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"III. The artist-Idea of pure art-Wherein satire injures art-Whereir it diminishes the
interest-Wherein it falsifies the characters-Comparison of Thackeray and
Balzac-Valérie Marneffe and Rebecca Sharp....,
LX Artainment of pure art- Portrait of Henry Esmond - Historical talent of Thack-
Literature is a definition of man-The definition according to Thackeray-Wherein
Criticism and History.-Macaulay.
The vocation and position of Macaulay in England. ..
His Essays, Agreeable character and utility of the style-Opinions-Philosophy.
Wherein it is English and practical-His Essay on Bacon-The true object,
according to him, of the sciences--Comparison of Bacon with the ancients.: 627
His criticism-Moral prejudices-Comparison of criticism in France and England-
Why he is religious-Connection of religion and Liberalism in England-
Macaulay's Liberalism-Essay on Church and State.
IV. His passion for political liberty-How he is the orator and historian of the Whig
of his mind-Wherein he differs from classic orators-His estimation for par-
English marks of his talent-Rudeness--Humor-Poetry.
VII. His work-Harmony of his talent, opinion, and work-Universality, unity, interest
of his history-Picture of the Highlands-James II. in Ireland-The Act of
Toleration–The Massacre of Glencoe-Traces of amplification and rhetoric. 610
he is English-Intermediate position of his mind between the Latin and the
hilosophy and History.—Carlyle.
$ 1.-STYLE AND MIND,
ECCENTRIC AND IMPORTANT POSITION OF CARLYLE IN ENGLAND
His strangenesses, obscurities, violence-Fancy and enthusiasm-Crudeness and
Humor-Wherein it consists-It is Germanic-Grotesque and tragic pictures-
Dandies and Poor Slaves—The Pigs' Catechism-Extreme tension of his mind
Barriers which hold and direct him—Perception of the real and of the sublime.... 654
His passion for exact and demonstrated fact-His search after extinguished feel-
ings-Vehemence of his emotion and sympathy-Intensity of belief and vision
-Past and Present-Cromwell's Letters and SpeechesHistorical mysticism
-Grandeur and sadness of his visions-How he represents the world after his
Every object is a group, and every employment of human thought is the reproduc.
tion of a group-Two principal modes of reproducing it, and two principal
Whercin consists the modern and German form of mind-How the aptitude for
opiversal ideas has renewed the science of language, mythology, æsthetics,
and seventeenth centuries—The Puritans and Jansenists in the seventeenth
Sensible things are but appearances-Divine and mysterious character of existence
How we may form into one another, positive, poetic, spiritualistic, and mystical
ideas-How in Carlyle German metaphysics are altered into English Puri-
Moral character of this mysticism--Conception of duty-Conception of God.. 665
Conception of Christianity-Genuine and conventional Christianity-Other re-
ligions-Limit and scope of doctrine....
Criticism-What weight it gives to writers-What class of writers it exalts—What
class of writers it depreciates--His æsthetics --His judgment of Voltaire...... 667
Future of Criticism-Wherein it is contrary to the prejudices of the age and of its
vocation-Taste has but a relative authority....
Supreme importance of great men-They are revealers-They must be venerated.. 669
Connection between this and the German conception-Wherein Carlyle is imitative
How genuine history is that of heroic sentiments-Genuine historians are artists
His history of Cromwell-Why it is only composed of texts connected by a
commentary-Its novelty and worth-How we should consider Cromwell and
the Puritans — Importance of Puritanism in modern civilizatio - Carlyle
His history of the French Revolution-Severity of his judgment-Wherein he has
sight of the truth, and wherein he is unjust...
His judgment of modern England - Against the taste for comfort and the lukewarm-
ness of convictions-Gloomy forebodings for the future of modern democracy
.-Against the authority of votes-Monarchical theory......
Criticism of these theories-Dangers of enthusiam-Comparison of Carlyle and
Philosophy in England-Organization of positive science-Lack of general ideas 675
Why metaphysics are wanting-Authority of religion....
Indications and splendor of free thought-New exegesis-Staart Mill-His works
--His order of mind—To what school of philosophers he belongs-Value of
Object of logic-Wherein it is distinguished from psychology and metaphysics..... 679
What is a judgment?-What do we know of the external and inner worlds 2-The
whole object of science is to add or connect facts ..........
