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his joy," — to the Philippians,“ his brethren We laid great stress at the outset on the dearly beloved and longed for, his joy and his importance of his Roman citizenship. It was crown!" But we are not left to conjecture. this which prevented his life falling a sacriWe hear of a whole night's discourse at Alex- fice to the caprice or corruption of the procur. andria Troas. We have the tone of his spirit ators of Judæa. It was this which rescued feelingly struck in the short hint that he sent him from the conspiracies of his fellowthe ship round Cape Lectum to Assos —" for countrymen. It was this again which secured thus had he arranged, intending himself to go his transmission to the metropolis. afoot."
But we may turn aside to remark, in the He hastened, therefore, through the southern two apologies delivered by him during this gate, past the hot
springs, and through the oak interval, new proofs of exquisite tact and woods — then in full foliage — which cover all skill. The narrative of his conversion is that shore with greenness and shade, and across common to both. The first is made before the wild water-courses on the western side of the infuriated Jewish multitude in their Ida. Such is the scenery which now surrounds native tongue. He probably foresaw that he the traveller on his way from Troas to Assos. should hardly be heard to its termination. The great difference then was, that there was a But, at all events, it was an opportunity for good Roman road, which made St. Paul's solitary them to hear from his own lips, unvitiated journey both more safe and more rapid than it by the misrepresentations of his enemies, the could have been now. We have seldom had oc- account of the momentous change which casion to think of the Apostle in the hours of befell him. Accordingļy, he uses all his solitude. But such hours must have been caution in his narration. Every word is
possible sought and cherished by one whose whole strength was drawn from communion with God, carefully chosen.. To the Jews he speaks as and especially at a time when, as on this present a Jew. The Christian faith is "this way;" journey, he was deeply conscious of his weakness, the Jews at Damascus are the brethren." and filled with foreboding fears. There may The hated Name is avoided throughout, have been other reasons why he lingered at used but once, and that in the speech of Troas after his companions ; but the desire for another. Ananias is “ a devout man, acsolitude was doubtless one reason among others. cording to the law, having a good report of The discomfort of a crowded ship is unfavorable all the Jews who dwelt there ;'" not a word for devotion ; and prayer and meditation are is breathed about his being "a disciple" necessary for maintaining the religious life even (Acts ix. 10). In the second apology, all the of an Apostle. That Saviour to whose service he circumstances are changed. He is speaking was devoted had often prayed in solitude on the under the safeguard of bis civil privileges, mountain, and crossed the brook Kedron to before the Roman procurator, the Jewish kneel under the olives of Gethsemane. And strength and peace were surely sought and ob-king, and an assemblage of the high officers tained by the Apostle from the Redeemer, as he of both. The detail, so useful in the other pursued his lonely road that Sunday afternoon case, but likely to be wearisome here, is in spring, among the oak woods and the streams altogether dropped. Ananias does not apof Ida. (Conybeare and Howson, vol. ii. p. pear. The “heavenly vision" is represented 214.)
as embracing the whole command given in He had a strong presentiment that this fact through Ananias, and all the weight is would he his last apostolic journey. He had dience to it. Thus we have two distinct determinedly set his face towards Jerusalem. treatments of the same occurrence, both Like his Master, he had a baptism to be bap. strictly within the limits of truth, both complished. He dared not trust himself at admitting of illustration and justification by Ephesus, the scene of his former labors and the ordinary methods of speaking among men, dangers. He might be involved in the one or
adapted with exquisite skill to the different the other anew, and thus his object be foiled. trying circumstances under which the orator But the ship tarried a short day or two at
was placed. Miletus. He sent for the Ephesian elders
We come now to that voyage to Italy, so ho spoke to them his second great discourse materials for the research of the geographer,
full of incident and adventure, so rich in - the noblest extant effusion of love, as that the sailor, and let us add, the psychologist
. at Athens of wisdom.
