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$133,842, and spermaceti candles to the He also published a virulent opposition value of $217,830.–See an article in the paper, called the True Briton. Having Foreign Quarterly Review (No. 14), by J. impoverished himself by extravagance, R. McCulloch, and Scoresby's Voyage to his estates were, by a decree in chancery, the Northern Whale Fishery (Edinburgh, vested in the hands of trustees; and he re1823), and his Arctic Regions.

tired to the continent, and visited Vienna WHALEBONE ; a substance of the na- and Madrid. After practising new inture of horn, adhering, in thin parallel trigues, deceiving, by the levity of his plates, to the upper jaw of the whale. conduci, the Spanish court, and the cherThese laminæ vary, in size, from three to alier de St. George, and rendering himtwelve feet in length: the breadth of the self contemptible alike to all parties, be largest, at the thick end, where they are deprived himself of all his resources, by attached to the jaw, is about a foot. They rejecting an offer of restoration to his are extreinely elastic. All above six feet in title and estate, made him by sir Robert length is called size bone. (See Whale.) Walpole. Overwhelmed with debts, he

Wharton, Thomas, marquis of, an wem to Paris, where he lived for some English statesman, was one of the first time meanly and disreputably. At length persons of distinction who joined Wil- be returned to Spain, and, ruined in liam III on his arrival in England, and health as well as in fortune, he was proby that prince was made a privy coun- ceeding towards a mineral spring in sellor and justice in Eyre, south of the Catalonia, when he died at a small vilTrent. Queen Anne created him earl lage, in 1731. Towards the close of his of Wharton ; and, in 1709, he was sent life, he engaged in writing a tragedy on as viceroy to Ireland ; but the following the story of Mary, queen of Scots. His year he resigned all his employments. poems, speeches, and letters, with his life Being a zealous whig and firm supporter prefixed, were published in 1731, in two of the Hanoverian succession, he was volumes, octavo. favored by George I, who raised him to Wheat (triticum satirum). Among the the rank of marquis. He died in 1715. different kinds of grain which form the

Wharton, Philip, duke of, son of the principal nutriment of the civilized world, preceding, was born in 1699. He dis- and to the culture of which civilization played, when quite young, talents which is even attributed, by ancient and modern attracted notice; and, having been edu- writers, the first rank is universally concated under domestic tutors, at the age of ceded to wheat. It is now cultivated in fourteen he married clandestinely, to the almost all temperate climates, throughout great disappointment of his father, whose the greater part of Europe, in all the prov. death shortly after left him at liberty to inces of China, in Natolia, Syria, Persia, follow his own inclinations. In 1716, he and the other temperate parts of Asia, in set out on his travels, for the purpose of the north of Africa, and at the cape of finishing his studies at Geneva. But, dis- Good Hope, in the U. States, and even in gusted with the sober manners of that the extreme southern parts of South place, he left his governor there, and went America. The plant belongs to the famito Lyons, and afterwards to the court of ly of the grasses, like the other cerealia the Pretender at Avignon. That prince, The spikelets of the flowers are sessile, highly gratitied by his attentions, gave and disposed on two opposite sides of an him the title of duke of Northumber- axis, the whole forming a terminal spike land. About the end of 1716, he returned or ear, which, in one variety, is even to England, and thence proceeding to branched. The culture of wheat, from ireland, where he possessed a peerage, he time immemorial, and in different soils was allowed to take his seat in the Irish and climates, has produced numerous vahouse of peers. He then displayed the rieties, which, in some instances, bare veratility of his character by detending, even been mistaken for distinct species with all the powers of reasoning and elo- Winter wheat, sown in the spring, will quence, the established government; in ripen the following summer, though the consequence of which he obtained a produce of succeeding generatioas of dukedom. On attaining the age of ma- spring-sown wheat is found to ripen besjority, he made his appearance in the ter. White, red, awned and beardless English parliament, where he pursued a wheat change and run into each other in line of political conduct diametrically op- different soils and climates; and even the posite to that which he had lately exhib- Egyptian wheat is known to change into ited; distinguishing himself as the warm the single-spiked common plant. The defender of bishop Atterbury, impeached most permanent varieties are the red and as an adherent to the house of Stuart. white grained, and the spring whesi, which is generally red. Wheat succeeds After settling, the precipitate is repeatedbest when treated as a biennial, though it ly washed, and then put in square cakes does not remain above one year in the for drying. The straw of wheat, from ground. Provided the soil be well pre- dry, chalky lands, is manufactured into pared and dry, and the grain sown in hats. Leghorn hats are made from a time, the plants do not suffer from the bearded variety of wheat, not unlike rye, greatest cold, especially if the ground be raised on poor, sandy soils, on the banks covered with snow. Animal substances of the Arno, between Leghorn and Florare the best manure for wheat, as con- ence, expressly for this manufacture. It taining much gluten, a substance found does not grow above eighteen inches in in a greater proportion in this grain than length, is pulled green, and bleached,

