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1799.] History of Astronomy for 1798.

203 From the end of Nivôse (the middle of rior tropic: there will be 50,000, by January) DELAMBRE, impatient to taking two degrees beyond that. Citizen commence his paintul labours, went to LE FRANCOIS is disposed to finith his prepare the bate from Lieurlaint to Me- labour this winter, and already he is enlun, to oversee the finishing of the wooden joying the results of it. Comets are at pyramids which are seventy feet in height, present the only part of astronomy which and to measure the angles; the cold and is but little advanced : it is that which rain did not prevent his operations. the astronomers are now going to be ocOn the 6th Ventose (February 24th) cupied in.

pied in. I have not been backward to he had already finished leven stations for prepare for them the only aslistance which the angles at the base ; three men had they wanted, by giving them positions of been employed during six weeks in lopping stars in all parts of the heavens: they the branches of six or seven hundred trees will never be able to observe comets on the high road, which intercepted the without recurring to our 50,000 stars, sight of the signals.

where they will be sure to find whatever The 28th Germinal, (April 17th) they can desire. I have had experience of he set out to go and inealure the bafe them for many years. from Melun to Lieursaint; a painful la- But a great and important work must bour, in which such a friet attention was have detractors; they will urge the exrequired, that with the help of seven per. pediency of having fewer stars, and of sons they could only measure one hundred adjusting thein with a greater degree of and eighty toises per day:

precision. These persons are miitaken : The 15th Prairial (30 June) the mea- it is the great number of stars which acsure of the base of three leagues, 6075 complishes the necessary object of this latoises, was finished at Lieursaint.

bour ; a greater exactitude is of little The 12th Messidor (June 30th) citizen use at present, and will be fo for a long DeLAMBRE set out to go and measure time to come. Comets are only observed the base of Perpignan ; it was terminat- at thirty seconds, and yet many wish to ed on the first complementary day. At have the positions of stars at a second : the same time citizen MECHAIN termi. this is an evident inconsequence and a ma. nated his triangles between Rodez and nitelt impossibility. We have therefore Carcassone, after having surmounted done all that was necessary to be done ; ficknesses, obstructions and delays of and I think myself happy in having ter

More unfortunate, and minated my career, by procuring to astrolefs robust than his colleague, his zeal nomy a monument which, from its inonly served to agitate himn the more. mensity, might have been judged inn

At length, on the 27th of this month, possible. To judge of the utility of the Frimaire (November 17th), they arriv- labour of Citizen L£ Francois, it may ed at Paris ; after having finished the calc fuffice to say, that in å zone of three culations, in which they found the two hours, having two degrees of breadth, bases to correspond exactly. Thus this he has had thirty new llars of the fifth or immenfe undertaking, of a new admea- fixth magnitude, and from fix to seven, surement of the earth, commenced in and only three of them that were known. the month of June, 1792, by our two Dec. 10, 1789, of one hundred stars, inolt skilful astronomers, is at length ter. thirteen of which were of the fixth magminated, and we shall foon have the so nitude, there was only a single one much wished-for refults relative to the known; the other twelve were entirely magnitude and figure of the earth, and

This fuffices to shew how perhaps its irregularities: Our (wo far we are from being thoroughly acIkilful astronomers with woreover to de- quainted with the starry heaven, 'It is termine once again the latitude of Paris, for this reason that, as soon as I was which I had fixed at 48 deg. so min. able to procure a good instrument, I 25 sec. three years ago, after more than have been so much engaged in this labour, two hundred observations made with the M. HERSCHEL has also undertaken a circle invented by citizen BORDA, dimi, review of the heavens with his 20 feet te nihing by one fecond the refraction of lescope ; but it is in order to discover ne, Bradley, which is the total of any re- bulous spots or objects difficult to be maining uncertainty.

seen. Our labour is more important, as The enumeration of the stars, begun it furnishes exact positions of all the stars in 1798, is brought tu 47,000, and we which astronomers can make use of. do not want 2000 to have completed the HERSCHEL only observes things invia tour of the heavens as far as the infe- able; and astronomers have need of ob


every kind.

