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by King William and Queen Mary, who nominated Dr. Tenison, bishop of Lincoln, to succeed him. 2. At Coleridge's table we were introduced to Count Frioli, a foreigner of engaging manners and fine conversational powers, who was killed the following day by a steamboat explosion. 3. He spoils not a good school, thereof to make a poor college, therein to teach his scholars logic. 4. As we drove up the college avenue, whose sides were lined with trees, whose leaves had just begun to fall, we admired the beauty of the scene. 5. My friend grew lonesome in the house of his brother, who had just returned from California, where he had secured a number of specimens of gold which he had gathered at the various mines which he had visited. 6. We shall all be invited to the Commencement, which occurs on the 21st of the month; at least I think so. 7. I have built myself a very handsome house (it cost me twenty-five thousand dollars) on the hill overlooking the lake to the south-east. 8. As we came to town this morning we met a boy going to school, who was carrying a basket on his arm, which contained his lunch, which he expected to eat at noon. 9. I got this book at Mr. Clark's store, which is in Reading, where my cousin Mary lives, who was married to Mr. Robinson, who is a tailor. 10. The scene of the poem is laid in New England, within a short distance of New Haven, in which Yale University is located. 11. After we came to anchor they put me on shore, where I was welcomed by all my friends, who received me with the greatest kindness. 12. Cicero was opposed by a new and cruel affliction, the death of his beloved daughter Tullia, which happened soon after her divorce from Dolabella, whose manners and humors were entirely disagreeable to him. 13. London, which is a very dirty city, has a population of several millions, which makes it the largest city in the world, we think.
14. The lightning struck a young man who was standing near a tree, under which some cattle were trying to escape from the rain which was falling rapidly.
15. When the rain began to fall we all ran to the house, where we met Mr. Wilson, whose home is in the village which is some eight or nine miles away.
Harmony requires that a sentence be so constructed as to produce a pleasing effect upon the ear. Clearness, Strength, and Unity decide the arrangement of a sentence with reference to the clear and forcible expression of thought. Harmony requires, in addition, that the arrangement shall be such as to please the ear. Sentences may occur in which it is not possible to express the ideas in accordance with the requirements of harmony, without in a measure obscuring the sense. In such cases the requirements of clearness must be complied with, even though those of harmony be disregarded. Sense must not be sacrificed to sound.
Graham's Remarks.-With regard to the capability of English for harmony, Graham makes the following remarks:
“English has been often accused of harshness, and it certainly cannot be ranked among the most harmonious languages of Europe. But if not the most beautiful in this respect, neither can it be said, on the other hand, that it is the most disagreeable; for, though inferior in harmony to the Italian and Spanish, it ranks higher than the Dutch or any of the Scandinavian or Sclavonic languages. Since, however, even in the most melodious languages some writers are known to be far more studious of elegance and beauty than others, it follows that this difference will also appear in authors who write in the most rugged dialect. Whatever, then, may be said of the want of softness in the English language, it is plain, as some of our writers surpass others in harmony, that this is a quality to be cultivated; and there is no good reason why any one gifted with a delicate ear may not, under the guidance of a judicious teacher, attain to the power of writing in an easy and flowing style.”
EssENTIALs of HARMONY. The three essentials of harmony are—
1. The use of euphonious words;
1. Euphonious Words.-The harmony of a sentence is greatly promoted by the use of pleasant-sounding words. The following classes of words are to be rejected as lacking in euphony:
1. Derivatives from long compound words; as, unsuccessfulness, wrongheadedness. 2. Words containing a succession of consonant sounds; as, strengthenedst, strik'st, filched. 3. Words containing a succession of short unaccented syllables; as, arbitrarily, derogatorily, imperturbable. 4. Words in which a short or an unaccented syllable is followed by another closely resembling it; as, holily, sillily.
Note.—Words lacking in euphony may be used when necessary to the clearness of a sentence; they are objectionable only when euphony is regarded.
The most euphonious words are, first, those in which consonants and vowels are blended; and, second, those which have a preponderance of vowels and liquids, which give softness to the sound and ease in pronunciation.
Whatever words are difficult of pronunciation are lacking in harmony.
2. Euphonious Arrangement of Words—Harmony is violated by repeating the same syllable in successive words, as in the following:
“I can candidly say”; “If you will wilfully persist”; “I confess with humility my inability to do better.”
Harmony is violated by repeating the same word frequently in the same sentence. Hence the following are. faulty:
“The colonel directed the captain to direct his company to the left;" “The order was issued ordering them to behave in an orderly manner.” Sentences like these may be made harmonious by the substitution of synonyms for the repeated words. Thus, “The colonel ordered the captain to direct his company to the left.”
Harmony is violated by a succession of words of the same number of syllables.
Some advise the use of monosyllables to as great an extent as possible, on the ground that these are conducive to strength; but the advice is unfortunate so far as euphony of arrangement is concerned. Monosyllabic literature is not euphonious. Monosyllables and polysyllables should be judiciously intermingled. Thus, in the sentence, “No one can well be a friend to all,” harmony is deficient because of the succession of monosyllables; the change of even a single word improves it. Thus, “No one can well be friendly to all.”
Sentences should be so arranged as to be read easily. In general, a sentence that reads smoothly pleases the ear by its harmonious arrangement. Care must be taken that the accents and pauses come at convenient intervals. It has been named as a fault of Dr. Johnson's that his accents come almost with the regularity of those of verse. Skill is quite as necessary in the arrangement of sentences as in that of words. A succession of short sentences or of long sentences is quite as likely to displease the ear as a succession of short or of long words.
The following examples will illustrate the difference in harmony. The first extract is one that is often quoted from Milton,
“I shall detain ye now no longer in the demonstration of what we should not do, but straight conduct ye to a hillside, where I will point ye out the right path of a virtuous and noble education; laborious indeed at the first ascent, but else so smooth, so green, so full of goodly prospect and melodious sounds on every side, that the harp of Orpheus was not more charming.”
Contrast the melodious flow of the foregoing with the following from Tillotson:
“The discourse concerning the easiness of God's commands does, all along, suppose and acknowledge the difficulties of the first entrance upon a religious course; except only in those persons who have had the happiness to be trained up to religion by the easy and insensible degrees of a pious and virtuous education.”
Due attention should be given to the cadence of sentences. Not only should a sentence close in such a way as to be impressive with reference to the thought conveyed, but it should also close in such a way as to leave an agreeable impression so far as sound is concerned. The words should therefore be so arranged that the sentence may end with those of pleasant sound.
The following from The Wife, by Washington Irving, will illustrate:
“As the vine, which has long twined its graceful foliage about the oak, and been lifted by it into sunshine, will, when the hardy plant is rifted by the thunderbolt, cling round it with its caressing tendrils and bind up its shattered boughs; so is it beautifully ordered by Providence that woman, who is the mere dependant and ornament of man in his happier hours, should be his stay and solace when smitten with sudden calamity, winding herself into the rugged recesses of his nature, tenderly supporting the drooping head, and binding up the broken heart.”
Faults in Cadence.—The two chief faults in cadence are the following: 1. Closing a sentence with a short unaccented word.