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half-cast gipsy, Lee was an advantageous speci- land was soon to mourn the loss of her best and men of the males of the race as I saw them ; for bravest sons, together with her heroic king. I found that in that nationality intelligence and A pathetic incident is recorded of the Earl of activity are monopolised by the females. The men Caithness, whose sad fate cannot fail to awaken cannot claim more than what I can only describe a profound interest in that family. The night as animal instinct developed to an extraordinary before the battle the young Earl, who had pitch ; though it is but just to add that-owing previously incurred the king's displeasure by perhaps to the hardy open-air life which they revenging an ancient feud, came to the camp have led through many generations--dissolute with 300 young, able-bodied warriors, and ness is unknown among them. Among the begged the king's mercy. James was so pleased women I have often been sorry to see genuine with this mark of submission that he granted to gifts of intelligence cultivated solely in the direc- him and his followers full pardon for past tion of artfulness and cunning.

offences. The pardon was written out on (To be continued).

parchment procured from the head of a drum ; no other being available. It is said that the

parchment thus inscribed is still preserved in Border Battles and Battlefields.

the archives of the Earls of Caithness, and is BY JAMES ROBSON,

marked with the drum strings. The Earl and Author of "Churches and Churchyards of Teviotdale," etc

his brave band perished to a man on the BATTLE OF FLODDEN :

following day. They were all dressed in green, Fought 9th September, 1513.

and, ever since that time, it has been considered " Where shivered was fair Scotland's spear,

unlucky in Caithness to wear green, or to cross And broken was her shiell."

the Ord on a Monday, the day of the week on James, so soon as he observed the English which they set out for Flodden. crossing the Till and advancing towards Branx The two armies stood about half a mile apart ton, broke up his camp on Flodden Hill, --Lord Thomas Howard, Sir Edmond Howard, descended with his whole army, and took up his and Sir Marmaduke Constable opposite Craw. position on Branxton Hill, a considerable ford, Montrose, Huntly, and Home ; the Earl elevation stretching east and west opposite to of Surrey with Dacre and Heron opposite the the lower ground which the English army after- king ; Sir Edward Stanley opposite Lennox and wards occupied. At the extreme west, on the Argyle. sloping part of the hill, with their faces towards At four o'clock the trumpets sounded for the Coldstream, were stationed the wild and charge. Clearly and distinctly were heard the undisciplined Highlanders and the hardy voices of the various leaders. The command to Borderers under the command of Huntly and advance was obeyed with no tardy step, for what Home. Crawford and Montrose with a large man amongst them was not eager for the fray ? division stood farther east. A little to the right The clash of armour mingled with the wild of these stood the king himself supported by tumult of voices and all was frenzy and commomany of his most trusty nobles, both of church tion. The thunder of artillery was soon heard, and state. On his right, occupying the extreme and this for a time drowned all other sounds. east of the gentle slope of Branxton Ridge, was The guns on either side opened fire with great the right wing under Lennox and Argyle. Be- vigour, but without doing any serious injury to hind, and a little to the right of the king, were either party. In these days the chief factors in the reserve under Bothwell.

the artillery service were noise and weight. "Thus the two great armies stood facing each Beyond this the guns of 500 years ago were a other :

very poor affair indeed. The uneven nature of " The English line stretched east and west,

the ground and the elevation of the Scots over And southward were their faces set ;

the English also prevented the use of artillery to The Scottish northward proudly prest,

advantage. And manfully their foes they met."

The roar of the guns soon gave place to the Singularly enough, each army stood facing clash of swords and the sharp clatter of quiverits own country. The Scots occupied the higher ing spears, as either side rushed towards each ground, and had thus a considerable advantage other and engaged in a deadly hand-to-hand over their opponents. From their position they encounter. The vanguard under Lord Thomas could view the greater part of Berwickshire and Howard was the first to be attacked. We can Roxburghshire, and even considerably beyond understand this when we know that the impetuthis. Thousands of the Scottish soldiers viewed ous Highlanders, under Gordon, Earl of Huntly, their beloved land for the last time, and that were opposite this division of the English host.

