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pitying god. This mischance only aggravated his royal rage, and the next missile was one of his crutches, for by this time he had got his chair in motion and was pursuing his victims through the room. The draughtsman, however, not being in a passion, and pitying the poor young lady, hastened so leisurely that she got out of the room unharmed as to body and limbs. It would not have been in the natural order of things if some out-of-the-way comfort did not occasionally visit the ill-fed young lady. One day as her faithful Mme. de Sonsfeld and she were contemplating a soup composed of salt and water, and a hash of stale bones, they heard a noise at the window. This was made by a crow, who, when the sash was thrown up, dropped a piece of bread on the sill and flew away. The royal maiden, however, saw nothing supernatural in the occurrence, though she was affected to tears. The bird was a tame one, belonging to the palace, which had lost its way. Prince and Princess and favourites, finding themselves so ill-treated, took the only revenge in their power, and indulged in satire on the King and his favourites. The Roman Comique of Scarron was the Nicholas Nickleby of the day. So they bestowed the names of its personages on the great people of the court. The King was Ragotin, the Margrave of Schwedt Saldagree, Grumkau La Rancune, and Madame de Kamken, one of the Queen's ladies, a portly, ignorant old damsel, Mme. Bouvillon. They made use of this lady's nickname so often in her presence that she inquired at last about the personal identity and habitat of Mme. Bouvillon. They said she was the camarera major (chief lady of the bed-chamber) to the Queen of Spain. This was a piece of information not to be lost. On the occasion of the next drawing-room held by the Queen, the Spanish court happened to be mentioned; so Mme. Kamken cut in with the interesting remark that all the camarera majors of her Catholic majesty were of the family of Bouvillon. The poor lady was much mortified by the bursts of laughter that greeted her little speech; and her wrath waxed strong against her mystifiers, when she discovered the origin of the noble family of Bouvillon.

Wicked Mrs. Ramen avenged the wrongs of innocent Mme. Kamken in this wise. The Princess being under her father's displeasure, could only see her mother by stealth or during his absence. One day on his coming in unexpectedly no place of concealment presented itself but under the bed. The king being tired, threw himself on it, and before he withdrew, after a reasonably long nap, she was almost suffocated. Afterwards the Queen arranged some screens so that she might be concealed in case of a surprise. However, the wicked attendant mentioned above, disturbed the machinery to such purpose that, on the next avatar of the enemy, she could not conceal herself, but threw down the defences, and was taken in the manner." He charged on her boldly, and all her resources were confined to the refuge of kind Mme. de Sonsfield's back. Nothing dismayed he attacked her living outwork, who retreated fighting, till Wilhelmina found herself, sandwich-wise, between her protectress and the hot stove. Passionate as the father was, his ideas did not reach the sublime point of child-sacrifice on the domestic altar. So at that crisis the sensational drama ended, and the wrathful parent retired after giving vent to various strong expressions.


Frederic, in his memoirs, treats the memory of his father with reserve and respect; but he is reported as having made the following revelation to his sister.

"I dare not read; I dare not touch any instrument, and I enjoy those pleasures only by stealth and trembling. But what has driven me to despair is the adventure which I lately had at Potzdam, of which I have given no account to the Queen, that I might not alarm her. As I was entering the room of the King in the morning, he instantly seized me by the hair, and threw me on the ground, and after having tried the vigour of his arms upon my poor body, he dragged me, in spite of my resistance, to a window, and was going to perform the office of the mutes of the seraglio; for seizing the cord with which the curtain is fastened, he drew it round my neck. Fortunately I had had time to get up from the ground. I laid hold of his hands, and screamed as loudly as I could. A valet immediately came to my assistance, and snatched me from his gripe."