new to us.

jeĉts sensible, and always present to their tudes. If at sea, errors have been comrview.

mitted of three myriameters (leven Citizen Le FRANCOIS, therefore, is leagues), through the defect of the tables, the person to whom we may apply what they will be foon reduced to two or three Virgil said of Palinurus :

leagues. Sydera cuncta notat tacito labentia cælo;

Citizen MESSIER, who is continually as he really performs what Palinurus employed in the research of comets, ditwas unable to do. The female citizen covered one the 2 3d Germinal (April 12, Le Francois has already reduced 6000, 1798) towards the Pleïades : it was small and the promises us 4000 more for this and without a tail, hnt brilliant enough ; year, although there are thirty-fix


it was not to be seen by the naked eye. rations to each. In the month of Sep. This is the twenty-first that Citizen Méstember I placed in the observatory of sier has discovered since 1758, and the the military school a new meridian forty-first which he has obferred. The telescope, made by LENOIR, with number of comets actually known conan object-glass of CAROCHE, with a fifts of eighty-eight, according to the large orifice : it is better placed than the catalogue which is in my astronomy. firit ; the supports have no conneciiun Doctor BURCKHARDT, a skilful astronowith the roof, and the instrument mer of Gotha, who has been at Paris for will be less subject to vary from change some months, was anxious to calculate the of temperature.

With this instrument orbit of this comet, and he did it in two we shall continue to determine the right days; which may be noted as an extraorascensions of the fundamental stars of all dinary circunnitance. I have published our zones of the 50,000 stars.

the observations of Citizen MESSIER, The physical theory of astronomy has which Dr... BURCKHARDT has reduced also a remarkable epoch in this year. Ci- and calculated, by employing many poli-tizen LEPLACE, to whom we are in- tions of now star's by Citizen LEFRANdebted for the explication of the accelera- cois, nephew of LALANDE. This cotion of the moon, has discovered that the met was at nearly the same distance from apogee and the node have also fecular us as the fun, which distance changed equations; and' a' great number of ob- but little during a month; it was leen fervations have verified this noble disco- no more after the 5th Prairial (May 24). very. It was useful, however, to con- I had represented its route on pasteboard firm it further, by observations of the for my auditors, as is my usual n:ethod, middle age, and of these there are some, and every one might there find the dir although very few. The manuscript of tance and the situation of the comet for Ibn-Iunis, an Arabian of the roth cen- every day. Citizen BOUVARD, at the tury, contains fome most valuable ob. observatory, has likewile made a number fervations: the original is at Leyden ; of observations, which we shall publish, we have made some unavailing attempts together with those of Citizen MESSIER, to procure a copy of it. Citizen Caus- waiting till they appear more in detail in SIN, one of our professors of Arabic, of- the " Memoirs of the National Institute of féred to go to Leyden to copy the obfer- Sciences and Artsy" together with the vations himfelf; but I found a copy of chart of its conte, as Citizen MESSIER them in the manuferipts of J. Delisle, constantly gave them in the " Memoirs of my predecessor in the college of France; the ci-devant Academy :" Dr. OLBERS, and I hope that we shall foon have thé of Bremen, also observed it, when he had results of these inestiinable observations. advice of it by means of the “ Journal de

The 29th Ventôse (March 19th) the Paris.institute proposed for the subject of a

But before this real comet, Paris re. prize, the comparison of 500 obfervations founded with the report of a pretendecit of the moon with the tables, to determine one. The 27th Nivole (Jan. 16) they better the twenty-two equations whieh set up the cry of a new comet on the we employ at present for the movement Pont Neuf, and many people were confiof the moon; and I know already one derably alarmed at it. Nevertheless it candidate who has made immense calcu- was nothing but Venus, which appeared lations for this purpose. Our prize will in broad day over the Luxembourg, the serve to terininate and to publish this im- day, in which 20,000 persons, expecting portant labour, which, united with the General BUONAPARTE, had their eyes theory of Citizen LEPLACE, will add a directed towards that part.. It may be new degree of precision to the tables of seen thus every 19th day of the month, the inoon and the calculation of longin if attention begiven to it; but it is rare


History of Aftronomy for 1798.