To restrain a Highland regiment, when within prisoners, amongst them Sir Philip Dacre, and sight of the enemy, is like trying to stem the these he guarded faithfully, keeping his ground gushing torrent as it courses down the steep against considerable odds until darkness set in. hillside. These bold mountaineers and the In other parts of the field the fight was Borderers under Lord Home rushed down the maintained with equal obstinacy and vigour. hill with a wild shout and slogan cry, and Crawford and Montrose led their followers down engaged Sir Edmond Howard and Brian Tun- the slope from Branxton Hill, and were soon stall. The latter received a tremendous shock. engaged in a death struggle with the troops The force and impetuosity of this sudden rush under the Lord Admiral. For a long time the

opposing columns maintained an ARRANGEMENT OF TROOns STONE THE SATILE.

equal fight, neither side yielding or gaining any appreciable advantage

over the other, till, by long fighting, Lennox & Arquie.

the superiority of the English soldiers The King

Cromford of Monirose Marilog of Homo prevailed and the Scots were driven Brunxton Ridge or Hill

back with great loss. Crawford and Montrose were both slain, and with them, a great number of gentlemen and several lords.

On his left the king saw the desper. Surrey. www

Lord ThoHowards

ate struggle going on between the Storley

Sir Ed Howard
Herso. Deore.

several divisions of Huntly and Home, village of Branxton.

Crawford and Montrose on the one

hand; and those of Sir Edmond were simply irresistible. There was no lack of Howard, Tunstall, and the Lord Admiral on the courage and skill on either side. Every man other. Eager to mingle in the fray, he gave fought with a resolution and stubbornness orders that all around him should march down beyond what the single arm could ordinarily the slope and engage the enemy in close combat. accomplish. The English were driven back This movement on the part of the king was before the terrible rush of High'and steel, and another blunder, which, perhaps more than any the long spears of the stout Borderers. Again

Honnan Carita and again they rallied, only to be as often repulsed. Sir Edmond Howard was smitten to the ground three different times; and the brave Tunstall was killed. At this first attack the English suffered terrible loss, and, at length, after long and severe fighting, wavered and fled, leaving Huntly and Home masters of that part of the field. At the first flush of victory, the Scots pressed forward with enthusiastic shouts, eager to encounter a fresh foe. They had their

JATTLEFIELD wish, for at that moment Lord Dacre and the

ridge of Braxtlar Bastard Heron brought up a large body of hors-, and, joining Howard's men, effectually stopped the progress of the Scottish left wing.

Doddingtong The English horse thus brought up, had already done good service in other parts of the field, and in a previous encounter Heron had been

sau of Stalule macs wounded. The combat here was now more equally waged, and though many of Home's

Wrolero' Staunch supporters were killed at this charge, still he kept his ground, not permitting the English horse to advance beyond the point other, hastened the overthrow of the Scots. No where the contest had, from the first, been one could question the king's bravery; but keenest. Hour after hour every inch of ground alas! for his discretion. He forgot that the was doggedly contested. Home was hard duty of a commander is distinct from that of a pressed, yet there was no beating him back. common soldier, even to the extent of preservHe had taken a considerable number of ing his own person for the sake of those under




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his charge. His body guard consisted of a ally, however, the English troops on either side, chosen band, composed mainly of the Scottish after beating back their opponents, poured nobility-men of high rank and large experi- into the centre and united their whole strength ence; whose courage and energy had been against the king. And so after three hours tested in many a hard-fought conflict. He thus hard fighting, we find the Earl of Surrey, his rashly gave up his strong position on the brow son, the Lord Admiral, and Lord Dacre all of the hill and plunged into the enemy's ranks. united against the king and Bothwell; the

We have been accustomed to read and hear latter being greatly outnumbered. Even then no end of praise in honour of the king in thus they kept their ground, and the slaughter on scorning to take a mean advantage of his the English side showed that the conflict was position. His heroic bravery, triumphing over not allowed to wane on the part of the Scots. his better judgment in not allowing him to filch During all this time the troops stationed at a victory from his enemy, has been dangled the extreme east were not idle. The men before the eyes of a loyal and devoted people. under Sir Edward Stanley were engaged in a What miserable compensation this for the fierce struggle with those under Lennox and desolation it wrought in the thousands who Argyle. The latter, composed of wild and perished on the field by that one act. The undisciplined Highlanders and Islemen from the tears of a nation over the death of “her heroic west, were not amenable to the orders of their king,” forsooth! What of that compared with superiors. They occupied a position of great the tears and bitter wailing of thousands upon advantage over their opponents. While Stanley thousands of the widows and orphans of those and his men were climbing the hill in order who perished because their king threw prudence to engage the Scots in close combat, the latter, to the wind, and with it his country's only hope unable longer to restrain themselves, and in of victory?

