« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
Then do it honor, give it praise!
A VACATION GLIMPSE OF PISA.
Far up on the sides of Monte Falterona, in
the Umbrian Appenines, rises a brook, which - Celia Thaxter. tumbles through rocky defiles into the lovely To Blossoms.
Val d'Arno, whence it sweeps under the shady Faire pledges of a fruitful tree,
forests of Vallombrosa; then, swollen by tribWhy do ye fall so fast? Your date is not so past,
utaries, it winds beneath the picturesque But you must stay yet here awhile,
bridges and beside the palaces and gardens To blush and gently smile;
of beautiful Florence, and, after tortuous wanAnd go at last.
derings through the plains of Tuscany, pours What, were ye born to be An houre or half's delight;
its muddy waters into the gulf of Genoa. On And so to bid goodnight?
this river, the Arno, about six miles from its 'Twas pitie Nature brought ye forth
mouth, is situated the ancient city of Pisa. Meerly to show your worth, And lose you quite.
Everybody knows it because of its famous But you are lovely leaves, where we
leaning tower, but not everyone knows its May read how soon things have
long and romantic annals. As you dismount Their end, though ne'er so brave;
from the cars at the Pisa station, you see beAnd after they have shown their pride, Like you a while; they glide
fore you a stretch of the ancient wall, which Into the grave.
-Herrick. once surrounded the city, when it was larger The Country Road.
and much more powerful, than at present.
During the eleventh century it waged a long From the busy haunts of farmer-folk It starts on its winding way,
war with Lucca, ten miles to the north. These Goes over the hill, and across the brook.
strong walls were then necessary to protect Where the minnows love to play: Beside the mill with its water-wheel,
the citizens from the dangers and surprises of And the pond so dark and deep,
such a neighborhood warfare. But the powerThen up to the tavern and village store,
ful Pisa of the middle ages had more signal And the church, where the dead lie asleep.
triumphs than that over Lucca. She saw the You would never think that the country road,
terrible Saracens within her city walls, strugFrom the hill to the store, could be So long to a boy with an errand to do
gling hand to hand with her citizens; and not And another boy to see.
only did she drive them out, but she followed You can never dream how short it is
them on the sea with a fleet of three hundred , From the farm to the frozen pond, Nor how very much farther it always is
sails; she wrested from them the islands of To the schoolhouse just beyond.
Sardinia and Corsica; and in 1062 her ships Oh, the country road! at the farther end
returned from Palermo, in Sicily, laden with It runs up hill and down, Away from the woods and the rippling brook.
their spoils. Then came the time of her magTo the toiling, rushing town.
nificence. Pisa furnished a powerful continBut, best of it all when you're tired and sick
gent of more than 200 ships to the forces of Of the weary haunts of men, If you follow it back, it will lead you home
the crusaders; she adorned her own confines To the woods and fields again.
with the magnificent group of buildings to -Gussie Packard Du Bois in June St. Nicholas.
which the leaning tower belongs; she built Make the Summer Glad.
great banks and warehouses; and her merO make the summer glad with a bit of bloom,
chants reaped rich harvests from the comTo cheer the hearts, day by day,
merce opened to them by her victories. In Upon their toilsome way,
1116 her fleet returned again richly laden with With the blessing of its beauty and its sweet perfume.
the spoils of the Moslems, gained in the conO make the summer glad with a bit of green, To make for weary feet
quest of the Balearic Isles, and glorying most A carpet cool and sweet:
of all in the fact that she had released 20,000 A place to come for heart content when west'ring shadows
content when west'ring shadows Christian prisoners from servitude to the lean.
Moors. Then came calamity. The jealousy Plant roses, pinks and violets to bloom about your door, And prithee, don't forget
of the Genoese was awakened. A long war The darling mignonette,
broke out between the two cities, and first For love's own message soft it breathes when busy days are
Lucca joined her enemies, then Florence; o'er.
the heroic struggle which followed wasted O make the home place beautiful with grass and flowers, For love cords best entwine
her resources and ended in her defeat. The With leaf and flower and vine,
succeeding vicissitudes make a long and inAnd home is where the heart dwells in sweetest, gladest
tricate story, and only mark the stages of hours.