Then pass rapidly before us the great crises The duties of the two former have been of his course. His apprehensionat Jerusa- admirably fulfilled by an English gentleman, lem — his rescue from the conspiracy of the whose work concludes the list at the head of Jews-- his detention at Cæsarea - all hast- our article. After the labors of Mr. Smith, ened on the fulfilment of the divine announce
there can be no doubt left on any reasonable ment, “As thou hast borne witness at Jeru- mind as to the direction of the Apostle's salem, so thou must bear witness at Rome." course, or the accurate trustworthiness of the
history. The idea that St. Paul was ship * Acts xx. 13.
wrecked not on Malta, but on Melita ar
Meleda, high up in the gulf of Venice, was about him ; the angels of God hovered round ; preposterous enough at any time, when com- waking and sleeping, in thoughts and dreams, pared with the requirements of the narrative; they whispered consolation ; they pronounced his but has now, by an abundance of circum- purpose so blessed, so knit into the divine counsel, stantial evidence of the plainest and most that God would, in its pursuance, defend both satisfactory kind, been fairly scouted out of himself and all that were with him in the ship the field. We cannot follow Mr. Smith (Vol ii., p. 363, f.) through the various interesting steps of the We have now brought the great Apostle to identification of the scene of the shipwreck Rome. And here the shades of evening close with St. Paul's Bay at Malta, but recom- over him, and the apostolic history withdraws mend our readers to study them in the book its guidance. We only know that for two itself, believing that they will find them, as years he continued in custody, but in his own we have done, irrefragable. Mr. Smith has lodging, privately preaching the Gospel. also done excellent service by bringing his We cannot doubt that some of his Epistles naral experience and reading to bear on the date from this imprisonment. Hence he various nautical incidents recorded. He has wrote to the Colossians, to the Ephesians shown that the course adopted under each (for we still believe, notwithstanding the trying circumstance was precisely that which arguments of Conybeare and Howson, and sa good seamanship dictated; that the very many able critics, that it was veritably adshiftings and characteristics of the wind dressed to them), to Philemon, and the affectwere such as are well known to and expected ing letter to the Philippians; the latter in the by sailors in the Levant at that time of the apparent prospect of death. The evidence year. He has elicited some curious results supplied by each of these has been well colrespecting the character of St. Luke's naval lected and applied by many able writers, and knowledge; showing that he was not a sailor, seems unobjectionable and convincing. but a landsman well accustomed to the sea. From this time the shade becomes deeper This point he illustrates by the journals of and more impenetrable. We have yet remainothers similarly situated, and by comparison ing (to say nothing of the much-questioned with the Evangelist's own account of the Epistle to the Hebrews) three letters, two to storm in the Lake of Gennesaret. The book Timotheus and one to Títus, commonly known is full of solid proof and valuable sugges- as the Pastoral Epistles. These, in style and tion; and we may safely say, that a more diction, are so completely distinct from the valuable original contribution to biblical others, that while they bear indubitable knowledge has not been made by any country- marks of the mind and hand of Paul, we must man of ours during the present century. refuse to insert them anywhere in the exist
Bat psychologically this voyage is hardly ing series, but regard them as subsequent, less interesting. The influence acquired by a and in a later manner. If this were once prisoner in chains over the motley assem-established, the important question of a blage congregated in the huge Alexandrian second imprisonment would be also decided; corn-ship, would of itself testify to his being for journeys are spoken of, and events alluded no ordinary character. But when we com- to, which make it impossible that two of bine this with our previous knowledge of the them should have been written in captivity. man and his mission, we hardly could have We cannot pretend here to follow out this testimony more satisfactory to the consis- matter ; we will only cursorily notice two tency of a truthful narrative than this, that points connected with the question :one so described antecedently should have so 1. The statement in 2 Tim. iv. 20, " Trodone and spoken and influenced those about phimus have I left at Miletus sick," has never him. The following beautiful description is received any satisfactory explanation on the from Schrader, whose unworthy rationalism hypothesis of one imprisonment. Those who here completely disappears, and gives place wish to see to what shifts the advocates of that to an enthusiasin far more genial to him :- theory are reduced by those words may refer
to Schaff's Kirchengeschichte, p. 273 b, or Amidst the many dangers which Paul, well- Davidson's useful introduction to the N. T. accustomed to perils by sea, had clearly fore- vol. iii. p. 53. seen, he was the adviser, he was the comforter of all ; like a genius from a higher world, he at the end of the Epistle to the Romans, and
2. There is between the remarkable doxology stood among the men of this earth, carried on the Pastoral Epistles, a curious affinity in ward by the persuasion that he should proclaim the Gospel in this world's metropolis, and before style and dietión. Might it not well have its rulers ; that he should gain for it a new and been that the apostle, reviewing his Epistle noble victory ; that in chains and weakness, not in later days at Romne, subjoined this fervid, in freedom and strength, he was to work its ascription of praise (for the Epistle was work. So lofty was his purpose, so visibly was manifestly complete without it) - and so his God pleased to glorify Himself in him through may it not be synchronous with the Pastoral his captivity, that at midnight it was bright day Epistles? CCCCLXV.
