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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine, BY JOHN BOUVIER,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, BY JOHN BOUVIER,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight,
BY JOHN BOUVIER,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania
APR 1 7 1928
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-two, BY ELIZA BOUVIER AND ROBERT E. PETERSON, TRUSTEES,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
DEACON & PETERSON, PRINTERS.
66 SOUTH THIRD STREET.
LABEL. A narrow slip of paper or parchment, affixed to a deed or writing hanging at or out of the same. This name is also given to an appending seal.
LABOR. Continued operation; work. 2. The labor and skill of one man is frequently used in a partnership, and valued as equal to the capital of another.
3. When business has been done for another, and suit is brought to recover a just reward, there is generally contained in the declaration, a count for work and labor. Where penitentiaries exist, persons who have committed crimes are condemned to be imprisoned therein at labor.
LACHES. This word, derived from the French lacher, is nearly synonymous with negligence.
2. In general, when a party has been guilty of laches in enforcing his right by great delay and lapse of time, this circumstance will at common law prejudice, and sometimes operate in bar of a remedy which it is discretionary and not compulsory in the court to afford. In courts of equity, also, delay will generally prejudice. 1 Chit. Pr. 786, and the cases there cited; 8 Com. Dig. 684; 6 Johns. Ch. R. 360.
functionary in the British house of commons. When the husband sues for a divorce, or asks the passage of an act to divorce him from his wife, he is required to make a provision for her before the passage of the act; it is the duty of the lady's friend to see that such a provision is made. Macq. on H. & W. 213.
3. But laches may be excused from ignorance of the party's rights; 2 Mer. R. 362; 2 Ball & Beat. 104; from the obscurity of the transaction; 2 Sch. & Lef. 487; by the pendency of a suit; 1 Sch. & Lef. 413; and where the party labors under a legal disability, as insanity, coverture, infancy, and the like. And no laches can be imputed to the public. 4 Mass. Rep. 522; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 291; 4 Henn. & Munf. 57; 1 Penna. R. 476. Vide 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 436; 2 Id. 170; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3911.
LAITY. Those persons who do not make a part of the clergy. In the United States the division of the people into clergy and laity is not authorized by law, but is merely conventional.
LAMB. A ram, sheep or ewe, under the age of one year. 4 Car. & P. 216; S. C. 19 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 351.
LAND. This term comprehends any ground, soil or earth whatsoever, as meadows, pastures, woods, waters, marshes, furze and heath. It has an indefinite extent upwards as well as downwards; therefore land, legally includes all houses and other buildings standing or built on it; and whatever is in a direct line between the surface and the centre of the earth, such as mines of metals and fossils. 1 Inst. 4 a; Wood's Inst. 120; 2 Bl. Com. 18; 1 Cruise on Real Prop. 58. In a more confined sense, the word land is said to denote "frank tenement at the least." Shepp. Touch. 92. In this sense, then, leaseholds, cannot be said to be included under the word lands. 3 Madd. Rep. 535. The tech
LADY'S FRIEND. The name of a nical sense of the word land is further
explained by Sheppard, in his Touch. p. 88,
2. Land, as above observed, includes in general all the buildings erected upon it; 9 Day, R. 374; but to this general rule, there are some exceptions. It is true, that if a stranger voluntarily erect buildings on another's land; they will belong to the owner of the land, and will become a part of it; 16 Mass. R. 449; yet cases are not wanting where it has been decided that such an erection, under peculiar circumstances, would be considered as personal property. 4 Mass. R. 514; 8 Pick. R. 283, 402; 5 Pick, R. 487; 6 N. H. Rep. 555; 2 Fairf. R. 371; 1 Dana, R. 591; 1 Burr. 144.
LAND MARK. A monument set up in order to ascertain the boundaries between two contiguous estates. For removing a land mark an action lies. 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 787. Vide Monuments.
LAND TENANT. He who actually possesses the land. He is technically called the terre-tenant. (q. v.)
LANDLORD. He who rents or leases real estate to another.
2. He is bound to perform certain duties and is entitled to certain rights, which will here be briefly considered. 1st. His obligations are, 1. To perform all the express covenants into which he has entered in making the lease. 2. To secure to the tenant the quiet enjoyment of the premises leased; but a tenant for years has no remedy against his landlord, if he be ousted by one who has no title, in that case the law leaves him to his remedy against the wrong doer. Y. B. 22 H. VI. 52 b, and 32 H. VI. 32 b; Cro. Eliz. 214; 2 Leon. 104; and see Bac. Ab. Covenant, B. But the implied covenant for quiet enjoyment may be qualified, and enlarged or narrowed according to the particular agreement of the parties; and a general covenant for quiet enjoyment does not extend to wrongful evictions or disturbances by a stranger. Y. B. 26 H. VIII.