like in any other; and next in importance is flax, on the gravelly bed of the river. The lime, as tending to the same effect by straws are not split, which renders the chemical combinations. Wheat yields a plait tougher and more durable. (See greater proportion of flour than any oth- Straw.) We are ignorant of the country er grain, and is also more nutritive. Glu- whence this valuable grain was first deten is so essential an ingredient in bread, rived ; but it was very early cultivated in that fermentation cannot go on without it; Sicily.—Spelt (T. spelta) appears to be hence its inferiority in wet seasons, and a distinct species, and more hardy than when the wheat is blighted or ill ripened; common wheat. It has a stout straw, aland hence the advantage of having a most solid, with strong spikes, and chaff stock of old grain. Wheat starch is made adhering firmly to the grain. The grain by steeping it, and afterwards beating it is light, yields but little flour, and makes in hempen bags. The mucilage, being but indifferent bread. It is raised in Switthus mixed with the water, produces the zerland, in elevated situations, where acetous fermentation, and the weak acid common wheat would not ripen; and also thus formed renders the mueillage white. in Bavaria and other parts of Germany.

Quantity and Destination of Wheat Flour exported from the U. States during ten Years,

from 1821 to October, 1831.

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1821 131,035 551,396 156,888 94,541 1,175 71,958 26,572 9,0743123 10,357 1,056,119 1822 89,840 436,849 211,039 12,096 228 25,10421,375 976 3929 26,429 827,865 1823 29,681 442,468 198,256 4,252 51 62,387 4,752 2,088 903 11,864 756,702 1824 39,191 424,359 357,352 70,873 426 939 25,851 47,449 3883 6,439 996,792 1825 30,780 429,760 252,786 27,272 102 730 3,597 55,818 762315,438 813,906 1826 72,904 433,094 285,563 18,357 275 504 6,11927,7165403 7,885 857,820 1827 107,420 362,674 271,524 53,129 194,293 5,171 52,114 4909 7,238 865,491 1828 86,680 370,371 308,110 23,258 6,266 294 4,061 54,371 1737 5,662 860,809 1829 91,088 248,236 235,591 221,17617,464 509 3,779 14,959 221 4,362 837,385 1830 149,966 281,256 347,290 326,182 56,590 10,222 9,628 36,924 2609 5,2141,225,881 1831 150,645,371,876 319,616 879,43023,991 364 12,811 35,416/2751 8,305 1,805,205

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The value of the wheat exported in 1831
was $523,270 ; of wheat flour, $9,938,458.
Imports of Foreign Wheat and Wheat

Flour into Great Britain in 1829 and


1830. Russia, 341,567 qrs. 235,108 qrs. Sweden,


425 Denmark,

83,288 «

88,103“ Prussia, 353,958 519,573 Germany, 306,966 365,981 Netherlands,

144,5495 76,711 “ France,

14,742 6 Spain,

150,080“ 40,953



28,612 ** 6,931 "

7,2684 5,649

76,654 " . 113,818 “ 184,100“ Jersey, Guernsey, Alder

13,500 5

17,349 « ney, & Man,

British N. Amer

ican colonies, U. States,


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Total imports, 1829, 1,676,077 qrs.; 1830, 1,675,430; 1831, 2,319,461.