VOL. I. 10
Of the death of St. Paul, we know next to , “ How blessed the swineherd's low estate, nothing. All that tradition tells us, is no The beggar crouching at the gate, more than might be inferred from his own The leper, loathly and abhorred, notices, and therefore probable ; but, on this Whose eyes of flesh beheld the Lord ! very account, of little independent weight. “O sacred soil His sandals pressed ! Gathering the evidence for ourselves, we may Sweet fountains of His noonday rest ! safely assume that he died by martyrdom, 0, light and air of Palestine, and possibly at Rome.
Impregnate with His life divine ! However this may have been, we know that “0, bear me thither! Let me look he regarded his COURSE AS FINISHED. The end
On Siloa's pool, and Kedron's brookfor which he was raised up had been answered. Kneel at Gethsemane, and by A man had been found, who, by birth, by Gennesaret walk, before I die ! training, by privilege, by character, united in himself the many requirements for an Apostle
“ Methinks this cold and northern night
Would melt before that Orient light ; of the nations. By this man's living word,
And, wet by Hermon's dew and rain, the principal churches in the world were
My childhood's faith revive again !" founded. By his written testimony, the principal disputes of Christendom were antici So spake my friend, one autumn day, pated. To this armory went Augustine ; to
Where the still river slid away this, Luther. From this, future champions Beneath us, and above the brown of God's truth and man's right may yet equip
Red curtains of the woods shut down. themselves.
Then said I ; - for I could not brook We regard it as a sign for good, that just The mute appealing of his looknow attention should be directed to the biog-“I, too, am weak, and faith is small, raphy and character of St. Paul. No study And blindness happeneth unto all. could prove so effectual an antidote to the as
“ Yet sometimes glimpses on my sight, sumptions of hierarchical pretension ; - none will afford a more grateful relief from the tin
Through present wrong, the eternal right;
And, step by step, since time began, sel of that frippery Christianity which is now
I see the steady gain of man ; so ostentatiously imported among us. He is above all others the Apostle of individual “That all of good the past hath had religion ; of those things which are true, and
Remains to make our own time glad — honest, and just, and pure, and lovely, and of
Our common, daily life divine, good report. His course was a life-long and
And every land a Palestine. single-hearted striving after one glorious pur- "Thou weariest of thy present state ; pose with no side-aims nor reservation. What gain to thee time's holiest date?
The more such a character is known and The doubter now perchance had been appreciated, the better Protestants shall we As High Priest or as Pilate then! be, and the better Christians.
“What thought Chorazin's scribes ? What faith
In Him had Nain and Nazareth ?