unless he bind himself by express covenant the tenant cannot compel him to repair. 1 Saund. 320; 1 Vent. 26, 44; 1 Sed. 429; 2 Keb. 505; 1T. R. 312; 1 Sim. R. 146. 3. His rights are, 1. To receive. the rent agreed upon, and to enforce all the express covenants into which the tenant may have entered. 2. To require the lessee to treat the premises demised in such manner that no injury be done to the inheritance, and prevent waste. 3. To have the possession of the premises after the expiration of the lease. Vide, generally, Com. L. & T., B. 3, c. 1; Woodf. L. & T. ch. 10; 2 Bl. Com. by Chitty, 275, note; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; 1 Supp. to Ves. Jr. 212, 246, 249; 2 Id. 232, 403; Com. Dig. Estate by Grant, G 1; 5 Com. Dig. tit. Nisi Prius Dig. page 553; 8 Com. Dig. 694; Whart. Dig. Landlord & Tenant. As to frauds between landlord and tenant, see Hov. Fr. c. 6, p. 199 to 225.
LANGUAGE. The faculty which men possess of communicating their perceptions and ideas to one another by means of articulate sounds. This is the definition of spoken language; but ideas and perceptions may be communicated without sound by writing, and this is called written language. By conventional usage certain sounds have a definite meaning in one country or in certain countries, and this is called the language of such country or countries, as the Greek, the Latin, the French or the English language. The law, too, has a peculiar language. Vide Eunom. Dial. 2; Technical.
2. On the subjugation of England by William the Conqueror, the French Norman language was substituted in all law proceedings for the ancient Saxon. This, according to Blackstone, vol. iii. p. 317, was the language of the records, writs and pleadings, until the time of Edward III. Mr. Stephen thinks Blackstone has fallen into an error, and says the record was, from the earliest period to which that document can be traced, in the Latin language. Plead. Appx. note 14. By the statute 36 Ed. III. st. 1, c. 15, it was enacted that for the future all pleas should be pleaded, shown, defended, answered, debated and judged in the English tongue; but be entered and enrolled in Latin. The Norman or law French, however, being more familiar as applied to the law, than any other language, the lawyers continued to employ it in ma
3 b. 3. The landlord is bound by his ex-king their notes of the trial of cases, which press covenant to repair the premises, but they afterwards published in that barbarous
dialect, under the name of Reports. After the enactment of this statute, on the introduction of paper pleadings, they followed in the language, as well as in other respects, the style of the records, which were drawn up in Latin. This technical language continued in use till the time of Cromwell, when by a statute the records were directed to be in English; but this act was repealed at the restoration, by Charles II., the lawyers finding it difficult to express themselves as well and as concisely in the vernacular as in the Latin tongue; and the language of the law continued as before till about the year 1730, when the statute of 4 Geo. II. c. 26, was passed. It provided that both the pleadings and the records should thenceforward be framed in English. The ancient terms and expressions which had been so long known in French and Latin were now literally translated into English. The translation of such terms and phrases were found to be exceedingly ridiculous. Such terms as nisi prius, habeas corpus, fieri facias, mandamus, and the like, are not capable of an English dress with any degree of seriousness. They are equally absurd in the manner they are employed in Latin, but use and the fact that they are in a foreign language has made the absurdity less apparent.
3. By statute of 6 Geo. II., c. 14, passed two years after the last mentioned statute, the use of technical words was allowed to continue in the usual language, which defeated almost every beneficial purpose of the former statute. In changing from one language to another, many words and technical expressions were retained in the new, which belonged to the more ancient language, and not seldom they partook of both; this, to the unlearned student, has given an air of confusion, and disfigured the language of the law. It has rendered essential also the study of the Latin and French languages. This perhaps is not to be regretted, as they are the keys which open to the ardent student vast stores of knowledge. In the United States, the records, pleadings, and all law proceedings are in the English language, except certain technical terms which retain their ancient French and Latin dress.
4. Agreements, contracts, wills and other instruments, may be made in any language, and will be enforced. Bac. Ab. Wills, D 1. And a slander spoken in a foreign language, if understood by those present, or a libel
published in such language, will be punished as if spoken or written in the English language. Bac. Ab. Slander, D 3; 1 Roll. Ab. 74; 6 T. R. 163. For the construction of language, see articles Construction; Interpretation; and Jacob's Intr. to the Com. Law Max. 46.
5. Among diplomatists, the French language is the one commonly used. At an early period the Latin was the diplomatic language in use in Europe. Towards the end of the fifteenth century that of Spain gained the ascendancy, in consequence of the great influence which that country then exercised in Europe. The French, since the age of Louis XIV. has become the almost universal diplomatic idiom of the civilized world, though some states use their national language in treaties and diplomatic correspondence. It is usual in these cases to annex to the papers transmitted, a translation in the language of the opposite party; wherever it is understood this comity will be reciprocated, This is the usage of the Germanic confederation, of Spain, and of the Italian courts. When nations using a common language, as the United States and Great Britain, treat with each other, such language is used in their diplomatic intercourse.
Vide, generally, 3 Bl. Com. 323; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, *415; 2 Rey, Institutions Judiciaires de l'Angleterre, 211, 212.