- Dart Fairthorne in Vick's Magazine for June. decline for the city. One dark tragedy, out of
miracpon us knoll, city
many which these years brought, has been from the railroad station north through the rendered famous in poetry and art. Count city, past the tower of famine in which UgoUgolino della Gherardesca, belonged to one of lino and his sons perished, over the Arno, to the noblest families of Pisa. He made him the northwest corner of the city enclosure. self leader of the popular party, and thereby Here, upon a green knoll, where English incurred the hatred of the nobility. They, get daisies smile upon us from the short grass, ting the upper hand in some of the struggles, stands a miracle of architecture, a group of procured his banishment. He then joined the the most beautiful buildings in the world. Florentines in a war against his own city and They are four—the cathedral (or church), the was then restored to Pisa. Here he again baptistry, the campanile or bell tower, and the quickly became head of the government; but Campo Santo, or sacred burying place. You as the wars he led went badly for the Pisans come suddenly upon the group, emerging from he was accused of treachery. All the old the busy streets of a modern city, and seem to hatred against him flamed up. Early one yourself to have passed all at once to another morning the great bell of the commune rang world. The bustle and dust of business are wildly, summoning together the adherents of behind you. Before you upon the daisied the aristocratic party; it was answered quickly lawn stands a large and marvellously graceful by the bell of the people, which gathered the structure of white marble. As it gleams and partisans of the count. The battle in the sparkles under the morning sun, glowing imstreets was fierce and clamorous. At length maculately bright against the azure sky, it Ugolino and his adherents were forced to take seems a creation from fairy land, a wonder refuge in the Palazzo del Popolo, or town hall. from the Arabian Nights, too rich and rare All efforts to dislodge them from this strong for this work-a-day world. Its erection was hold proving futile, towards night the aristo- begun in 1968, and a little more than two crats fired the hall, and, making their way centuries were required for the completion of into the building in the wild confusion of the the entire group. Thus we have before us conflagration, they dragged out Ugolino with the true monument of Pisan splendor—the his two young sons and his two nephews and flower of its prosperity and its religious aspithrew them as prisoners into the dungeon of ration. The cathedral is in the form of a the Tower of the Seven Streets. The key of Latin cross, with an internal length of 312 this was intrusted to the archbishop, a parti- feet and a breadth of 252 feet-a mighty buildsan of the nobles, but one who, as a minister ing to one who has not yet seen St. Paul's in of religion, might be supposed to be inclined London, or St. Peter's at Rome. Stand beto mercy. Instead, the implacable hate of a fore the front of it, and it seems a church mediæval partisan burned in his bosom; and built upon the roof of a larger church. For after a few weeks, when attention was at the gable is cut off at the peak in order to altracted from the prisoners, he tossed the key low the building of another smaller cathedral of the prison into the Arno. Imagination is upon it. This upper and narrower portion is left to paint the scenes in the dungeon as the called the clere-story. The lighting of the instern count, without power to help or hope of terior is chiefly accomplished through the winrelief, saw his sons and nephews waste away dows in this upper part. Now take in some and die of hunger before his eyes. Dante, in of the details: the front is ornamented with the thirty-third book of his Inferno, causes the four lovely arcades, composed of a rich array shade of the old count to tell the tale of those of light marble pillars surmounted with round awful days, and Chaucer has made it a part arches, two rows on the lower building and of his Monk's Tale. In Dante's fierce outcry two on the clere-story. Pure white statues, against Pisa we join at least so far as to say angles out of the azure sky above, stand on the with him:
corners of the gables. Your eye follows "What if fame
the line of the eaves to where the arms Reported that thy castles were betray'd
meet the beam of the cross, and there By Ugolino, yet no right hadst thou To stretch his children on the rack."
