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NO. XXXV.

To Mr. Russell, at his Quarters, Bromley by Bowe.

From Sharpe's Magazine. [No date at all] • 1644.' STANISLAUS; OR, THE MILL OF MARIEMONT. Sir,

The following narrative was related by ConI learn your Troop refuse the new Coats. Stantine, Count Sobieski, a descendant of John Say this: Wear them, or go home. I stand no nonsense from any one. It is a needful thing we

Sobieski, king of Poland, and who seemed to have be as one in Colour; much ill having been from inherited the spirit of that great monarch :diversity of clothes, 10 slaying of friends by In the year 1771, when, instigated by the courts friends.' Sir, I pray you heed this.

of Vienna and Constantinople, the confederate lords Oliver CROMWELL. of Poland were laying waste their country from one

end to the other, and perpetrating all kinds of outCornet or Auditor Squire, it would appear by my rage on the loyal inhabitants, a plan was laid for correspondent's recollections of the lost journal, surprising and taking the king's person. Forty was promoted to be lieutenant for his conduct in conspirators met at Czetschokon, and in presence Naseby fight : "he afterwards got wounded in of their commander, Pulaski, one of the most darWales or Cornwall; place named Turo, I think,” ing of these rebels, swore with the most horrid

oaths to deliver Stanislaus, alive or dead, into his —undoubtedly at Truro in Cornwall, in the ensu

hands. About a month after this meeting, these ing autumn. Here, next spring, 1645–6, while the service is like to be lighter, he decides on quit- noblemen, at the head of a band of assassins, disting the army altogether.

guised themselves as peasants, and concealing their To Lieutenant Squire at his Quarters, Tavistock : them, entered Warsaw unsuspected.

arms in wagons of hay which they drove before

On the 3d These. 3 March, 1645.

of September, 1771, they found an opportunity to Sir,

execute their scheme. At ten o'clock at night In reply to the Letter I got this morning, they placed themselves in those avenues of the city -I am sorry you so' resolve ; for I had gotten through which they knew his majesty must pass you your Commission as Captain from the Lord in his way from Villanow, where he had been dinGeneral, and waited only your coming to give it ing with me. His carriage was escorted by four you. Think twice of this. For I intended your of his own attendants and twelve of my guards. good ; as I hope you knew my mind thatwise. But so if you will, - I will not hinder you. For, thanks We had scarcely lost sight of Villanow, when the be given to God, I trust now all will be well for conspirators rushed out, and surrounded us, comthis Nation ; and an enduring Peace be, to God his manding the coachman to stop, and beating down glory and our prosperity.

the men with the butt ends of their muskets. SevNow there is between you and me some reckon- eral shots were fired into the coach ; one passed ing. Now I hope to be in London, say in three through my hat, as I was getting out, sword in weeks, if God speed me in this matter. Call at the hand, the better to repel an attack, the motive of Speaker's, and I will pay you all your due. Pray which I could not divine. A cut across my right send me a List of the Items, for guide to me (for mne to guide.] Let me know what I owe your leg, with a sabre, soon laid me, under the wheels; Brother for the Wines he got me out of Spain to and, whilst I lay there, I heard the shot pouring my mind.—Sir, let me once more wish you would' into the coach like hail, and felt the villains stepthink over your resolution, that I may serve you. ping over my body to finish the murder of the Your Friend,

king. It was then that our friend Butzon, who OLIVER CROMWELL.

was at that period a private in my service, stood Squire, in his idle moments, has executed on between his sovereign and the rebels. In an inthis sheet a rude drawing of a pen and sword ; stant he received several balls through his limbs, very rude indeed; with these words : “Ten to and a thrust from a bayonet in his breast, which one the Feather beats the Iron;" that is Squire's cast him, weltering in his blood, upon me. By endorsement on this his last remaining letter from this time all the persons who had formed the escort Oliver ; indicating a nascent purpose, on the part were wounded or dispersed. Being now secure of Squire, to quit the army after all.