205 that persons are found who have time or the level of the South Sea, and of the opportunity to notice it. At this time gulph of Mexico' at the isthmus of Pait excited a singular terror ; they acked nama, relative to which certain difficulties the “ Comet, or the End of the World," (la have been raised. Comete, ou la fin du Monde), at the The observatory at Gotha is the finest. Vaudeville. RUGGIERI made an artific and most useful one at present in Germany, cial comet, in fire-works, at the Lyceum; The Duke has expended on it more than and it greatly resembled the beautiful 200,000 francs : an example which no comet of 1744, which I well remember other prince has exhibited or followed. having seen, and which was the most afto- The director of the observatory, M. DE nishing one of this age.

Zach, is one of the moit celebrated altro. Dec. 6, 1798, at night, Citizen Bou- nomers in Europe. I had long felt an VARD discovered a small comet in the inclination to visit and become acquainted constellation of Hercules. This is the with this role inonument of astronomy twenty-fourth new one : it was observed which it remained for me to see; in imi. till the 11th, when it disappeared in tation of Halley, who went from EngAquarius ; it moved eighteen degrees per land to Dantzig in 1679, to inspect the day. Thus, although it only appeared observatory of Hevelius, and, in concert five days, it will furnish grounds where with him to judge of the accuracy of his with to calculate its orbit. Dr. OLBERS observations. I found that M. DE faw it also at Bremen.

ZACH can observe the Polar ftar to a feThe zgth Nivôse (Jan. 18), Citizen cond, in lieu of a hundred seconds of DANGOS, at Tarbes, law a comet pass uncertainty, to which we have been exover the fun like a black spot. This posed. new and fingular observation may be of Many astronomers of Germany, apa afe when we shall become acquainted prised of this project, repaired to use with a great number of comets ; but we snele conferences ferved to augment our are totally ignorant of the route of that ennulation. I have brought back 1200 which was seen that day on the sun. ascensions of zodiacal stars, observed by

An important and celebrated enterprise M. de Zach with the finest paffage-in has furnished new hopes to astronomy and strument in the world, each übservation geography.

having been made many times : they will The 26th Ventôse (March 16) governo appear with 3000 declinations, which I ment demanded select astronomers and in- have sent to M. DE ZACH, in an imfruments for a secret expedition: we portant work which he is preparing on learned soon after, that the famous Gene- astronomy, in 2 vol. ottava, and of ral BỤONAPARTE was to be at the head which two-thirds are already printed. of it. I could only point out the Citizens M. Bode brought us from Berlin the Nouet, Quenot, and MECHAIN, jun. designs of his third chart of the starry they made preparations for this honour- heavens : there are to be twenty of them able mislion, and set out the sth Floreal and this valuable astronomical collection (April 24); they embarked at Toulon will contain 13,000 stars, or 8000 more May 10, and the debarkation took place than there were before. He has reduced in Egypt the 14th Messidor (July 2). ! 3000 of those by LACAILLE; he has obentertain no doubts but this voyage will terveid 1500 hiinself to fill up some vaprove useful to geography, and even to cant spaces, and Citizen LEFRANCOIS astronomy.

has furoished him with the remainder.. I have written to all the astronomers Here will be found the 2000 nebulous in Europe, to desire them to co-operate ipots of Herschel, and from 5 to 600 by observations corresponding to those double stars of that celebrated astronomer, which may be made by the altronciners We have made two new constellations; of the expedition.