Zadkiel, as we have seen, had uttered in Berlin a prediction which was verified; and only for the loosing

of a screw the palace would have secured the good-fortune of being ghost-haunted. The following incident which occurred in the same building has not been explained :— "The Queen being before her toilet-table undressing, and Madame de Bulow sitting near her, they heard a terrible rumbling noise in the adjoining cabinet, which was enriched with precious stones, and China and Japan The Queen at first supposed that the fall of some of these had occasioned the noise. Madame de Bulow looked into the cabinet, but to her surprise, she found every thing in order. Scarcely had she shut the door and left it, when the noise recommenced. She three times renewed her


search, attended by one of the Queen's women, and they always found every thing in the most perfect order. The rumbling ceased at length in the cabinet, but another more dreadful noise was heard in a passage which separated the apartments of the King from those of the Queen, and by which they

communicated. No one ever entered there

but the domestics about their Majesty's persons, and sentries guarded its entrance at the two ends. The Queen, anxious to know whence the noise proceeded, ordered her women to follow her with lights. Two waiting women and Madame de Bulow accompanied her Majesty. Scarcely had they opened the door, when their ears were struck with dreadful groans, followed by horrible screams which made them shake with fear. The Queen alone remained firm.

Having entered the passage, she encouraged

her followers to search what it could be.

They found all the doors bolted; and after

having removed the bolts, they searched the place without discovering any thing. The two soldiers were half dead with fright. They had heard the same groans close to them, but had seen nothing. The Queen asked whether any one had entered the King's apartment. They answered in the negative.. I am well convinced that there was nothing supernatural in the case. Yet chance would have it so that my brother was arrested that evening, and on the return of the King he had the most afflicting scene with the Queen in that very passage.'

The King's ideas of country relaxations in comfortable chateaux were rather strange. His little place of Wusterhausen was thus circumstanced. To give it a solitary air, he had thrown up in front a respectable hillock of dry sand, which had to be surmounted by visiters before a view of the little elysium was attained. It was a small building furnished with a tower of wood, which tower was provided with a winding stair. There were a terrace, and iron railings, and

a ditch round all, filled with blackish and ill-smelling water. Three bridges across this uninviting moat, led respectively to the court-yard, the garden, and a mill. On two wings of the yard were the lodgings of the gentlemen of the household, who could enjoy from their windows, the sight of a draw-well in the middle of the enclosure, and appropriate fierce guards stationed near its entrance, consisting of two white eagles, two black eagles, and two bears, who annoyed all visiters as much as their chains would allow. The two Princesses and their attendants were sumptuously lodged in two attics; and be the weather wet or dry, formed part of a dinner party of twenty-four, in a tent, under a linden tree. The banquet consisted of six dishes, sparingly supplied; and on rainy days all sat with their feet in water, for the situation was low. The young ladies were obliged to sit in the house great part of the day, while the Queen played at backgammon with three court dames, and were expected to watch their august sire as he took his siesta. sitting in an arm-chair on the terrace, in the hot sun, from one to half-past two o'clock.

As our travellers were rather in search of social than historical pictures, and besides, did not make a long stay at the uncomfortable court, it does not enter into the scope of this sketch to detail the particulars of Prince Frederic's disgrace and imprisonment, the struggles, and intrigues, and family jars, that prevailed at the palace, with the opposing objects of espousing the Princess to Frederic of England, to Augustus of Poland, to the Margrave of Schwedt, and to the Duke of Weissenfeld. The poor lady's good angel brought to the court in the midst of the frightful chaos, the young Margrave of Bareith, an excellent young prince, as times went. The Queen's enemies (as is reported) had in their possession at the moment of the betrothal, a formal demand for the lady's hand from their Majesties of England.

We cannot think the condition of Frederic II., either in youth, manhood, or old age, much to be envied. Obliged to marry an estimable princess against his will, he never extended to her a wife's privileges, except in showing her a certain respect. His middle age was occupied with strug

gles for life and possessions; and his chosen companions were depraved and godless sensualists. He could not entertain himself with the sight of a happy people. To warlike ascendency and a full exchequer were his chief aspirations directed; and to attain these his subjects were inordinately taxed. A solitary, comfortless evening of life was his destiny, uncheered by the love and tender cares of wife or child, or by the hope of a happy futurity.