Of the few followers whom he led, J. G. WHITTIER has just issued a new vol
One sold Him—all forsook and fled. ume of Poems, called “- The Chapel of the “0, Friend ! we need nor rock nor sand, Hermits and other Poems." From the prel Nor storied stream of Morning-Land ; ude we take the following lines :
The heavens are glassed in Merrimack
What more could Jordan render back? “I do believe, and yet in grief, I pray, for help to unbelief ;
“We lack but open eye and ear For needful strength aside to lay
To find the Orient's marvels here ; The daily cumberings of my way.
The still, small voice in autumn's hush,
Yon maple wood the burning bush. “I'm sick at heart of craft and cant, Sick of the crazed enthusiasts' rant,
“For still the new transcends the old Profession's smooth hypocrisies,
In signs and tokens manifold ;And creeds of iron, and lives of ease.
Slaves rise up men ; the olive waves
With roots deep-set in battle graves ! “ I ponder o'er the sacred Word,
* Through the harsh noises of our day, I read the record of our Lord ;
A low, sweet prelude finds its way; And, weak and troubled, envy them
Through clouds of doubt, and creeds of fear, Who touched His seamless garment's hem ; A light is breaking, calm and clear. “Who saw the tears of love He wept
“ That song of Love, now low and farAbove the grave where Lazarus slept ;
Ere long shall swell from star to starAnd heard, amidst the shadows dim
That light, the breaking day, which tips Or Olivet, His evening hymn.
The golden-spired Apocalypse !"
From Hogg's Instructor. Ibeen said of his self-consciousness, we must SIR EDWARD LYTTON BULWER LYTTON, recognize the same crowning merit. In inBART.
ferior artists, again, this power of individual
creation becomes weaker ; in Schiller, in By“ NOWHERE is painting, by pen or pencil, 80 ron, and even in Shelley, subjective elements inadequate as in delineating spiritual nature. forever mingle with, and render imperfect, the The pyramid can be measured in geometric creations of art. In all cases, the truer the feet, and the draughtsman represents it with artist, the more difficult is it, in his producall its environment, on canvas, accurately to tions, to discern the reflection of the man. the eye; nay, Mont Blanc is embossed in It is too true, on the other hand, that the colored stucco, and we have his very type and utterance of the artist may by no means conminiature fac-simile in our museums. But sist with the actions of the man ; and even for great men, let him who would know such where traces of self-portraiture are manifest, pray that he may see them daily face to face ; we cannot be assured that they will not for, in the dim distance, and by the eye of deceive us. The end of man, as we have imagination, our vision, do what we may, will known for one or two millenniums, is an be too imperfect." These are the words of action, not a thought; and in this truth is inhim who is facile princeps among the bio- volved the following — that the test of mangraphic essayists of the day; they are used hood is action, and not thought, or at least by him as he commences to convey to his ostensible thought. Were the history of speaking canvas the lines and features of Coleridge utterly unknown, at what strange Schiller's intellectual countenance. Of Schil- conclusions respecting his personal character ler, he knew very much more than could be would we probably arrive! To mention but gathered from his artistic productions ; he one of his poeins and one trait of character, had perused his letters, he knew each event let us imagine ourselves forming our idea of of his history, he could tell how he had com- his energy from the “ Religious Musings." ported himself in each remarkable occurrence What clearness, we would say, what fiery of his life. And yet he says, and says most earnestness, what strength as of a world-voltruly, that more than all this was necessary; cano heaving mountains at the stars ! Nor and his words apply to men who cannot be would the study of the “ Friend” materially distinctively called great. But how are the dif- affect our decision; and we would probably ficulties of the task of the mental portrait- arrive at the ultimate conclusion, that the painter increased, if the private history of man Coleridge had been certainly of a lofty, the man whom he portrays is almost entirely contemplative mind, but that his high ideal unknown to him; if he has to draw every tint, soul had rolled majestically along on the not from the living face of nature and life, wheels of action. And yet, who can for a but as seen through the multiform and chang- moment forget that the writer of “ Religious ing media of published works? To produce a Musings" furnishes in his own person the likeness of the man, of which he can say most melancholy instance upon record of the with unfaltering confidence that it is true, is separation between action and thought? well-nigh impossible. It is so mainly for The subject of our present notice here comes two reasons ; because, in the first place, the to help us out of our difficulty, or rather to artist should not coufound himself with his assist us in convincing the reader that it is a creations, and because, secondly, the senti- great difficulty of which we speak. “If it ments of the lip and pen may be very different were necessary,” says Sir Edward, "that from those which find embodiment in the practice squared with precept. .: our action and the life.
