veenen, or fens) which which long years have segregated from the min- yield the hard black peat, the favorite fuel of Holgling river and tidal waters, and at length solidified land, and the extensive higher bogs (hooge veenen) into habitable land.

from which the light brown peat of Frieseland is The physical geography of the country, and the obtained. nature of its soils, are indicative of such an origin. These distinctions of the geologist serve the Could we cast our eyes back to the time when it purposes of the agriculturist also. The limits of lay in a state of nature, undisturbed by those mon- each variety of surface are defined by the former uments of human labor which have since so re- on his map; the same limits indicate to the latter markably changed its surface, we should see in the where agricultural skill, and of what kind, is capaexisting kingdom of Holland, which, since the ble of being applied with economy and advantage ; partition, is still generally denominated the Neth- how far the capabilities of each tract have hitherto erlands, a succession of elevated sandy heaths or been understood ; and to what extent, and by what moors, girt along their lower slopes by fringes of new means, their productiveness may be yet infertile mud; and beyond these, towards the north creased. and west, a flat expanse of marsh and bog and Of the natural causes to which the low country lake, with low firm islands interspersed, and here owes its existence, the river and the sea are the and there a sandy knoll ; and at the ebb of tide principal. Each has in many places acted indelong stretches of swampy slime, confined on their pendently of the other; and yet an interesting western border by a high ridge of wind-driven fact has lately been established, which shows how sand-hills, a self-erected barrier against the fiercer the conjoined action of the two has been necessary inroads of the German Ocean. Through and to the production of the most valuable parts of the among these heaths and marshes the rivers wound existing surface. The rivers traverse long tracts their way, here dividing their errant waters, there of country. They wear away rocks and soils of uniting them ; here resting awhile stagnant, there various kinds, and hurry the particles along with pouring over their banks and scooping out new them. In their stages of more rapid movement, channels, but gradually lifting up their own beds these particles move along with them. But they and the surface of the land along their course. are deposited, more or less completely, during the

As time went on, the peat-bogs deepened and periods of comparative rest. These deposits form extended, and what had been shallow lakes became the alluvial soils of river banks; and in producing a surface of deceitful moss or quaking heather. them, the streams perform a merely mechanical The tall reed spread its impenetrable jungle over part. the accumulated silt, and human abodes here and there appeared above them. The lakes and creeks water level of the adjoining sea or river, surrounded by

* A polder is a tract of land generally below the low. had become fewer, and the river islands larger. a dyke, and only kept dry by artificial pumping.

The quantity of matter which a river thus brings | leaves their bodies behind it, to add to the accudown, and, consequently, the rapidity with which mulating mud. The extensive mutual surfaces of it may form such deposits, varies with the length river and sea water which in this way are made to of its course,

the volume of its waters, the nature meet, insure a more rapid destruction of infusorial of the country through which it flows, the velocity life than could in almost any other way be brought of its own upper current, the quantity of rain about. which falls in a given time in the regions from Experiment has shown that as far up as the tide which its waters come, and the violence or rapidity reaches, the so-called alluvial deposit in and along of descent with which they fall from the heavens. the channel of the river abounds with the remains Thus, a thousand gallons of the waters of the of these marine animalcules, while above the reach Oxus, when in flood, are said to hold in suspension of the tide none of them are to be found. In the two hundred and fifty pounds* of mud, (Burnes ;) Elbe they are seen as far as eighty miles above its of the Yellow Sea, fifty pounds, (Staunton ;) of mouth. About Cuxhaven and Gluckstadt, which the Ganges, twenty-two pounds, (Everest;) of the are nearly forty miles from the open sea, their river Wear, in flood, sixteen pounds, (Johnston ;) of siliceous and calcareous skeletons form from one the Mississippi, six pounds, (Riddell ;) and of the fourth to one third of the mass of the fresh mud, Rhine, at Bonn, two thirds of a pound, according exclusive of the sand; while further up the river to Mr. Horner.