The system based on this view of the nature of our knowledge..................... 68a
Theory of definitioner. Its importancoRefutation of the old theory-There ire
Experience alone proves the stability of the laws of nature-What is a law?-
ferences, of residues, of concomitant variations...
the first-Modern use of the second-Sciences requiring the first-Sciences
requiring the second-Positive character of Mill's work-His predecessors. 699
Limits of our knowledge-It is not certain that all events happen according to laws
Agreement of this philosophy with the English mind-Alliance of the positive and
religious spirits-By what faculty we arrive at the knowledge of causation..... 694
There are no substances or forces, but only facts and laws-Abstraction-Its
Theory of definitions, They explain the abstract generating elements of things.... 695
Theory of proof—The basis of proof in syllogism is an abstract law......
Theory of axioms-Axioms are relations between abstract truths-They may be
reduced to the axiom of identity..
Theory of induction-Its methods are of elimination or abstraction.....
The two great operations of the mind, experience and abstraction. The two great
manifestations of things, sensible facts and abstract laws--Why we ought to
pass from the first to the second-Meaning and extent of the axiom of causa-
It is possible to arrive at the knowledge of first elements-Error of German meta-
physicians-They have neglected the element of chance, and of local perturba-
tions What might be known by philosophizing ant-Idea and limits of meta-
Talent and work-First attempts-Wherein he was opposed to preceding poets-
-Variety of his emotions and of his subjects-Literary curiosity and poetic
virgin freshness of the poetic temperament,Wherein he is at one with nature
lengthiness of this poem- The subject and the talent must harmonize-What
dreams and the style of the Renaissance...
Idylls of the King. Why he has restored the epic of the Round Table-Purity
His public-Society in England-Country comfort - Elegance-Education-Habits
--Wherein Tennyson suits such a society-Society in France-Parisian life-
Its pleasures Display-Conversation-Boldness of mind-Wherein Alfred de
Musset suits such a society-Comparison of the two societies and of the two
the bustorian might place himself for a given period, say a series of ages, or in the nurse
poul, or with some particular people ; he might study, describe, relate, all the evente all the transformations, all the revolutions which had been accomplished in the interna. man ; and when he had finished his work, he would have a history of civilization amongst the people and in the period he had selected.-Guizot, Civilization in Europe, p. 25.
HISTORY has been transformed, within into existence all alone. It is but a a hundred years in Germany, within mould, like a fossil shell, an imprint, sixty years in France, and that by the like one of those shapes embossed in study of their literatures.
stone by an animal which lived and It was perceived that a literary work perished. Under the shell there was is not a mere individual play of imagin- an animal, and behind the document ation, the isolated caprice of an excited there was a man. Why do you study brain, but a transcript of contemporary the shell, except to bring before you manners, a manifestation of a certain the animal ? So you study the docukind of mind. It was concluded that ment only to know the man. The shell we might recover, from the monuments and the document are lifeless wrecks, of literature, a knowledge of the man- valuable only as a clue to the entire ner in which men thought and felt cen- and living existence. We must get turies ago. The attempt was made, hold of this existence, endeavor to reand it succeeded.
create it. It is a mistake to study the Pondering on these modes of feeling document, as if it were isolated. This and thought, men decided that they were were to treat things like a simple facts of the highest kind. They saw scholar, to fall into the error of the chat these facts bore reference to the bibliomaniac. Neither mythology nor most important occurrences, that they languages exist in themselves; but only explained and were explained by them, men, who arrange words and imagery that it was necessary thenceforth to according to the necessities of their give them a rank, and a most impor- organs and the original bent of their tant rank, in history. This rank they intellects. A dogma is nothing in it. have received, and from that moment self; look at the people who have history has undergone a complete made it,-a portrait, for instance, of the change : in its subject-matter, its sys- sixteenth century, say the stern power
. lem, its machinery, the appreciation of ful face of an English archbishop or laws and of causes. It is this change, martyr. Nothing exists except through such as it is and must be, that we shall some individual man; it is this indi. bere endeavor to exhibit.
