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who had orders to use his beft endeavours to make a treaty of friendship with the Zamorin of Calicut, and to petition him for liberty to build a fort near the city, by which the Portuguese might be enabled to live secure from the violence of their enemies, and carry on their traffick with safety. But if he found him averse to peace, and obftinately bent against our people, that he should, without any farther delay, declare him an enemy, and treat him in an hostile manner. Cabral had a very bad voyage, several of his ships being obliged to put back to Lisbon, and no less than four of them lost, with all on board. He himself, with the rest, were driven so far to the westward, that he fell in with the Brazils, of which we have here a short description, together with the manners of the natives. As this country appeared extremely beautiful and fertile, Cabral sent one of his ships express to acquaint Emmanuel with his new discovery, and then proceeded on his voyage. Being arrived at Calicut, the Zamorin sent two of his nobles to falute him; and on Cabral's going afhore, he was received with the utmost demonstrations of joy. The Zamorin made the warmest professions of friendthip, granting the Portuguese a free trade in his dominions. He, besides, assign'd them a large house, near the shore, for the use of those who were to transact the affairs of king Emmanuel.
Notwithstanding, however, all this boasted friendship of the Zamorin, he connived at the malicious and fraudulent proceedings of the Arabian merchants, who bought up all the spices at the highest prices, in order to prevent their falling into the hands of the Portuguese. When Cabral complained of this, he gave him power to take the spices out of the Arabian ships, after paying the value of them to the merchants. On receiving this answer, Cabral remained in suspence, fearing, left if he did so, the Arabians might fall upon and deitroy the Portuguese who were alhore. However, being pushed on by Correa, the chicf of those on Thore, he stopped all ihips outward bound, till the Portugueje had received their full loading of spices. This so exafperated the Arabians, that 4000 of them beset the Portuguese house, those within being only 70.
On Correa's making a signal of distress, a detachment was sent in the longboats to his relief; but he himself, and fifty of his men were cut in pieces, twenty only making their escape, and these fo miserably wounded, that most of them died.
This was the beginning of the war between the Portuguese and the Zamorin, which lasted many years.
Cabral finding that the Zamorin had been privy to this tumult, resolved to take vengeance on ten large Arabian ships in the harbour. The engagement, for some time, was fierce and warm on both sides; but the Portugue'e at last boarded' them, killing about 600 of the enemy. They plunder'd these vessels, and being in great want of hands, they put all the prisoners aboard their own ships. They found likewise three elephants, and (being short of provisions) killed and falted them for food. They afterwards fired the ships, which were all destroy'd in the fight of the Zamorin of Calicut. This done, Cabral failed for Cochin, a city about 70 miles south of Calicut, the prince of this place being desirous to cultivate a friendship with the Portuguese. Here Cabral took in what spices and other merchandize he wanted, and then set sail for Portugal, where he arrived in July 1502.
Thus the Portuguese continued sending out a fleet every year to India, which always touched at Cochin, and did all the damage in their power to the Zamorin of Calicut, by plundering and burning all his ships they could meet with. The Zamorin, on his part, left nothing untried to distress the Portuguese. He several times fitted out numerous fleets, with 15,000 troops, and sometimes more, on board; but he always came off with the worst, many of his ships being funk, and great slaughter made among his men: all this, however, ferved only to provoke him ftill more. Wherefore, taking advantage of the absence of the Portuguese fleet, he fell upon the king of Cochin, whom he forced to take shelter in a small island, after abandoning Cochin to the enemy. The prince of Cochin suffered all this, because he absolutely refused to deliver up the Portuguese who had been left in his dominions, and to enter into a league with the Zamorin against them.
When the famous Albuquerque arrived in India (viz, in 1503) he found the king of Cochin in this low condition ; but foon reinstated him in his dominions, making him, at the same time, a present of 10,000 ducats; a piece of generosity which was very acceptable at that juncture. Album querque therefore thought it a proper time to defire he would allow him to build a fort, as a bulwark to the Portuguese, and a defence to his majesty against the attempts of the Zamorin. This request being granted, the foundation of a fort was laid on the 27th of September 1503 ; after the finishing of which, Albuquerque carried on an offensive war against the Zamorin and his allies, invading his territories,
and laying all waste with fire and swordwherever he came. 'This done, and the Portuguese ships having taken in their full loading of spices, &c. they fet fail for Europe, leaving only one ship, two caravals, and another small vessel, with 150 Portuguese. The command of this small squadron, if it deserves that name, was given to Duarte Pacheco, a man of great ability, and unquestionable courage.
After the departure of Albuquerque, the Zamorin, more bent than ever upon the destruction of the Portuguese and their ally the king of Cochin, raised an army of near 60,000 men, besides a fleet of 160 ships ; hoping with such superior force to carry all before him; but in this he was mistaken, for Pa. checo baffled all his measures, repulsed this mighty armament, and defended the kingdom of Cochin from being invaded. The particulars of this brave defence are narrated at large ; and are a proof of the incredible, and almost romantick magnanimity of Pacheco and his few Portuguese. These exploits were performed in the year 1504, and bring down the history to the end of the third book.