of their prey, one of the assassins opened the car

riage door, and, with shocking imprecations, seizWith which nascent purpose, and last letter, ing the king by the hair, exclaimed, “ Tyrant, we we should so gladly take our leave of him and his have thee now; thy hour is come !" and disaffairs; were it not that there still remain, from charged a pistol so near his majesty's face that he the burnt journal, certain miscellaneous scraps, felt the heat of the flash. A second villain cut transitory jottings of lists and the like, copied by him on the forehead with a sword, whilst a third, our correspondent—which, though generally of who was on horseback, laying hold of his collar the character of mere opaque ashes, may contain between himself and another, at full gallop dragged here and there some fragment of a burnt bone, him along the ground, all through the suburbs of once a hero's; and claim to be included in this the city. which

may be called the Funeral Urn of the Iron- During the latter part of this outrageous scene sides, what is left to us of them after the fire. some of our frighted people returned with a detachThese scraps too, let us hastily shoot them in, ment; and seeing Butzon and me almost lifeless, therefore ; and so end. [Our receptacle is full : so carried us to the royal palace, where all was comshoot not here.— Living Age.]

motion and alarm. The foot-guards immediately 15

CXCIV.

LIVING AGE.

VOL. XVI.

followed the track that the conspirators had seemed stantly disappointed ; for in less than half an hour to take. In one of the streets they found the king's they returned in despair, showing me his majesty's hat, dyed in blood, and his pelisse, perfectly retic-coat, which they had found in the fosse. It was ulated with bullet-holes. This confirmed their rent in several places, but so wet with blood, that apprehensions of his death; and they came back, the officer who presented it to me declared it as filling all Warsaw with dismay. The assassins, his opinion that they had murdered the king there, meanwhile, got clear of the town ; finding, how- and had drawn away the body; for by the light ever, that the king, by loss of blood, weakness, of the torches he could trace the drops of blood to and wounds in his feet, was not likely to exist a considerable distance. much longer in their manner of dragging him Meanwhile the king was driven before the seven towards their employer, they set him on a horse, conspirators so far into the wood of Biclaney, that, and redoubled their speed. When they came to not knowing whither they went, they came to one the moat which surrounds Warsaw, they compelled of the guard-houses, and to their extreme terror him to leap across it. In the attempt his horse were accosted by a patrol. Four of the banditti fell twice, and, at the second fall, broke its leg; instantly disappeared, leaving only two with Kothey then compelled him, fainting as he was with sinski; who, much alarmed, forced his prisoner to 'pain, to mount another, and spur it over. The walk faster, and keep a profound stillness. Nothconspirators had no sooner passed the ditch, than withstanding all this precaution, they were chalthey threw his majesty down, and held him, whilst lenged by a second watch ; and the other two Lukwaski tore from his neck the ribbon of the men taking flight left Kosinski alone with the black eagle and its diamond cross. Lukwaski was king. His majesty, sinking with pain and fatigue, so foolishly sure of his prisoner that he quitted his besought permission to rest for a moment. Kocharge, and repaired with his spoils to Pulaski, sinski refused, and putting his sword to his heart meaning to show them as an incontestible proof of compelled him to proceed. The king obeyed in his success. Many of the other plunderers fol- silence. As they walked on, the unfortunate lowed his example, leaving seven only of the party, Stanislaus, scarcely able to drag one limb after with Kosinski at their head, to conduct the unfor- the other, observed that his conductor gradutunate Stanislaus.

ally seemed to forget his vigilance, till at last he The night was become so dark that they could appeared lost in thought. He took courage at not be sure of their way, and their horses stum- this ; and conceiving some hope he ventured to bling at every step over stumps of trees, and hol- say, lows in the earth, increased their fears to such a “ I see that you know not how to proceed ; you degree that they obliged the king to keep up with cannot but be aware that the enterprise in which you them on foot : in doing this he literally marked are engaged, end how it will, is full of danger to you. his path with blood, his shoes having been torn Successful conspirators are always jealous of each off in the struggle in the carriage. Thus they other : Pulaski will find it as easy to rid himself continued, wandering backwards and forwards, and of your life as mine. Avoid this danger : and I round the skirts of Warsaw, without any exact promise you none on my account.

Suffer me to knowledge of their situation. The men who enter the convent of Biclaney-we cannot be far guarded him became, at length, so much afraid from it ; and then do you provide for your safety.” that their prisoner would take advantage of these Kosinski, rendered desperate by circumstances, circumstances to escape, that they repeatedly replied, called on Kosinski for orders to put him to death. No; I have sworn ; and I would rather sacKosinski refused; but their demands growing rifice my life than my honor." more violent and imperious, the king momentarily They continued to break their way through the expected to receive the points of their bayonets in underwood till they arrived close to Mariemont. his breast.