WHEEL AND AXLE. (See Mechanics.)

WHEEL-WORK. When an end to be accomplished, in mechanics, cannot be at

48,939 «

tained with convenience by the simple called gear or gearing. The teeth of the wheel and axle (see Mechanics), it fre- wheel, instead of working in the leaves quently becomes necessary to transmit of a pinion, are sometimes made to act the effect of the power to the resistance, upon a form of wheel called a lantern, through a system of wheels and axles with cylindrical teeth or bars, called trunacting upon each other. As the wheel dles or spindles. Wheels are denominated and axle is only a modification of the le- spur, crown, or bevel-gear, according to ver, so a system of such machines, acting the direction or position of the teeth. If one upon another, is only another form the teeth are perpendicular to the axis of of the compound lever. In complex the wheel, and in the direction of its wheel-work, the power is applied to the radii, it is called a spur-wheel. If the teeth circumference of the first wheel, which are parallel to the axis of the wheel, and transmits its effect to the circumference therefore perpendicular to its plane, it is of the second wheel, which again trans, called a crown-wheel. Two spur-wheels, fers the effect to the circumference of the ora spur-wheel and pinion which work in second axle, which acis upon the circum- one another, are always in the same plane, ference of the third wheel, and this, in the and have their axes parallel ; but, when same way, transmits the effect to the cir- a spur and crown-wheel are in connexion, cumference of the third axle, and thus their planes and axes are at right angles. the transmission of the force is continued By this means, therefore, rotatory motion until it has arrived at the circumference may be transferred from a horizontal to a of the last axle, to which the weight or vertical plane, or vice versa. When the resistance is applied. In light work, teeth are oblique to the plane or axis. where the pressure on the machinery is wheel, it is called a bevelled roheel. In this not very considerable, the wheels and case, the surfaces on which the teeth are axles are allowed to work by the friction raised, are parts of the surfaces of two of their surfaces, which is increased by cones. The use of the bevelled wheels is cutting the wood so that the grains of the to produce a rotatory motion round one surfaces in contact shall run in opposite axis, by means of a rotatory motion round directions; also by gluing upon the sur- another which is oblique to it; and, pro faces of the wheels and axles buffed vided that the two axes are in the same leather. There are other ways of trans- plane, this may always be accomplished mitting the force of each axle to the cir- by two bevelled wheels. cumference of the succeeding wheel. A WHEELS, WHEEL CARRIAGES. (See very common method is, by ropes, straps, Locomotion.). bands, or belts, round the circumference WHEELS, WATER. (See Hydraulics.) of the wheel and axle, which act upon WHEELER, sir George, a learned traveleach other. The action is in this manner ler, was born in 1650, and, in 1667, became transmitted by the tension of the rope or a commoner of Lincoln hall, Oxford, on strap, and rendered effective by friction leaving which he travelled into Greece with the circumferences on which it is and Asia, in company with doctor Spon rolled. Wheels aud axles connected in of Lyons, their primary object being to this manner are called band-wheels. When copy inscriptions and describe antiquities. the wheel and axle from which it receives On his return, he presented to the univermotion, are intended to revolve in the sity of Oxford a valuable collection of same direction, the band is not crossed, Greek and Latin manuscripts. In 104. but simply passed round them in the he took orders, obtained a prebend in the shortest manner; but, when the wheel is church of Durham, and was presented to to revolve in a direction contrary to the the rich rectory of Houghton-le-Spring. revolution of the axle, the strap is crossed He was created doctor of divinity in 1702. between them. This latter method of and died in February, 1724. In 1682, he applying the strap, has the advantage of published an account of his journey into having more surface to act upon, and, Greece, in the company of doctor Spon, therefore, having more friction; but the in six books, folio, which is highly valued most usual way of transmitting the action for its authenticity and information, interof the axles to the succeeding wheels, is esting to the medallist, antiquary, and by means of teeth or cogs, raised on their student of natural history, surfaces. When this is the case, the cogs WHEELING, the county town of Ohio on the wheels are generally called teeth, and county, Virginia, is situated on a high, those on the surface of the axle are called gravelly, but alluvial bank of the Ohia a leaves. The axle itself, in this case, is called little above Wheeling creek ; lat. 40° 7X.; a pinion. The connexion of one toothed lon. 80° 42' W.; ninety-five miles below wheel with another, in this manner, is Pittsburgh. The town is surrounded by