As our friends were resuming their

pilgrimage over a sandy road, shaded by tall pines, with the court, and its splendour, and meanness, and intrigues, a league or two in their rear, Mentor thus accosted Peregrine. "What moral have you extracted from this mighty fable we have just studied?" and he received this answer:-" "As far as domestic comfort and human happiness are concerned, commend me to the farm-house of one of my father's yeomen, rather than to the palace of Potzdam or Mon Bijou."

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Come, Cloe, beloved of my heart-strings,
And seat yourself close to my left;
Spes vivat in mæstum-no matter
Of what other joys we're bereft ;
For what though the pig is'nt purchased,
And potato seed's riz, as I hear,

Is that any reason, in logic,

Why we shouldn't marry, my dear?

Nabocklish: when beautiful Flora
Produces her blossoms anew,
And the wide-awake goddess Aurora
Palavers the mountains with dew ;-
When the Heathen mythology, Cloe,
Drops down from the regions above,
Half an eye must be blind in concluding
It isn't the season for Love.

Just look at the fowls and the ganders,
Just look at the birds on the spray;
Why Mars couldn't utter his feelings
In a manner much stronger than they!
All nature adjacent is courting

And whispering and winking, you rogue,
From the midge in the atmosphere sporting,
To the ditch that contains the kerogue.

In the paddock the owld ass is sighing,
Poor sowl!-and the sheep who reside
In the presence of great Lugnaquilla*
Are thinking of nothing beside;
Amor vincit all things in creation,
As the least classic knowledge may see,
So come, dear, and learn education,
Cloe Bawn Asthore Cushlamacree.

*A mountain in the county Wicklow.


THE leading men of the Southern Confederacy have conducted their gigantic task hitherto with a coolness, honour, and heroism, which exact the admiration of the world. In every quality of statesmanship and public character they shine with a lustre unknown in the governing Northern circles. The Southerners have not underrated their difficulties, concealed their afflictions, made empty boast of their successes, uttered foolish predictions, or unmanly laments, or, with a stupid spite, denounced foreign Powers; but, on the contrary, have gone forward in the work before them with a determination, enthusiasm, and fortitude, for a parallel to which we must go back to the times of those ancient heroes whose example genius has consecrated in undying records. From the 9th of February, 1861, when the Confederacy originated with the six seceding States which then organized an independent Southern Republic, elected a President and Vice-President, and adopted a Constitution, down to the present date, the reputation of the Southerners has been stainless; whilst, on the side of their rivals, numerous excesses, cruelties, acts of despotism, and a general violence, lawlessness, and absence of principle, have disgusted even the hottest partizans of the North in the Old World. It is this moral superiority of the Confederates, much more than their exploits in the field, which has maintained that sympathy for their struggle that appears to have been awakened at first by the calmness and dignity of their earliest national proceedings. Between December, 1860, and May, 1861, the eleven States, now comprising the Southern Republic, were welded together by a process all the more successful from being simple, and on the 4th of February, of the latter year, the Convention at Montgomery gave the New Union the form and principles which established the fact, at once, that able and disin

terested men stood at the helm. It was remarkable that no dissension arose with regard to the assigning of particular offices to particular individuals, any more than with regard to the fundamental doctrines on which the national Constitution was to rest. Every man fell, as by a natural law, into his proper place, and the machine, without delay, began to work smoothly. Since then no difficulty has occurred. Mr. Davis's authority is still paramount, though the Southern press is unshackled, and criticism unsparing. The generals of the Confederacy have been well supported by the people, and cheered in their efforts even in the days of their nonsuccess. The sacrifices entailed upon the community have been freely borne. Better than all, the Southerners, of every class, have fought the fight with their own right arms, not with hired bone and sinew. It would argue badly for the instincts of Englishmen if national characteristics of this kind did not inspire us with sympathetic feelings. The Englishman, in fact, sees in the Southerner the reproduction of his race's virtues as witnessed in the brightest periods of British history. Every new circumstance affecting the Confederate leaders, their position, and the prospects of their State, is therefore fraught with interest.