they amount to about one half of this quantity. There is, no doubt, considerable uncertainty as In the Rhine, the Scheldt, the Mersey, the Liffey, to the correctness of any of these numbers. They the Thames, the Forth, the Humber, and the show, however, that the transporting power of Wash, the same form of deposit goes on ; so that rivers varies very much, and is sometimes much in the mouths of all tidal rivers there are to be greater than we should have supposed or could superadded to the mechanical debris brought down anticipate. Even the small proportion of matter by the upper waters, the more rich and fertilizing brought down by the Rhine is equal to 146,000 animal spoils which the sea thus wonderfully cubic feet of solid matter in twenty-four hours; or incorporates into the growing deltas, and the banks in two thousand years it would form a bed of rock of rising mud. And thus it is seen that river three feet thick and thirty-six miles square. It is islands encroach upon the ocean, not merely in by this sediment that the low banks of the Rhine, proportion to the quantity of solid matters held in in its upper course, where it is beyond the reach suspension by the descending water, but in proporof the tide, have been gradually raised—and the tion also to the richness of the sea in microscopic channels filled up, and the islands at its mouth in forms of life, and to the volume of fresh water great part formed.

which the river can bring to mingle with it. We say in great part, because in these two Such is the origin of the alluvial soils of this latter operations the sea performs an important, country—properly so called—and of the rich seaand what we can hardly help considering as a bordering clays formed of mixed mineral and anitruly wonderful, coöperative part. In the waters mal matter, the almost fabulous fertility of which of the river, but especially in those of the sea, everywhere tempts men to brave disease and rapid there exist vast numbers of minute microscopic death, and the sickening effects of swampy clianimalcules, called by Ehrenberg infusorial ani- mates, and to expend unwearied toil in snatching mals, which are fitted to live each class in its own them from the watery dominion, and defending special element only, and which, therefore, die in them by huge dykes. myriads where the sweet and the salt waters min Thus naturally formed, geologically constituted, gle. It is almost incredible to see how densely and physically placed, this country is exposed to the water is sometimes peopled by these creatures, numberless physical accidents. The waters of the how rapidly they multiply, in what countless num- rivers gather above, and come down in floods, bers they die. Their skeletons and envelopes, which the loftiest and strongest dykes fail to resist consisting of calcareous and siliceous matter ex -or the breaking up of the ice, under the influence tracted from the water, are almost imperishable. of a rapid thaw, dams up the stream, and the They commix with the mud of the river, and melted snows collect and burst for themselves a come, with it, to form the deposits of slime that new channel. It is the tendency also of the fill up the channels, raise the growing islands, or rivers, as we have seen, to fill up their beds, so as add to the belt of most fertile land which increases after a time to become unable to convey to the sea seaward, where the waters are still. As the tide with sufficient rapidity an unusual volume of advances up its channel, the waters of the river water, which must therefore seek for itself a new spread and flow over the surface ; so that far up the and unusual outlet. Then the west, the northstream, where the upper waters are still sweet, west, and the south-west winds, both drive back the salt or brackish under-current carries the the river itself, and urge into its mouth the waters living things which float in it to certain death, and of the German Ocean, by which the banks are

* This quantity is probably a great deal too large. overflowed, broken through, or for considerable Much, however, depends upon ihe nature of the country: distances entirely swept away. We have ourselves found a bill stream in a clay country to Nor are such accidents confined to the neighcontain, in time of flood, upwards of one per cent. of solid borhood of the river. Along the coast high matter dried at 300° Fahrenheit, or 108 pounds in the thousand gallons.

downs generally exist ; yet the sea occasionally

makes large encroachments upon them, or forces of water, and in Groningen destroyed nine thouitself entirely through them, and spreads terror and sand men and seventy thousand cattle. In 1686 destruction over the inner land. The Zuyder Zee it rose eight feet above the dykes, destroyed six also is raised far above its usual level when the hundred houses, dug the dead out of their graves, waters of the Atlantic pour into it, and, driven by and converted Frieseland into one wide sea. The the wind towards its eastern and southern shores, seventh Christmas flood, in 1717, caused still expend their fatal fury upon the costly sea-walls wider damage in these northern provinces—burst of unhappy Frieseland. Thus, from the Dollart through most of the dykes—laid the town of westward, round by the Zuyder Zee, on the inner Groningen several feet under water, and destroyed shore of North Holland, along the main sea-coast, twelve thousand men, six thousand horses, and among the mouths and channels of the river, and eighty thousand sheep and cattle. up its banks even beyond the Biesbosch and the Nor has the elemental struggle ceased the upper Betuwe—the whole Dutch sea and river storms still rise as high and rage as fierce as ever. border is, more or less, at the mercy of the fluvi- Even the more improved and now loftier dykes fail atile or oceanic waters, and has times without to resist them; and though millions of florins are number sunk before them.