a small and graceful dome surrounded at its All this may be taken as a brief glimpse of base by arcades like those of the front and the life of the middle ages. The cities warring adorned on top by a small globe surmounted with their neighbors; the civil broils; the with a gleaming cross, rises to crown the treachery and heartlessness; the religious fer- structure. All is light, delicate, exquisite, a vor; the magnificent ecclesiastical buildings; miracle of the Romanesque architecture. Enthe squalor and wretchedness of the poor. ter the great door. You walk on a marble Let us complete the picture by viewing the floor, amid a veritable forest of exquisite marcathedral at Pisa. To reach this we cross ble columns. After a little the order and
zase by on top
meaning of it all becomes apparent. There umns supporting the roof. Thus the earliest are four rows of Corithian columns, surmounted churches came to be built in the basilica form, with round arches, which divide the interior and are known as basilicas. When it was deinto five aisles, the broader of which is in the sirable to enlarge these the symbolical meancenter under the clere-story. A second passage ing of the cross led to the adoption of that as richly crowded, traverses the former cross- form and the transept approved; and, in the wise, and above this beautiful grove of marble, i n the thichurit necontenuto
east especially, a dome was soon erected over files of smaller columns prolong the perpen- the intersection. The tower for the bell was, dicular effect. At the intersection of nave at first, built apart from the church, but later it and transept the dome springs up into the became customary to add the bell tower to the heavens. How exquisite and imposing it is! structure, and for symmetry other towers were The long side walls, broken only with small also added to balance it. Thus the more modwindows, are covered with large paintings, ern forms were gradually evolved. scenes from scripture history, which made This bell tower at Pisa is cylindrical in form them the bible of the poor in an age when the and adorned with columns and arcades like the art of reading was not common.
cathedral. There are six stories of these, and As we wander about, taking in these de- upon the top of the tower another smaller tails, at length the tones of a voice reach us tower of one story is erected. The whole with the regular cadences of a public speaker. structure is of great weight, and is about as We follow them up, and find a monk preach- high as the dome. It leans over to one side ing in one arm of the transept. The pulpit fourteen feet from the perpendicular. The efis fastened against one of the columns, and fect is dizzying. Was it a freak of the buildthe small audience is seated on rude wooden ers, who sought thus to add a bizarre interest benches which are gathered in a semicircle to their work? Or was it rather, an accident about it. We had been in the church for due to the gradual settling of the foundations? some time before we were aware that a sery. The latter seems to be the better opinion, as ice was going on in it. These great mediæ- an effort to correct the inclination is discoverval structures were made for religious proces- able in the upper stories in a small lengthensions, not for preaching. In the dark recesses ing of the columns on the side of the incline. under the columns the procession could be or But, on the other hand, it is said that there ganized, and passing up and down these long are other leaning towers, notably that at Boaisles displayed to the best advantage the logna, and that this love of the strange, the pomp of ecclesiastical ceremony.
fanciful, the paradoxical, is one characteristic Emerging now from the transept door, we of the middle ages. Like others we must gaze are startled by a rattle shaken violently at and admire, and go away leaving the problem our ears, and turning quickly confront an ap- unsolved. parition from the middle ages,-a human fig. Opposite the other end is the baptistry, a ure clothed in a black monk's cloak girt about large circular building with a dome roof. Its the loins with a rope, and having the black ornamentation is (in general] like that of the cahood drawn so as to cover the face except that thedral and the bell-tower. Within it is a martwo round holes permit coal-black eyes to velously rich baptismal font, and the renowned gleam out upon us. The first impulse is to marble pulpit of Nicolo Pisano. The guide escape, but a contribution box which the fig- who takes you in closes the door behind you, ure thrusts in our way makes plain that we and stepping forward so as to be beyond the have not encountered the ghost of a twelfth gallery, which runs around the interior, sings a century monk, but a very modern brother of chord, first, third and fifth. The dome and his, from whom a few pence deposited in his sides give the tones back to you in a rich box, draw forth a profound bow of thanks. blending of sounds, which dies away gradually