the press of Guthemburg, and the globe Young BERNIER, of Montauban, rem of Montgolfier. quested to be of this voyage; but the M. WURM came froin Wirtemburg, measures we took for this purpose proved (distance 100 leagues). The Duke of to be too late. I have recommended to Wirtemberg presented him with a gratiour astronomers to take the level of the fication of 800 francs for his journey. Mediterranean and Red Seas. It has been He has given me affiurance that he would often said that there is a great difference collate again the new stereotype-tables of between them ; but I am not of that opi- Citizen FIRMIN DIDOT, in order that nian. I have wrote to Spain, to procure this undertaking, which may assure for




more than a century the exactitude of our BERG, whom I solicited to second the calculations, may acquire all possible zeal of M. BARRY, testified for me experfection and utility.

pressions of the best good will. Messieurs KLUGEL, GILBERT, and The 25th Frinaire (Dec. 15, 1997), Pistor, came from Halle, a celebrated the birth-day of TecHO BRAHE, doctor univerlity of the king of Prussia. M. JOHN CH. BURCKHARDT came to visit SCHAUBACH' came from Meinungen. me; this skilful astronomer, born at M. SEYFLER, of Gottingen, has pro- Leipzig, April 30, 1773, is a mited some oblervations and calculations promoter of the astronomy of France i which we are in want of. M. KOHLER he is now emploved in translating into brought a new photometer, to :neafure German the book of citizen LEPLACE on the light of the stars, and a reflecting sele- Celestial Mechanics, or the Theory of Attracnoltate, which last is an ingenious ma- tion , as fast as it is printed. This important chine. M. Feer, of Zurich, brought work will give the last degree of perfecus a new drawn chart of Rhinthal, with tion to our tables; 200 pages of it are a reflecting sextant. All these persons alieady in the press. agreed to accredit the new measures, and On the fame day, I requested of general to employ mean time and decimals in BUONAPARTE to procure us a good incalculations. M. SEYFFERT, of Dres- strument for the observatory; and on the den, presented me with a decimal com- 25th Ventose (March 19), government puter, which he made himself. We granted me 10,000 francs to purchase made a tour to the mountain of Inselberg, the 7] foot mural quadrant of citizen LE with chronometers, sextants, and artifi- MONNIER. For a long time past we cial horizons of different forms, to com- have been foliciting good instruments for pare them; and I am thoroughly per- the observatory ; citizen CASSINI, when fuaded that the geography of Germany he was director of it in 1785, had ob· will soon be confiderably advanced by the tnined funds for this purpose from the use of thofe instruments which M. de minister BRETEVIL, he had not cime, Zach has accredited and propagated. however, to apply then to the proper

This useful meeting might have been use. When I was director in 1795, I more numerous ; but M. VeGA wrote renewed my applications, and we have been to me from Austria, that he could not at length enabled, for the first time, to obtain permiffion to come to the rendez- obtain, for the finest observatory* in the vous at Gotha ; and what was still worse, world, an instrument worthy of France. he had been obliged, in order to write to The board of longitude has added to it me, to send my letter and his answer to an achromatic telescope; but that was not the minister. The king of Prussia, on

sufficient. The other hand, ordered a sum of 1200 (To be concluded in our next.) livres to be paid to his astronomer for the expences of his journey. The astronomer of Gottingen, although a subject of the

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. king of England, met with no difficulty

SIR, in repairing to

your last magazine, I observe you did duke of Gotha, that a French astronomer answer to the queries of one of your cormight well be employed in tracing other respondents, on certain practical points revolutions than celestialones; but I did not in husbandry. I am row about to request perceive that these alarms had cooled the a corner of your next, for a few observacordial reception which I had been led to tions, suggested by experience, upon a expect. At length we feparated, well molt important and fundamental member convinced of the utility of our conferences; of the same subject. and with a determinatiou to renew thein A particular attention to breeding cattle as soon as the inean's should be within our with the attempt at systematic improvepower.

ment in their forin, is, in a great measure I visited, in passing, the observatory at to be efteemed a modern pursuit. Our Manheim, which had afforded me to forefathers were generally content to much satisfaction in 1791 ; but I found leave the matter to nature, unsolicitous the instruments packed up under vaults, which the bomb-hells had scarcely re- * The construction of the observatory has. fpected ; in fine, waiting the return of been computed to cost one million, without peace, without which, Icience and hap- including the foundation and subterraneous piness are insecure. The minister D'AR- cells, which are so feet deep.