vidual with whom we must become ac
quainted. When we have established I.
the parentage of dogmas, or the classi
fication of poems, or the progress of What is your first remark on turning constitutions, or the transformation of over the great, stiff leaves of a folio, idioms, we have only cleared the soil : the yellow sheets of a manuscript,ma genuine history is brought into existpoem, a code of laws, a confession of ence only when the historian begins to taith? This, you say, did not come unravel, across the lapse of time, the
living nan, toiling, impassioned, en-| their genealogies on their finger i trenched in his customs, with his voice order to obtain the right of sittir. and features, his gestures and his dress, down in the presence of ti e King c distinct and complete as he from whom Queen. On that head consult St. Sa we have just parted in the street. Let mon and the engravings of Pérelle, as us endeavor, then, to annihilate as far for the present age you have consulted as possible this great interval of time, Balzac and the water-colors of Eugène which prevents us from seeing man Lami. Similarly, when we read a with our eyes, with the eyes of our Greek tragedy, our first care should be bead. What have we under the fair to realize to ourselves the Greeks, that glazed pages of a modern poem? A is, the men who live half naked, in the modern poet, who has studied and gymnasia, or in the public squares, travelled, a man like Alfred de Musset, under a glowing sky, face to face withi Victor Hugo, Lamartine, or Heine, in the most beautiful and the most noble a black coat and gloves, welcomed by landscapes, bent on making their the ladies, and making every evening bodies lithe and strong, on conversing, his fifty bows and his score of bon- discussing, voting, carrying on patri: mots in society, reading the papers in otic piracies, nevertheless lazy and tem the morning, lodging as a rule on a perate, with three urns for their furnisecond floor; not over gay, because he ture, two anchovies in a jar of oil for has nerves, and especially because, in their food, waited on by slaves, so as this dense democracy where we choke to give them leisure to cultivate their one another, the discredit of the dig- understanding and exercise their limbs, nities of office has exaggerated his pre- with no desire beyond that of having tensions while increasing his impor- the most beautiful town, the most tance, and because the keenness of his beautiful processions, the most beauti feelings in general disposes him some ful ideas, the most beautiful men. On what to believe himself a deity. This this subject, a statue such as the Meis what we take note of under' modern leager or the Theseus of the Parthenon, Meditations or Sonnets. Even so, or still more, the sight of the Mediterunder a tragedy of the seventeenth cen- ranean, blue and lustrous as a silken tury we have a poet, like Racine for in- tụnic, and the islands that stud it with stance, elegant, staid, a courtier, a fine their massive marble outlines : add to talker, with a majestic wig and rib- these twenty select phrases from Plato boned shoes, at heart a royalist and a and Aristophanes, and they will teach Christian, who says, “God has been you much more than a multitude of sò gracious to me, that in whatever dissertations and commentaries. Y And company I find myself I never have so again, in order to understand an occasion to blush for the gospel or the Indian Purana, begin by imagining to king ; ”* clever at entertaining the yourself the father of a family, who; prince, and rendering for him into good “having seen a son on his son's knees," French the “ old French of Amyot ; "retires, according to the law, into soli rery respectful to the great, always tude, with an axe and a pitcher under knowing his place; as assiduous a banyan tree, by the brook-side, talks and reserved at Marly as at Versailles, no more, adds fast to fast, dwells naked amidst the regular pleasures of polished between four fires, and under that ter and ornate nature, amidst the saluta- rible sun, which devours and renews dions, graces, airs, and fopperies of the without end all things living; who, for braided lords, who rose early in the weeks at a time, fixes his imagination morning to obtain the promise of being first upon the feet of Brahma, next appointed to soine office in case of the upon his knee, next upon his thigh, death of the present hoider, and next upon his navel, and so on, untii, amongst charming ladies who count beneath the strain of this intense medi
tation, hallucinations begin to appear, • Mary Wollstonecraft, in her Historical until all the forms of existence, mingled and Moral View of the French Revolution, p; and transformed the one with the other, 25, says, in quoting this passage, “ What could be expected from the courtier who could write quaver before a sight dazzled and gid in these terms to Madame de Maintenon.-TR. Idy, until the motionless nan, catching