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colonies. The commons in America, represented in their severalAssemblies, have invariably exercised the constitutional right of giving and granting their own money; they would have been enslaved if they had not; at the same time this kingdom has never possessed the power of legislative and commercial control. The colonies acknowledge your authority in all things, with the sole exception that you shall not take their money out of their pockets without their consent.” “We are told America is obstinate,” he said, “and is almost in open rebellion. Sir, I rejoice that America has resisted. Three millions of people so dead to all the feelings of liberty, as voluntarily to submit to be slaves would have been fit instruments to make slaves of all the rest.” “The Americans have been wronged 1 They have been driven to madness by injustice Will you punish them for the madness you have occasioned 2 No | Let this country be the first to resume its prudence and temper; I will pledge myself for the colonies, that on their part animosity and resentment will cease.”

The new Ministry were under no obligation

to support the policy of their predecessors. VOL. II. I

Anxious to escape the difficulty by the readiest means, they brought in a bill for repealing the Stamp Act, which in spite of a very strenuous opposition, on the part of the supporters of the late Ministry, was carried in the Commons by a vote of two hundred and seventy-five, to one hundred and sixty-seven. A resolution of the House of Commons had demanded indemnity from the colonies for such Crown Officers as had suffered losses in the late Stamp Act riots: New York promptly complied. After much urging by the Governor, Massachusetts passed a similar act; but a free pardon to the rioters, inserted in it, betrayed the state of public feeling, and gave great offence in England. The preamble to this bill contains the following extraordinary recital:—“As the King's Most Excellent Majesty, from a desire that the sufferers in the late riots should be compensated, and a veil be drawn over the late unhappy excesses, has been pleased to signify his intention to forgive and forget them, at the same time in his abundant clemency recommending compensation to the sufferers; from a grateful sense of his Majesty's grace and clemency, in order to promote peace and safety, to make compensation to said sufferers, and thus to demonstrate to the world the happiness we enjoy in being a part of the British Empire, and being entitled to the rights, liberties, and privileges of British subjects, we, His Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the representatives of the Commons of this province, in General Court assembled, have resolved to give and grant, &c.” They resolved that their reasons for making the compensation were “from a loyal and grateful regard to the King's mild and gracious recommendation, from deference to the opinions of the illustrious friends of the colonies in England, and for the sake of internal peace and order, without regard to any interpretation of His Majesty's recommendation, into a requisition precluding all debate and controversy ; under a full persuasion that the sufferers had no just claim on the province; and that this compliance ought not, hereafter, to be drawn into a precedent.”

CHAPTER V.

FROM THE REPEAL OF THE STAMP ACT TO THE BATTLE of BUNKER's HILL, AND THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION.

Joy at repeal of Stamp Act—Fresh discontent as to continuance of the Sugar Act—Townsend's scheme for raising a revenue, maintaining a standing army, and giving permanent salaries to Governors and Judges—Tax on paper, glass, lead, and tea—New York refuses to provide for quartering the troops— Its Assembly restrained from legislative functions— Board of Revenue established in America—Pennsylvania instructs her agents to oppose the Tea Act —Massachusetts addresses a circular letter to the other colonies on the subject—Office of Secretary of State for the Colonies created—Lord Hillsborough calls upon the General Court to rescind the proceedings relative to its circular letter, but it refuses —Most of the colonies approve of the conduct of

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Massachusetts—Seizure of the sloop ‘Liberty’—The mob assaults the Commissioners, and attacks their house—They take refuge on board of a man-of-war, and afterwards retire to Castle William—Town meeting called to consider the subject of troops being allowed in Boston—People advised to arm themselves—A Convention meets, but the Governor will not acknowledge it—Arrival of two regiments from Halifax—Proceedings as to quartering them—One regiment encamped on the Common, the other lodged in the Town Hall–Proceedings in Parliament

relative to the state of the colonies—General Court

adjourned to Cambridge—Refuses to provide for the troops—Conduct of the other colonies—Lord Hillsborough informs the colonial assemblies that he will repeal all the duties except that on tea—Mob at Boston attacks a picket guard of soldiers, who fire and kill three persons—Trial and acquittal—The Governor surrenders Castle Island to the Commander of the Forces—People refuse to observe a day of thanksgiving—Association not to use tea—Proceedings as to the Governor and Judges receiving their salaries from England—Destruction of the armed schooner ‘Gaspé'—People refuse to allow tea to be landed—A cargo thrown into the harbour—Proceedings in the other colonies relative to the tea ships— Act of Parliament for closing the port of Boston— Another for amending the Charter—Legislature of Massachusetts—Advise a Congress, and name the 1st of December and Philadelphia as the time and place of meeting—The last General Court—Meeting of Con

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