annually expended in maintaining them, wakeful The work of Beyer, of which the title is pre-ness and fear still prevail, and frequent loss occurs. fixed to the present article, contains a notice of the The danger to these coasts arises not so much from more remarkable recorded floods which have devas- the intensity of a single wind, so to speak, as from: tated the Netherlands from the commencement of the successive attacks of alternate or changing the Christian era to the great flood of 1825. We winds. The waters which rush forward from the have carefully gone over his long introductory Atlantic, or from the Polar Sea, before a northchapter on this subject; and we find mention made west wind, break strongly against the shores of of no less than 190 great floods occurring between Holland ; but they are deflected by these coasts, the years 516 and 1825, besides numerous minor and escape towards the south, causing comparfloods, which were attended with disastrous effects atively little damage when the dykes are sound, upon life and property. This gives, on an average unless they happen to accumulate so as entirely to for the last thirteen centuries, one severe inunda- overtop them. But if the wind has been blowing tion every seven years. Of course these floods fiercely from the north or from the south ; compellhave often been local ; and hence, though much ing the waters into the German Ocean, and, while destruction was caused by each, yet a longer the current is still strong in either of these direcbreathing time than seven years has generally been tions, it chops suddenly round to the west, it then given, before a fearful deluge recurs in the same forces the accumulated wave towards the Dutch locality. In recent times the years 1776, 1808, and Danish shores, occasions a tide of unusual and 1825, are distinguished by the occurrence of height, dams back the rivers—the Scheldt, the great calamities over similarly extended areas. Maese, the Elbe, and the Eyder-and overbears

Of all the United Provinces, Frieseland and all human resistance. Or if, blowing first from Groningen have suffered, and continue to suffer, the south, it wheels still further round, gathering most from these floods. Exposed to the full rage up the waters as it were with one of those huge of the north, north-west, and west winds, the whirling sweeps which storms are now known to waters of the angry Atlantic and Polar seas rush make, and then, coming steadily from the northtowards these provinces, pour through the inlets west, pours in the Atlantic and Polar tides to aid of its barrier reef-the Helder, (Hels-deur-hell's the already lofty swell—then North Holland and door,) the Vlie, and the more northern gates-Frieseland suffer; the Dollart, the Lauwer, and heap them up in the inland Zuyder Zee, burst or the Zuyder Seas* swell up; and Amsterdam and overtop its dykes, and spread themselves over the all the Frisians tremble with dismay. country, sometimes to the very borders of Hanover. So with the inner country. The west wind, Thousands of men and cattle perish, the gates of when of long continuance, drives the salt sea into the barriers become widened, and the dominion of the mouths of the Rhine and Maese, and their the inland sea enlarged.

many armlets, and arrests at the same time the Thus, in 1230 a hundred thousand men per- descending waters. Let the wind come in this ished, chiefly in Frieseland. In 1277 the tract of direction, when the North Sea is already raised land which now forms the Dollart was swallowed high by a storm from the north or south, and the up. In 1287 the Zuyder Zee was enlarged, and more swollen tide, then meeting the river streams, eighty thousand persons destroyed, with cattle will dam them back to a greater altitude, and thus innumerable. In 1395 the passage between Vlie- burst or overtop the feebler or more humble dykes. land and the Texel was greatly enlarged ; and in But if about the same time Switzerland has been 1399 that between the Texel and Wieringen so visited by a watery hurricane—and the Alps of the widened, that large ships could sail to Amsterdam. Grisons, or the ridges of the Taunus and the In 1470 twenty thousand men were swallowed up, Siebengebirge, or the forest of the Ardennes—and nearly all in Frieseland ; and in 1570 an equal the many feeders that join the Rhine and the number in that province alone.

In the latter year the water rose six feet above the dykes, covered either to an inland fresh-water lake, to an arm of the salt

* In Dutch, the word zee, like sjo in Swedish, is applied even higher parts of the country with seven feet sea, or to the wide ocean.

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