LANGUIDUS, practice. The name of a return made by the sheriff, when a defendant whom he has taken by virtue of process is so dangerously sick that to remove him would endanger his life or health. In that case the officer may and ought unquestionably to abstain from removing him, and may permit him to remain even in his own house, in the custody of a follower, though not named in the warrant, he keeping the key of the house in his possession; the officer ought to remove him as soon as sufficiently recovered. If there be a doubt as to the state of health of the defendant, the officer should require the attendance and advice of some respectable medical man, and require him, at the peril of the consequences of misrepresentation, to certify in writing whether it be fit to remove the party, or take him to prison within the county. 3 Chit. Pr. 358. For a form of the return of languidus, see 3 Chit. P. 249; T. Chit. Forms, 53.
LAPSE, eccles. law. The transfer, by forfeiture, of a right or power to present or
collate to a vacant benefice, from, a person | away, but the slightest removal, if the vested with such right, to another, in conse- goods are completely in the power of the quence of some act of negligence of the thief, is sufficient. To snatch a diamond former. Ayl. Parerg. 331. from a lady's ear, which is instantly dropLAPSED LEGACY. One which is ex-ped among the curls of her hair, is a suftinguished. The extinguishment may take ficient asportation or carrying away. place for various reasons. See Legacy, Lapsed.
2. A distinction has been made between a lapsed devise of real estate and a lapsed legacy of personal estate. The real estate which is lapsed does not fall into the residue, unless so provided by the will, but descends to the heir at law; on the contrary, personal property passes by the residuary clause where it is not otherwise disposed of. 2 Bouv. Inst. 2154-6.
6.-5. The property taken must be personal property; a man cannot commit larceny of real estate, or of what is so considered in law. A familiar example will illustrate this; an apple, while hanging on the tree where it grew, is real estate, having never been separated from the freehold; it is not larceny, therefore, at common law, to pluck an apple from the tree, and appropriate it to one's own use, but a mere trespass; if that same apple, however, had been separated from the tree by the owner or otherwise, even by accident, as if shaken by the wind, and while lying on the ground it should be taken with a felonious intent, the taker would commit a larceny, because then it was personal property. In some states there are statutory provisions to punish the felonious taking of emblements or fruits of plants, while the same are hanging by the roots, and there the felony is complete, although the thing stolen is not, at common law, strictly personal property. Animals feræ naturæ, while in the enjoyment of their natural liberty, are not the subjects of larceny; as, doves; 9 Pick. 15; bees. 3 Binn. 546. See Bee; 5 N. H. Rep. 203. At common law, choses in action are not subjects of larceny. 1 Port. 33.
7. Larceny is divided in some states, into grand and petit larceny; this depends upon the value of the property stolen. Vide 1 Hawk, 141 to 250, ch. 19; 4 Bl. Com. 229 to 250; Com. Dig. Justices, O 4, 5, 6, 7, 8; 2 East's P. C. 524 to 791; Burn's Justice, Larceny; Williams' Justice, Felony; 3 Chitty's Cr. Law, 917 to 992; and articles Carrying Away; Invito Domino; Robbery; Taking; Breach, 6.
LARCENY, crim. law. The wrongful and fraudulent taking and carrying away, by one person, of the mere personal goods of another, from any place, with a felonious intent to convert them to his, the taker's use, and make them his property, without the consent of the owner. 4 Wash. C. C.
2. To constitute larceny, several ingredients are necessary. 1. The intent of the party must be felonious; he must intend to appropriate the property of another to his own use; if, therefore, the accused have taken the goods under a claim of right, however unfounded, he has not committed a larceny.
3.-2. There must be a taking from the possession, actual or implied, of the owner; hence if a man should find goods, and appropriate them to his own use, he is not a thief on this account. Mart. and Yerg. 226; 14 John. 294; Breese, 227.
4.-3. There must be a taking against the will of the owner, and this may be in some cases, where he appears to consent; for example, if a man suspects another of an intent to steal his property, and in order to try him leaves it in his way, and he takes it, he is guilty of larceny. The taking must be in the county where the criminal is to be tried. 9 C. & P. 29; S. C. 38 E. C. L. R. 23; Ry. & Mod. 349. But when the taking has been in the county or state, and the thief is caught with the stolen property in another county than that where the theft was committed, he may be tried in the county where arrested with the goods, as by construction of law, there is a fresh taking in every county in which the thief carries the stolen property.
5.-4. There must be an actual carrying
LARGE. Broad; extensive; unconfined. The opposite of strict, narrow, or confined. At large, at liberty.
LAS PARTIDAS. The name of a code of Spanish law; sometimes called las siete partidas, or the seven parts, from the number of its principal divisions. It is a compilation from the civil law, the customary law of Spain, and the canon law. Such of its provisions as are applicable are in force in Louisiana, Florida, and Texas.
LASCIVIOUS CARRIAGE, law of Connecticut. An offence, ill defined, cre