opposition to the commands of their leaders, The stubbornness with which the king and left the height and rushed with headlong fury his gallant nobles fought was amply testified by upon the English billmen. Stanley's men were the terrible carnage in the English ranks. They cool, well disciplined, and probably exceeded fought on foot, having all—the king included the Scots in numbers. But what power could dismounted from their horses, and descended withstand the sudden rush of these wild clansin one body. Around their beloved sovereign men? The first charge bore down the advancthey fought-a faithful and heroic band. He ing column of English billmen. The twohimself inspired and encouraged them by his handed broadsword was the principal weapon of feats of personal prowess, engaging in hot and the fierce Highlandmen; with this, and the deadly contest with the English billmen, and advantage they possessed of being raised above with his own arm, dealing death and destruction their opponents, they bore down, for the time, on every side. The reserve troops under Both- all opposition. This, however, could only last well had followed close on the king, and, all for a short time. Their want of discipline told combined, were hotly engaged with the central sadly against them. They had penetrated too division of the English army under the Earl of far and permitted a section of the English Surrey. For a while the latter was hard pressed troops, by a flank movement, to circle round and the English standard was in danger of being and attack them on one side. At the same captured or beaten down. The contest on the time the English arrows wrought fearful havoc Scottish left between the troops under Crawford in the Highland ranks. Every shaft found a and Montrose, and those under Dacre and the lodgment in Scottish flesh. Soon confusion Lord Admiral having resulted in the total defeat and disorder prevailed despite the most strenuof the Scots, their leaders having been slain, ous efforts on the part of their leaders, both by Dacre and the admiral came at once to the help entreaties and menaces, to induce the troops to of Surrey. It was not a moment too soon, forstand firm in their ranks. Lennox and Argyle, the king and his warriors fought with all the fire the chiefs of the clans, were slain while bravely and enthusiasm of men who meant to conquer fighting at the head of their men. Stanley led or die. At the southern base of “ Piper's Hill" his troops right through the disordered ranks, the royal standard fluttered in the breeze, and leaving behind him a trail of death, and scatterhere the battle raged most keenly. This was ing the Highland hosts on either side. Steadily the focus towards which the various divisions and firmly the English troops advanced, sweepof the Scottish host, at intervals, turned their ing everything before them, and gained the anxious gaze, where indeed they would gladly brow of the hill from which they could view the have rushed to the help of their sovereign were terrible struggle that was going on below, especi. it not that they also were hard pressed. Gradu: ally round the royal standard.

“Far on the left, unseen the while

Stanley broke Lennox and Argyle ;
Though there the western mountaineer
Rushed with bare bosom on the spear,
And flung the feeble targe aside,
And with both hands the broadsword plied."

From his vantage ground Stanley saw to what a desperate pitch the strife had attained; pennons proudly waving overhead, and, a moment later, stricken down. His ear caught the sounds of clashing steel and angry shouts, while the

shrieks of the dying told an awful tale of carnage. At intervals, the English seemed to waver and then rally as if severely pressed and in danger of being driven back. There was no time to lose. A short breathing space only was permitted to Stanley's men who had just climbed the hill cutting right through the Scottish ranks. Seeing the danger of Surrey's division he charged down the hill to the west and attacked the king's troops in the rear.

(To be continued).

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An Interesting Old Burgb.

Elene, Richard's daughter ; Allan of Galloway;

Sir John Baliol, the husband of Dergovilla, TN the Border Magazine a short account Allan's daughter, and the father of King John

of Lauder may appropriately find a place. 1292/1296; and the original charter constituting

It is the only Royal Burgh in the Border Lauder a Royal Burgh, holding directly from the County of Berwick : and its history dates from Crown, was probably granted soon after this very ancient times. It has attracted the atten- laiter date, for between 1300 and 1318, in a tion of Archæologists such as Maine in his charter of confirmation granted by the Bishop “ Village Communities," and Gomm in the of St. Andrew's to Dryburgh Abbey there is “ Village Community." Lauders' written history mention made of "duo burgagia in Villa de extends back to the 12th Century, when it Laweder." formed part of the possessions of the De More- There is evidence that in the 12th century villes acquired from King David; and its Lauderdale was in a comparatively advanced successive Overlords at that early period, were state of civilization, and was then possessed of Hugh De Moreville; Richard De Moreville ; its Grinding Mill and Fish Ponds: and that Roland of Galloway, the husband of Eva or Lauder existed as a vigorous community under

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From Photo by

THE ESTABLISHED CHURCH, LALDER. Alexander Bain, M.A. and by fire ; and there seems every reason to of burgessacres, and the rest of it is pastured by the believe that the original charter merely consti- cattle and sheep of the burgesses. The burgesses tuted, a previously existing community, into a have a common shepherd and a common cow Corporation, and confirmed the right of the herd, and each burgess may send to the common Corporation to the lands which were already a certain number of sheep and cattle, paying a possessed by the community ; but did not fixed moderate cess for the upkeep of the burgh contain any new grant of lands.

and the wages of the herds and other expenses.

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