"The fourth, fifth, and fixth books contain the progress made by the Portuguese in the East Indies, under the conduct of Francis Almeed, who was invested with the authority of a viceroy. During his time the war against the Zamorin of Calicut was carried on without intermifion : the Portuguese likewise extended their settlements, by obtaining leave to build forts at several places. But we shall only take notice of one exploit of Almeed, which happened after the arrival of his successor Alphonso Albuquerque, already mentioned, who offer'd him his assistance, but was rejected.
Almeed having therefore fitted out a fleet of nineteen ships, aboard which there were three hundred Portëguese and four hundred Cochinians, failed first for Dabul, a city be. longing to the king of Goa, who had entered into an alliance with the enemies of the Portuguese. When Almeed approached Dabul, there were in the harbour a great number of hips well mann'd, and furnished with plenty of arms ; besides which, the town was garrison'd with fix thousand soldiers. . The enemy in vain attempted to hinder his landing; for being routed, the Portuguese pursued them so closely, as to enter the town at the same time. Now followed a most dismal scene; the Portuguese, blinded by their fury, commitțing the most shocking barbarities. The slaughter was continu'd till sun-set, when Almeed ordered a retreat to be founded; fearing some mischief might happen, if the soldiers were allowed to go a plundering in the night-time. Next day
the city was first pillaged and then burnt; after which Almeed pursued the enemy to the mountains, where he burnt many castles and villages.
This done, Almeed failed to Diu, a city situate in a small island, belonging to the king of Cambaya, where the enemies of the Portuguese had assembled their united fleets. Mirhocem, admiral of the sultan of Egypt, had six large ships, four Cambaian vessels, and several floops of war, together with a confiderable number of Calicutian paraos; to which adding the ships that belonged to Melichiaz, viceroy of Diu, the whole fleet amounted to above one hundred sail. Mirhocem's ships were mann'd with Mamalukes, men of the utmost intrepidity, and not a little confident of success. Those of the other allies were armed with the same assurance. Hope and resentment spurred them on to defend their liberty, and to destroy a people whom they hated. There were likewise in this fleet several Venetians and Sclavonians, who commanded some of the gallies ; and these Christians, if worthy to be so called, shewed no less ardour to engage our feet, than those enemies of our holy religion.
• Each commander used various arguments to excite the courage of his foldiers; Mirhocem, by all possible methods, endeavoured to rouze the resentment of his men against the Christian name, and animated them with the agreeable profpect of rewards and honours. “ If you are worsted this day," said he, “the ignominy and loss will be everlasting and irretrievable; on the other hand, if you prove victorious, the empire of India will be secure, and your names will become for ever immortal.” Almeed, on his part, did not omit any thing which he thought might infiame his men against ihe Mahometans, and inspire them with a zeal for their own religion. “ For," said he, “ if conquered, you are every where surrounded by your enemies, who, when freed from the terror of your arms, will vent their implacable rage against the Christian name. You can have no succour but from a great distance: nor will you
be able to find any shelter in your calamity; for the people are faithlefs, and will not fcruple to break through the most folemn ties of treaty, as soon as opportunity offers. Behave, therefore, like men; resolve either to conquer, or die hohourably.”
. By there, and such like speeches, Almeed having endeavour, ed to whet the courage of his men, of themselves sufficient. Jy eager, he ordered the fails to be hoifted; but as the wind failed, and the enemy did not advance from their stations,
he came again to an anchor, waiting the return of the tide, and a favourable gale. The wind answering sooner than he expected, he again weighed; and the signal being given, he advanced so far that he could reach the enemy with his cannon ; for the tide not beginning yet to flow, the water was low, so that he was afraid to approach nearer, left he should run aground.
• The enemy had planted several cannon on the walls of the city, and on the tower upon the sea-shore; from thence they threw a great number of weapons, and fired from their batteries on our people, who, in their turn, attacked the enemies fleet with grear fury. The engagement continued till it was interrupted by the darkness of the night. Almeed, who was in the first line with his ship, had resolved to attack that commanded by Mirhocem, but he was dilsuaded from this design by the rest of his offices; for they represented to him the disorder and confufion which the Portuguese fleet would be thrown into, if their admiral should be involved in danger. This advice was not agreeable to his inclination; however he followed it, because he thought it most consistent with the rules of prudence. He appointed Numız Vasco Pereira to attack Mirhocem's fhip, and gave him the bravest men in the fieet to carry on this enterprize, and ordered George Melos Pereira to follow him. In every ship the men were drawn up in four lines, at the poop, ftern, and fides; and each of ihese under particular officers.
• Mir hacem perceiving that Almeed rushed on boldly to the engagement, resolved not to pass the shallow, but drew back his fleet nearer the walls, that he might act with more fafety, when assisted by the cannon of the city, and be more readily supply'd with reinforcements, when necessary. On this a most bloody engagement ensued, the result of which was, that Almeed gained a compleat victory. Three large ships with several paraos and 'sloops of war were sunk, and two thips, two galleys, and four large vessels taken. In these they found a great number of cannon, vait quantities of gold as well as filver coin, and a prodigious variety of filk and embroider'd cloaths, of great value. Almeed, however, referved none of the booty for himself, but gave it all among the soldiers.
In this action the enemy loftfour thousand men, amongst whom were a considerable number of the sultan's soldiers, called Mamalukes; for out of eight hundred that were present at the fight, only twenty-two survived this disaster.