hold and precipitous hills, containing in- them too mercifully; and duke Lauderexhaustible quantities of coal. These hills dale told king Charles, with an oath, that come in so near the river as to leave but the duke had been so civil to the whigs a small area for the town; and it is built because he was a whig himself in his principally on one street. The great na- heart. This made it a court word, and, tional road from Baltimore, called the in a little time, the friends and followers Cumberland road, meets the Ohio at this of the duke began to be called whigs; and place. Wheeling is the first town on the they, as the other party did by the word Ohio where certain embarkation in boats tory, took it freely enough to themselves." may be calculated on at low water. It has (Defoe's Review, vii.) Such was the a fine surrounding country, and the land origin of these celebrated party names, back of it, on the creek, is very fertile. which have continued, during the space These circumstances, united with its fa- of 150 years, to be borne by two great vorable position on the Ohio, give it ma- divisions of the English aristocracy, and ny advantages. It is a constant resort for which, at least at many periods, rather travellers, and seems likely to become one deserve the name of factions than of of the most important towns on the river. parties. But the origin of the parties It contains the county buildings, and a great themselves was much earlier, and the number of warehouses, has manufactures line of distinction was strongly drawn in of earthen ware, &c. Many flat and keel the reign of James I, when the long boats are built here, and, of late, steam- struggle between the crown and the parboats in considerable numbers. In 1828, liament commenced. The court and the population was stated, by Mr. Flint, country parties, the roundheads and carat 2500. In 1830, it was 5221, and is aliers, the commonwealth's men or repubrapidly increasing.

licans and the partisans of absolute WHERRY. (See Boat.)

power, naturally arose from the mixed Wher SLATE. (See Slate.)

character and undefined nature of the Whey. (See Milk.)

English constitution, and the peculiar WHIGS AND TORIES. We have already circumstances in which it was placed by given Defoe's account of the origin of the the arbitrary maxims and acts of the latter nickname, under the head Tories. Stuarts, and the growing wealth and in"As to the word whig," says the same telligence of the community. After the writer, “it is Scotch. The use of it be- dissolution of the monarchy, and its subgan then when the western men, called sequent restoration, a new feature apCameronians, took arms, frequently, for peared in the principles of its partisanstheir religion. Whig was a word used, the doctrine of passive obedience and in those parts, for a kind of liquor the indefeasible right, which may be considWestern Highlandmen used to drink, ered the true characteristic of the tory, at whose composition I do not remember,* one period of history. The bigotry and and so became common to the people tyranny of James II united all parties who drank it. It afterwards became a against him; and the 'glorious revolution' denomination of the poor, harassed peo- of 1688 was effected by the combined ple of that part of the country, who, efforts of the whole nation. “The whigs,' being unmercifully persecuted by the says Hume, “ suitably to their ancient government against all law and justice, principles of liberty, which had led them thought they had a civil right to their to attempt the exclusion bill, easily agreed religious liberties, and therefore resisted to oppose a king whose conduct had justhe power of the prince (Charles II). tified whatever his worst enemies had They took arms about 168ì, being the prognosticated concerning his succession. famous insurrection of Bothwell bridge. The tories and the church party, finding The duke of Monmouth, then in favor their past services forgotten, their rights here, was sent against them by Charles, invaded, their religion threatened, agreed and defeated them. At his return, in- to drop, for the present, all overstrained stead of thanks for his good service, he doctrines of submission, and attend to the - found himself ill treated for having used great and powerful dictates of pature.