Surprise has sometimes been expressed that the Confederates have defended Richmond with such obstinacy, sacrificing in order to secure it points that seemed more important. There can be no doubt that, even if driven from that city, the Southern Government would still have places almost as suitable for a capital to retire upon; but Richmond is an important position, not only for its historic associations (it was here, for example, that Patrick Henry delivered his great speech during the Convention of '75) but as the locality of the Tredegar works, where nearly the whole of the manufacture of arms

"Down South; or, an Englishman's Experiences at the Seat of the American War." By Samuel Phillips Day. Two vols. Hurst and Blackett.

"Three Months in the Southern States." By Lieut.-Col. Fremantle. London and Edinburgh: William Blackwood and Sons.

Speech of Mr. Spence at Glasgow.

and artillery for the Southern Government is carried on. This enormous establishment, in which the Dahlgren, and more lately the Brooke gun, have been cast for the defence of Charleston, covers over thirty acres of ground, and yet is not properly speaking a government foundry, but belongs to a private individual. Before the Secession the boilers and machinery for the largest ships in the navy of the old Republic were cast here, so that the Confederates found the manufactory ready to their hand. The works have, however, been greatly extended to meet the exigencies of the war. There are other foundries in the neighbourhood, in addition, and a State armoury, but the Tredegar furnaces are the peculiarity of Richmond, though indeed, the Confederate army has found a hardly less serviceable ally in the proprietor of the Richmond flour mills, said to be the largest in the world, and capable of grinding nearly two thousand barrels of flour per diem. The tobacco factories of Richmond, important enough in time of peace, could have been dispensed with, and in fact, their operations have been brought to a close by the blockade, but if the Confederate Government had been obliged to create the other two establishments, their case would have been hopeless. Richmond at once afforded the proper nucleus for their military organization, and training camps were established in its neighbourhood, to which, to as great an extent as was practicable, volunteers have been regularly drafted ever since, to undergo a preliminary drill in large bodies before joining their corps in the field. As many as thirty thousand have been there at one time, roughly housed in rude log structures. The men so treated rapidly become excellent soldiers, but the grand difficulty in the South has been to find efficient non-commissioned officers.

The most extraordinary change was produced in Richmond by its adoption as the Southern capital. As a city it is favourably situated for commerce, and before the war regular lines of packets connected it with New York and other places, to which it exported wheat, flour, and tobacco, vessels drawing fifteen feet of water being able to approach Warwick, three miles lower down the river. With the out

break of war, however, the occupations of the Richmonders were suddenly revolutionized. The blockade destroyed their external trade, and tobacco manufacturers and shippers were forced to turn their capital into new directions, and devote themselves to the preparation of military outfits and munitions of war. The making of cartridges and percussion caps has become one of the principal handicrafts, in which the youngest are engaged, and females largely, the male portion of the community being severely drawn upon for the purposes of the campaign. All the manufactures necessary for the exigency, of which the people had before been destitute, have, in fact, been improvised with wonderful alacrity and skill. Iron and powder are made; wool is being converted into cloth by people ignorant of the process a few months ago; and hides are tanned, although the business had been previously confined to the North. The readiness with which the Southern people have adapted themselves to their new circumstances affords, indeed, one of the strongest proofs of their capacity for self-government. When the war has terminated, the people who, at its commencement were agriculturists exclusively, will have become manufacturers also, and, therefore, independent of foreign Powers, and especially of the Northerners.

It would be a hasty judgment, at the same time, to infer that the growth of American cotton must therefore decrease. The extent of that crop, many think, will be as great as ever a year after peace has been declared, and the manufactures subsisting along with it, will, in fact, after a time, have the effect of promoting the investment of capital in agriculture. Those who are encouraging Indian growers of cotton to extend their cultivation, take a shortsighted view of the probabilities of the future, if they imagine that the business of supplying the European markets with raw cotton can be permanently taken out of the hands of the Americans. The instinct of the East Indians, indeed, teaches them that their opportunity of making money by cotton-growing must be, at best, a brief one, and all their operations are directed to the task of turning a passing season of advantage to the utmost account. The loose talk

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