The leaning tower stands about one hun- in long swells and cadences, one of the richest dred feet from that end of the cathedral which echoes in the world. may be called the head of the cross. It is the In these three marvellously rich and lovely bell tower. The early Christian assemblies structures we seem to see a worthy monument were held in private dwellings, and when this was of Pisa's splendid prosperity. Into these went possible, in the large dwellings belonging to a part of the spoils which her galleys brought rich converts. The most convenient room for back from Palermo and the Balearic Isles. In the gatherings was the basilica, so called from the Campo Santo we touch the life and breathe the public Roman building after which it was the very atmosphere of the Crusades. Here planned. This was a quadrangle, with aisles is a portion of the holy earth of Jerusalem, down two sides of it formed by rows of col- brought back by her Crusading sons, and laid down to make a burial place for her heroes have been advertised by universities and other and her saints, one that would bring them a institutions all over the United States and atlittle nearer to Paradise than the common soil tended by thousands. In Minnesota besides of Italy could. Around this quadrangle of the Summer school at the university the state sacred earth a low building has been erected. provided for four weeks summer schools for Its exterior is an almost unbroken wall orna- teachers in about fifty counties, and these were mented with one row of arcades of Corinthian attended last year by about 6,000 teachers columns and springing arches. Within, are and prospective teachers. cloisters open to the quadrangle through a Two or three years ago President Irwin Shepseries of mullioned windows. It is a weird ard proposed to his faculty of the normal school place. The cloistered isles are paved with at Winona that the school adopt the Chicago sepulchral slabs; you are walking upon the University plan of continuous session, and graves of heroes—the sunbeams straying after a spirited discussion they unanimously through the open tracery of the windows fall favored it. He then presented the matter to upon effigies of crusaders and monks; around the other normal presidents and to the State are antique relics—the chains of the city which Normal Board, who after a careful discussion indicated its subjection to Florence in the evil decided that it would be well for all of the days of decay, now returned and hung up in normal schools of Minnesota to hold continuevidence of the restoration of amity; sculp- ous sessions. President Shepard sent out lettures of ancient and mediæval times; sarcoph- ters to city and county superintendents and agi in which have lain the bodies of kings and other educators of the state describing the knights; and on the walls weird mediæval plan and asking what they thought of it. The paintings, seamed, and battered, and faded, replies were almost universally favorable. The the treasures which made this spot one of the State Normal Board then resolved to ask the Meccas of students of art;– from these turn legislature of last winter to appropriate the now and look through the windows at the dark money necessary for the carrying out of the cypresses in the corners of the quadrangle, plan. The idea was a new one to most of the which cast long shadows over the sward grow- members of the legislature, but when they ing on the earth from Jerusalem; and then ask heard the arguments in favor of it and learned yourself whether you are not in body as well how it was viewed by the educators of the as in spirit transported back to the twelfth state they were fully convinced of the advancentury. These pictures about you are not tages of the plan and of the public sentiment mere works of art, valuable as they are for in favor it. Yet the finances of the state were tracing the history of painting. There is an low and the plan with all its apparent advanawful seriousness in them. Here we see The tages was regarded as something of an experLast Judgment, Orcagna's Vision of Hell, The iment, so appropriations were made for trying Triumph of Death, and so on. They are de- it in but two of the four normal schools of the void of perspective, crude and childish in com- state, the one at Winona and the one at Manposition, defective in modeling, but profoundly kato. genuine in sentiment and sincere in purpose. As the summer quarter is to begin July 1st, Art as seen here is a language, speaking to prompt action was necessary in order to prethe heart of the people the tremendous doc- pare for the change in plan. It was found less trines of their religion. The lessons which it difficult, however, than was expected to reartaught the wayfaring man though a fool could range the program of the courses of study so hardly fail to understand.
S. that without much increase in number of
classes or teachers students could enter any CONTINUOUS SESSIONS OF SCHOOLS.
quarter of the year or stay out any quar
ter and yet find classes in all subjects necesAbout a half dozen years ago it was an- sary for the continuation of their course. Cirnounced that Chicago University, then just culars have already been sent out announcing founded, would continue in session all the the opening of the summer quarter July 1st, year. This announcement was received with describing the plan of continuous session and some surprise and questioning, but the uni- giving schedule of the subjects offered each versity has never lacked students during the quarter. Announcement is also made of a summer quarter when it was formerly supposed special six weeks term for teachers. in service, people could not study, and the plan has been which will enable them to continue teaching, in every way a success. The desire for op- and yet take a regular course leading to a portunity to improve during the summer has diploma. also been so great that short summer sessions The financial advantages of the plan to the
--son during the summer has diploma.