Here Stanislaus, unable to move another step, fell As for myself, when I recovered from my swoon, back against a tree, and again implored for one and my leg was bound up, I felt myself able to moment's rest to recover some power to move. stir ; and questioning the officers who stood about Kosinski now consented. This unexpected act of my couch, I found that a general panic had seized humanity gave his majesty courage to employ them. They knew not how to proceed ; they the minutes during which they sat together in shuddered at leaving the king to the mercy of the another attempt to soften his heart, and to convince confederates, and yet were fearful by pursuing him that the oath he had taken was atrocious, and them further to incense them. I tried what I by no means binding to a brave and virtuous man. could to dispel this last dread. Anxious, at any Kosinski heard him with attention, and exhibrate, to make another attempt to preserve him, ited strong symptoms of being affected. though I could not ride myself, I strenuously ad- “But,” said he, “if I should assent to what vised an immediate pursuit on horseback ; and that you propose, and reconduct you back to Warsaw, neither darkness nor danger should be permitted what will be the consequence to me? I shall be to impede their course. A little spirit on the part taken and executed.” of the nobles soon brought back hope and anima- “I give you my word,” answered the king, tion to the terrified soldiers, and my orders were “ that you shall not suffer any injury. But, if instantly obeyed; but, I must add, almost as in- you doubt my honor, escape while you can. I

From the North British Review.

shall find my way to sonie place of shelter, and the people, “ The king is alive.” Never, whilst will direct your pursuers to take the opposite road I live, shall I again behold such a scene. The to that which you may choose. Kosinski, en-great gate was ordered to be left open. Every urely overcome, threw himself on his knees before soul in Warsaw, from the highest to the lowest, his majesty; and, imploring pardon for what he came to catch a glimpse of their rescued king. had done, swore that from that hour he would de- The reader may perhaps like to know what befend his king against all the conspirators, and came of Kosinski. The king presented him 10 would trust to his word for future preservation. the people as his preserver ; they loaded him with

The king then directed him to seek refuge for demonstrations of gratitude, calling him the “sathem both in the mill, near which they were dis- vior of their good king,” but in a day or two, coursing. Kosinski obeyed and knocked, but no when the facts became known, he felt he might one gave answer. He then broke a pane of glass meet with different treatment, and therefore petiin the window, and through the aperture begged tioned his majesty for leave to depart. The king succor for a nobleman, who had been waylaid by consented, and he retired to Senigaglia, in the robbers. The miller refused to come out, or to Papal territories. let them in, telling them that it was his belief they were robbers too, and if they did not go away he would fire on them.

1. Micrographia, containing Practical Essays on This dispute had not long continued, when the Reflecting, Solar, Oryhydrogen Gas Microking contrived to crawl close up to the window,

scopes, Micrometers, Eye-pieces, &c. By C. R.

Goring, M. D., and ANDREW PRITCHARD, and say, —

Esq., M. R. I. 8vo, pp. 231. London, 1837. “My good friend, if we were banditti, as you 2. Microscopic Illustrations of Living Objects, and suppose, it would be as easy for us, without all

Researches concerning the Methods of constructthis parley, to break into your house, as to break ing Microscopes, and instructions for using this pane of glass; therefore, if you would not them. 3d Edition. By Andrew PritchaRD, incur the shame of suffering a fellow-creature to

M. R. I. With a Supplement on the Verificaperish for want of assistance, let us in."

tion of Microscopic Phenomena, and an eract

method of testing Microscopes. By C. R. This argument prevailed, and the man admitted

GORING, M. D. 8vo, pp. 296. London, 1845. them. After some trouble, his majesty obtained 3. Des Microscopes, et de leur usage, fc. fc. Manwriting materials, and addressed a few lines to me

uel complète de Micrographie. Par Charles at the palace, which he prevailed upon one of the Chevalier, Ingénieur-Opticien. 8vo, pp. 264. miller's sons to carry. The joy experienced at the Paris, 1839. receipt of this note I cannot describe. The words 4. Le Microscope Pancratique. Par le Professeur it contained were literally these :