The nonconformists, dreading the caBurnet (Memoirs of his own Times) says, resses of known and inveterate enemies, that the word whiggam, used by the western deemed the offers of toleration more seScotchmen in driving their horses, was the origin cure from a prince educated in those prinof the term whig applied to them. Others, with ciples, and accustomed to that practice; Defoe, derive it from the Scotch word whig, or wigg, signifying whey. Jamieson (Dictionary of and thus all faction was, for a time, laid the Scotch Language) does not venture to decide. asleep in England; and rival parties, for


getting their animosity, had secretly con- of power and profit were in the hands of curred in a design of resisting their un- the whigs. Of these two parties, the happy and misguided sovereign.” During tories and Jacobites were the most numethe reign of William (1688–1702), the rous. They included a certain number parties were not, therefore, so distinctly of the ancient nobility, and comprehended divided as they had been previously, and a very large proportion of the landed inhave been subsequently. The impeach- terest, and, what gave them a prodigious ment of Sacheverell (q. v.), during the influence in those days, a vast majority reign of queen Anne, again brought the of the parochial clergy. The strength of two theories of government, which formed the whigs lay in the great aristocracy, in the original distinction between the whigs the corporations, and in the trading and and tories, into collision, and, combined moneyed interests. The dissenters, who with some bed-chamber intrigues and held popery in abhorrence, and dreaded court quarrels, resulted in the appoint- the overbearing spirit of the church, were ment of a tory ministry, at the head of warmly attached to a government that which were "Bolingbroke and Oxford. protected their religious liberty, and, as On the accession of the house of Hano- far as it durst, extended to them every ver (1714), the scale was again changed, civil right. It has, perhaps, been fortuand the whole power was now thrown into nate in its results for England, that her the hands of the whigs. (See George I and church was for so many years in hostility II, and Walpole ; on the origin and early to her government. It was during this character and history of these parties, see temporary dissolution of the vaunted Rapin's Dissertation on the Whigs and alliance between church and state, that Tories, and Bolingbroke's Dissertation up- religious freedom, such as it exists among on Parties.) The following remarks from us, struck so deep and vigorous a root as to a celebrated whig journal (Edinburgh Re- withstand every subsequent effort to blightview, vol. xxxvii. p. 21—25) will show en or subvert it. It was during this period the state of parties at that critical period, that the annual indemnity bills were inand how little justice there is in the pre- troduced, which, though they have left the tensions of the whigs to liberal and popu- stigma, have taken from the test act its lar views of government. “The accession sting; and it was during the same period of the house of Hanover divided England that the toleration act received, in practice, into two parties, the whigs, or friends of that liberal interpretation which extends the new establishment, and the tories and its benefits to every possible sect of Jacobites, its secret or avowed opponents. Christians, the unhappy Catholics only The tories, bigoted to the notion of in- excepted.' This protracted struggle be defeasible right in the succession to the tween the adherents of the house of crown, but apprehensive for their religion Hanover and the partisans of the Stuarts, if a papist should mount the throne, were was not, however, unattended with disdistracted between their scruples about advantages. It confounded, for a time, the validity of a parliamentary settlement the ancient distinctions of whig and tory, and their fears lest, in subverting it, they which had turned on constitutional differmight restore, or pave the way for ences of real and eternal importance, and the restoration of the Catholic church. converted two political sects, or parties, Though deterred, by their religious fears, into two factions, contending for the from embarking decidedly in the cause crown. The tories, forced to remain in of the Pretender, they kept on terms with opposition to the government, learned to his friends, and were not unwilling to ape the language, and ended by adopting disturb, though they hesitated to overturn, many of the opinions, of their adversaries a government they disliked, because it The whigs, believing the preservation of was founded on principles they abhorred. their liberties depended on the mainteThe Jacobites, though most of them were nance of the parliamentary settlement of zealous members of the church of Eng. the crown, and finding themselves a miland, had a stronger infusion of bigotry nority in the country, were constrained to in their composition, and were ready to employ measures and sanction proceed. restore a popish family, and submit to a ings from which their ancestors would popish sovereign, rather than own a gov- have recoiled. To counteract the local ernment founded on a parliamentary title. influence of the gentry, they practised It was impossible that either tories or and encouraged corruption both within Jacobites should have the confidence of parliament and without, and thus turned the Hanoverian princes; and, therefore, against their enemies the weapon they while those divisions subsisted, all places had invented under the Stuarts. To

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