- w sun another school, which, before it was
state are claimed to be as follows: (1) The that the plan will soon be adopted in other valuable plant (building, apparatus, etc.) no states. longer remains unused and profitless a quarter The question now arises as to whether the of the time; (2) The cost of running it during idea may not be carried still further. If conthe time that it has usually been idle is less tinuous sessions is a good thing for normal than any other quarter because no fuel is re- schools, would it not be of similar advantage quired; (3) Three schools in session the fourth to have our public schools, and colleges, and quarter would prepare as many or more teach- universities in session all of the time? Many ers for service in the state as an additional of the arguments given above would seem to school would and at a cost less than that re- apply to other schools as well as to normals. quired to run another school, which, before it Would it not be a good thing if a large procould begin, would have to receive many thou: portion of the children between six and eightsands of dollars for building and apparatus. een, especially in the cities, were in school in
The advantages to those who wish to pre- stead of on the street during the summer. If pare themselves to teach, especially those who school work is not made too hard is there any support themselves wholly or in part, are evi- reason other than custom for pupils suspenddent, for they can teach one or two terms and ing their work for one-fourth of the year? study in the normal one or two terms a year Even if the above is not admitted would it not without interfering with their course of study, be an advantage to pupils to be able to attend but rather with advantage to it for the the al. at any time of the year which is most conternate experience of being pupil, then teacher venient? Would not the adoption of the quarand the practice of teaching in connection ter, instead of the year, as the unit in grading with the study of methods, will add very much also be of great advantage not only to irreguto the value of the normal course. To teach- lar pupils, but to exceptionally quick and exers in service wishing to improve themselves, ceptionally slow children, who now have to the special six weeks courses offer all the ad- advance or fall behind a whole year at a time? vantages of the summer schools now attended The above facts and questions suggest the by so many thousands, and the additional one idea that possibiy we are just entering upon a of having each summer's study contribute new epoch in the history of the development towards a definite course of training.
of education in this country-an epoch in which The common schools of the state will be schools of all kinds will be a continuous inbenefited by the additional number of trained stead of an intermittent factor in our national teachers and the improvement of those already life. It is certain, at least, that all thoughtful in service. So great is this advantage thought educators will watch with interest the develto be for the country schools that the commitoriy hechoatishat te ducomimnt
opment and spread of the idea as it is distee appointed by the National Educational cussed in the papers and in educational gathAssociation to report upon the rural school erings, and as it is worked out in the schools problem, will mention the “Winona plan" of adopting it.
E. A. KIRKPATRICK. continuous ssssions as one promising means of Winona, Minn. solving the problem of how to improve the district schools. The instructors in normal schools and the
BOOK TABLE. schools themselves, will also gain something from the plan if it is wisely carried out, for in Ginn & Co.
-- METHOD IN History, for teachers and students, by structors are required to serve but three-quar
William H. Mace, (311 pp.; $1.10), grew, the author tells ters in the year, and they will be able to take us, out of almost daily conferences over the problems of vacations at a time of year and of a sufficient general and special method, in connection with Prof. Tomlength (by teaching continuously for awhile),
kins' Philosophy of Teaching. The parallelism with that
work in the general movement of this essay is obvious. to make it possible to travel or study to the Prof. Mace sees in history not merely the external events best advantage and then return refreshed and
but also the internal ideas or purposes impelling the nation
and the individuals, and seeks the unifying point of view in broadened to infuse new life and vigor into the the inner field. The ideas give rise both to the continuity normals.
and the differentiation apparent in historic development, So advantageous from every point of view
and these cluster about five great institutions which consti
tute the warp of history. The business of the student is to seems the plan of continuous sessions of nor interpret events, and the interpretation is found in the conmal schools that many state superintendents victions and purposes of the actors. In following out these
in their origin and results he comes into intimate contact have expressed themselves in favor of it and
with the life of the people. Looked at as causes these ideas it is likely that some of them will urge the or motives are found to be less and more general, so that in matter upon their respective legislatures at the
thoroly tracing out this relation history is seen to be con
tinuous and unified. The organic historical whole comes to earliest opportunity; so it is not improbable view in general motives or tendencies. The growth of in