A. Fischer. 8vo, pp. 228. Moscou, 1841. “By the miraculous hand of Providence, I have The three first works which we have placed at escaped from the hands of assassins. I am now the head of this notice, are the productions of emiat the mill of Mariemont. Send as soon as pos- nent individuals, who are not only well acquainted sible and take me away. I am wounded, but not with the principles and construction of microscopes, dangerously.”

but who have rightly appreciated and eagerly Regardless of my condition, I instantly got into adopted all the suggestions and improvement; a carriage, and followed by a detachment of horse, which have from time to time been made by natuarrived at the mill. I met Kosinski at the door, ral and experimental philosophers. The deduckeeping guard with his sword drawn. As he tions of theory, and the results of experiment, have knew my person he admitted me directly. The been happily combined in all the variety of forins king had fallen into a sleep, and lay in one corner in which the simple and compound microscope are of the hovel on the ground, covered with the mil- presented to us in these volumes ; and the instrucler's cloak. To see the most virtuous monarch in tions which they contain for using the microscope, the world thus abused by his ungrateful subjects and for testing its powers, and for preparing and pierced me to the heart, and kneeling down by illuminating the objects to which it is to be his side, I took hold of his hand, and, in a par- applied, will be found of inestimable value to the oxysin of tears, which I am not ashamed to con- amateur who is in search only of instruction and ress, I exclaimed, “ I thank Almighty God that I amusement, and to the anatomist, the physiologist, again see my sovereign alive!” These words and the naturalist, who now find that the microstruck the simple family with amazement; they scope is an instrument indispensable for the purinstantly dropped on their knees before the king, poses of original research. whom my voice had awakened. The good Stan- The Micrographia contains in its first chapter a islaus, graciously thanking them for their kindness, history and minute description of the reflecting told the miller to come to the palace the ne day, microscope, (or en giscope, as Dr. Goring calls it.) when he would show him substantial proofs of his invented by Professor Amici of Modena. In this gratitude. Soon after the officers of the detach- instrument the object to be examined is placed at ment assisted his majesty and myself into the car- the side of the tube, and reflected into a small riage; and, accompanied by Kosinski, we reached concave spherical or ellipsoidal speculum, which Warsaw about six in the morning. His majesty forms a magnified image of it in the axis of the alighted at the palace, amidst the joyous shouts of tube, and this image is magnified by a single or double eye-piece, as in other compound micro-| their whole surface. One of these, with the lines scopes. This microscope was greatly improved by sharply engraven on a thin and clear plate of Dr. Goring and Mr. Cuthbert, an ingenious opti- glass, is placed in the focus of the eye-glass of the cian who succeeded in executing sınall ellipsoidal microscope, while the other is placed on the stage, specula, whose solar foci were 3, 4, 5, and 6 having its lines strongly engraven and well blacktenths of an inch, with angles of aperture of 55°, ened, that they may be distinctly seen when 411°, 364°, and 271°, respectively. There can be viewed through the micrometer in the eye-piece. no doubt of the excellence of this instrument The two micrometers being thus placed, Mr. Bauer when used by a skilful and practised observer observes how many divisions in the eye-piece like Dr. Goring; but it has many disadvantages, micrometer are contained in one division, or the which will prevent it from coming into general 40th part of an inch, in the stage micrometer. use. The risk of the specula being tarnished, is Suppose that 10 divisions are contained in it, then an objection which cannot be remedied.