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1999.) On the modern Improvements in Live Stock.

207 to raise any fuperfluous quantity of pro- very shoes are a standing argument against vilions, beyond what would suffice the the validity of their pretensions. Some demand of a rather scanty population, of threescore or seventy years ago, agrithe multiplication of animals, merely with culture became the rage amongst the a view to the benefit of their manure, few enlightened classes both in England and seem to have entertained any idea. They, France; the subject was in consequence whose farms were chiefly appropriated to philofophically investigated, and the tillage, (and the predilection for the great improvement adopted, of dedicatplough was general) seemed to entertain ing so considerable a portion of the farm the invariable maxim, that live itock to the purpose of railing winter, food for was at best, but a necessary evil, and there- cattle, as to enable the farmer to enterfore troubled themselves with as few cattle tain a stock fufficiently large to preserve as possible; rather chuling, when an in- his land in constant good heart and full creased quantity of manure appeared ab- cropping ; and if he were industrious solutely necessary, to purchalė, provided enough to make a point of it, in a style it could be obtained without too great of garden culture. Rich and plentiful inconvenience, or rather, without de- crops took place of barren and unprofitviating too far from ihe accustomed tract. able fallows, and both the cultivator and When the requisite quantity of mánure the country at large, were most amply was not to be obtained by purchase, in-. and permanently rewarded. From this stead of adopting the natural and obvious fortunate turn in the minds of philofomethod of its production at home, the phers, to the holy and primitive occu. farmer, rendered desperate by disappoint- pation of tilling the teeming foil, has ment, would either continue driving the this country been enabled to sustain an plough, until both his land and himself immensely increased population, which were beggared beyond redemption; or, her old agricultural regime would have which was only the best of two evils, starved. Here the example of old France would lay his exhausted foil up to fallow enables us to pay a well-merited comin a negligent and lovenly manner; in pliment to our own government. Under other words, to produce a plentiful and the thrice and ever to be accursed defdeteriorating crop of weeds and rubbish. potism, which formerly devoured that For a fyltem like this, there certainly fine country, the activity of the most enwas some apology in the former cheap- thufiaftic, cultivators upon earth, was ness and plenty of Helh provision, but iifled in every attempt at improvement duch has long since ceased to have any with “the wet blanket” of fiscal exforce, although the common and small tortion and feudal monopoly. Were farmers, even those who possess ample particular providences the order of the capitals, in the present times of increased day in my mental journal, I should enpopulation and exorbitant price, are deavour to appal the souls of existing tygenerally addicted to the ancient preju- rants and public robbers, with a new diced averfion of being what they term and tremendous instance of divine jufOverstocked with cattle. It is a well tice Famine was

a material instruknown fact, that there are very few farms ment in the overthrow of the French moupon the island, excepting those which narcły. Since the final and permanent are cultivated by that clais, itiled gen- settlement of the republic in that country, țlemen-farmers, adequately stocked with the agricultural enthusiasm seems to have cattle of any description, but the useless sprung up with ten-fold vigour. Accordand devouring species of heavy horses; ing to unvarying accounts for a scaton or and here are undoubtedly have the real two past, the greedy plough will scarcely cause of the exorbitant and artificial price leave room for foct-paths and hedge-rows, of both bread and ferh.

in many parts of France. There is no The importance to a community of the doubt but France will, at no very distant multiplication of animals, every part of period, notwithstanding its valt popuwhich is of such inestimable and indif- lation, become a large exporter of com. pensable use, and whose very excrement Stock-breeding, according to report, may be well ftiled the staff of human life, keeps a nearly even pace with tillage; since, to its fructifying virtuies we owe

and the French fairs last year, particu. the increase of corn, and the renovation larly in Normandy, were overdone with of the exhausted foil, will not be disputed young cattle, and the price confequently even by those humanists who debar them- unfavourable to the breeder. Things bea felves the use of animal foud. Their ing notoriously in this state, and both


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