one division of the eye lens micrometer will be the Dr. Goring treats in his second chapter of 10th part of the 40th of an inch, or the 400th part micrometers and their use in measuring foci, and of an inch, and consequently one square inch will in his third chapter of monochromatic illumination. thus be divided into 160,000 squares. The miIn 1831 Dr. Goring had printed in the Edinburgh crometer ou the stage is now no longer required. Journal of Science, * a paper on monochromatic When a magnified drawing, therefore, of a small illumination, in which he took a very incorrect object is to be made, M. Bauer traces on his drawview of the nature and homogeneity of the mono- ing-paper a number of squares similar to those on chromatic light, which can be produced both by the micrometer, so that the size of each square is absorptive media and by the combustion of muriate an inch. He then places the minute object on the of soda dissolved in diluted alcohol. The misap- stage, and viewing it through the squares of the prehensions under which he labored were pointed micrometer in the eye-piece, he moves the object out by the editor of that Journal in a subsequent till one extremity of it touches one of the lines of paper, † and the chapter now before us contains a a square in the eye lens micrometer, and he then correction and modification of his former views. proceeds to draw the object on his square-ruled Still, however, our author labors under the mistake paper. Having obtained correct outlines of the of not believing in the value of monochromatic object, he subjects it to a microscope of higher illumination. His want of faith, however, is entirely power, in order to insert correctly all the minuter owing to the imperfection of his experiments with parts of the object which were imperfectly seen in it, for he has obviously never procured the fine the other microscope. In drawings thus executed yellow homogeneous light, which the proper com- all the objects are magnified 400 times in linear bustion of the salts of soda never fails to yield. measure, and 160,000 times in superficial measure.

In his fourth chapter, Dr. Goring describes a Mr. Reade's method of illuminating microscopic very complete solar microscope, of a very novel objects consists in using oblique refracted light, the and interesting kind. It possesses the property of field of view being kept wholly darkened. We displaying a picture of the object on a curved sur- have frequently had occasion to use this method face lying horizontally, and so placed in a large of illumination long before Mr. Reade published darkened camera, that two or more persons can his account of it, and indeed could not avoid using observe it at the same time. It can also be used it in experiments for measuring the size of partilike the common solar microscope, so as to throw cles or lines which produce the colors of striated or the image of the object upon the wall of a dark- grooved surfaces, the obliquity of the ray which ened room.

exhibits any color affording a measure of the size The reader will find much interesting and useful of the particles or lines by which these colors are information, and the practical philosopher many produced, as in Dr. Young's observations with the valuable suggestions, in the remaining chapters of eriometer. the Micrographia-on the comparative merits of The Microscopic Illustrations of Living Objects, different microscopes, with rules for trying them- by Mr. Pritchard, was first published in 1829; a on the spherical and chromatic aberration of eye- second edition appeared in 1838, and it has now pieces—on the effects of using microscopes with a reached a third edition. After an introduction of fixed power, and with various angles of aperture 30 pages, forming chapter I., on the application on the construction and management of solar and of the microscope to the sciences, with an account oxy-hydrogen gas microscopes, and on the methods of its recent improvements, in which our author of dissecting microscopic objects under fluids. In makes honorable mention of the labors of his cona short appendix our authors have given Mr. temporaries, he proceeds, in the 2d, 3d, and 4th Bauer's method of “making drawings of micro- chapters, to describe in succession, and represent scopio objects, and the Rev. J. B. Reade's method in three beautifully colored plates, Ist, the larva of illuminating microscopic objects.” Dr. Bauer of a straw-colored plumed culex or gnat, the employs two glass micrometers, each having 40 Tipula crystallina of De Geer; 2dly, the larva and divisions in an inch, and crossed or squared over chrysalis of a day fly, the Ephemera marginata of

Stephens ; and 3dly, the larva of a species of * Vol. v. New Series, p. 5%. + Id. Id., p. 143. See also Encyclopædia Britannica.

British Hydrophilus, the Hydrophilus caraboides. Art. “Microscope.” Vol. xv., p. 51, chap. v.

The transformation of the Tipula from the larva

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to the pupa exhibits a most wonderful phenome- of chromium and potash dissolved in a solution of

Although the whole operation is under gum-arabic, and nitre dissolved in a similar solution, the immediate inspection of the observer yet so all give analytic crystals. The property of these complete is the change that its former organization crystals is finely seen by placing them upon a can scarcely be recognized in its new state of thin film of sulphate of lime under a polarizing existence.” The tail, consisting of 22 beautifully microscope. Mr. Talbot has accurately explained plumed branches, is converted into two fine mem- the theory of these phenomena, but our limits will branous tissues, rainified with numerous vessels. not allow us to enter upon the subject. When the Ephemera marginata is young it is a Notwithstanding the great value of the works fine subject for the solar achromatic microscope. which we have thus briefly analyzed, yet none of The circulation of the blood, the peristaltic motion them contain a sufficiently systematic account of of the intestines, and the pulsation of the dorsal the principles, the construction, and the use of vessel, may be observed by any number of persons. microscopes and micrometers. They are better When the ephemera is perfect it hovers about in fitted to assist the skilful than to instruct the ignothe air. “ The male and female generate. The rant; and the mere amateur or the naturalist, withlatter drops its eggs in the water, and both die, out optical knowledge and experience, will often existing only a few short hours to perform all the find himself perplexed amid the rich disorder and offices destined for them to fulfil in the economy superfluity of methods in which he cannot fail to of nature." If these insects are kept from sexual be entangled. The treatise of Charles Chevalier, intercourse they may live for several days. The illustrated with four large folding plates, is particHydrophilus caraboides, or Water Devil, is a fe- ularly exempt from this criticisin. It is elementary, rocious and savage creature, and is provided with systematic, and perspicuously written, and we numerous and powerful weapons of destruction, warmly recommend it to the attention of the genwith which it attacks small fish and other animals eral as well as the scientific reader. M. Charles larger than itself. It procures its crustaceous prey Chevalier is well known throughout Europe as an with its mandible-it shakes it as a dog does a rat, eminent optician. It was by means of one of his and it sucks, tears, and masticates it.

achromatic microscopes that the celebrated Prus. In the two following chapters Mr. Pritchard sian naturalist, M. Ehrenberg, completed, in 1829 treats of the terms used in microscopic science, and 1830, his discovery of the perfect organization and gives an excellent description of an achromatic of the Infusoria, which the microscopes he had microscope, together with its apparatus and the previously used had but imperfectly displayed, and mode of using it in the examination of objects of we have occasion to know that his instruments various kinds; and in the four next and last chap- have been used and greatly adınired by several of ters Dr. Goring makes some practical remarks on our most distinguished observers. microscopes for viewing and drawing aquatic larvæ, The treatise now before us commences with and discusses the merits of different stands and · Historical researches on the origin and progress mountings for microscopes—describes his operative of the microscope,” and consists of thirteen chapaplanatic engiscope, and explains his methods of ters. In the first chapter he treats of the Single mounting and viewing various kinds of microscopic Microscope, including lenses of fluids, and melted objects. The appendix to the volume contains glass, lenses of gems, Wollaston's Doublets, the two papers by Mr. Fox Talbot on the optical phe- grooved spheres of Brewster, and other improvenomena of certain crystals, an exordium by Dr. ments on the single Microscope. In the second Goring, and Swammerdam's method of dissecting chapter he describes the different Solar Microscopes and preparing objects for the microscope. The of Lieberkhun, Æpinus, Ziehr, Martin, Adams, papers by Mr. Talbot are exceedingly interesting, Lucernal Microscope ;—the solar apparatuses of and describe phenomena, as seen by the polarizing Gleichen and Goring ;—the microscope for drawmicroscope, which are among the most splendid in ing outlines, by Vincent and himself;—the oxyhyoptics. In his first paper Mr. Talbot describes drogen microscope, with the improvements of Galywhat have been called circular crystals, which are Cazalat and himself, and the Megagraph. The formed by crystallizing borax from a solution in third chapter contains an account of the Compound phosphoric acid. These crystals exhibit a black Microscope in its various forms, both simple and cross formning the diameter of a great number of achromatic, and a particular description of his own colored rings like the uniaxal system of rings in Universal Microscope, which has been so exten-' calcareous spar and other crystals. In his second sively used by naturalists. The Reflecting Micropaper Mr. Talbot describes a variety of these cir- scopes of Sinith, Amici, and Goring, are brietly cular crystals of a larger size, in which there are described in the fourth chapter, and viewed, as we no colored rings, but merely a black cross. Mr. have always viewed them, as difficult to construct, Talbot likewise describes what he calls analytic difficult to use, and difficult to preserve. crystals, or those which analyze polarized light, The highly important subject of the Illuminalike the agate and tourmaline. These crystals tion of Microscopic Objects, whether opaque or may be obtained by dissolving sulphate of chro- transparent, is fully treated in chapter 5th, but not mium and potash in tartaric acid by the aid of heat, so successfully as the other topics of which he and crystallizing a drop of the solution on a plate treats. In 1829, Dr. Wollaston described a new of glass. Boracic acid dissolved in water, oxalate method of illumination, which is published in the

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