monitors would be few. Our opinions, You can discover from the works of an artist young Englishmen, are the angel part of us; what are his powers, but precisely in propor- our actions the earthly." Yet it is only the tion to his perfection as an artist will he con- angel part that we generally find in the ceal what are his feelings, what he himself is. works of an author, and, if he is a perfect Shakspeare, as all critics have remarked, artist, we shall get not even this, but merely bodies forth every creation with the definite the objective creations of art, over which, individuality of life ; you cannot say Shak- save in imparting to them life, the artist has speare speaks more in the mystic contempla- strictly no power. In writing of our hero, tion of Hamlet than in the gross actualism of we should always like to consult his valet. the gravedigger, in the kingly tones of Othello Moved by these and like considerations, we than in the intense, lynx-eyed baseness of do not feel ourselves entitled to pronounce an. Iago, in the ethereal music of Ariel than in authoritative decision, which would embrace the tuneless groanings of Caliban ; in each his whole character, respecting the distininstance, there is the self-originated utterance guished man whose portrait we on this occaof distinct existence. In the case of Goethe sion present to our readers. We do not know the same holds true, though, certainly, less enough of Sir Edward to speak of him as a. completely In Milton, despite what has man; we address ourselves to consider him.
as a writer. And surely here the task which | Deterioration in quality must accompany presents itself to our view is of a difficult excessive increase in quantity ; public taste nature. To specify the works of Sir Edward may thus come to be fatally tainted ; and so would fill a paragraph ; to give the most the result apprehended by Sir Edward seems cursory view of each to our readers, would too likely to ensue. But we would cling to a fill half a number ; to consider each fully in better hope. We think a task devolves upon its artistic perfection, its relation to the criticism, and a very important one; we author's mind, and its bearing upon the age, believe that an enlightened, uncompromising, would fill a large and tensely written volume. and impartial criticism might do much. It is evident that selection must be made, and Surely, if criticism were well awake, certain that minute delineations cannot be attempted ; gross deviations from anything like artistie but even on such conditions we feel that the correctness would not be suffered to continue ; work of compression will be difficult. Sir and most gross are the absurdities and artistic Edward Lytton Bulwer, in his aspect of blunders committed in this very department literary man, comes before us in four different of novel-writing. We believe the novel to characters at the very least; as novelist, as be a form of composition admitting the everpoet, as historian, and as public teacher. To cise of the highest genius, adapted to convey these we might add the characters of trans- most powerfully the noblest instruction, and lator, political writer and dramatist; but we peculiarly suited to embrace statements or prefer embracing these under one or other of solutions of the great probleins of humanity. the titles above specified. We shall conduct We cannot, we regret to say, enter at any our brief survey in the order we have adopted length upon the subject here. Suffice it to above; and first, of Sir Edward as novelist. say, that the novel, at least as strictly as any
The vast prevalence of the fictitious style of other form of composition, must be true. The composition in the present day cannot fail to garb is simply nothing; it may be of gold, or strike the most casual observer. It is a it may be of iron, but the truth it contains is sign, and an important sign, of the times. the matter of importance. In what sense, Much were to be said upon the subject, did then, must a novel be true, since its plot is space permit, but we are compelled to con- known to be a mere form of delivery? Is dense our remarks into the smallest possible must be true to nature. To say it may be compass. Sir Edward himself has cast his ideal and above nature, is to fall into an error eye upon the phenomenon, and favored us in critical analysis ; the ideal is as much with deliverance thereon. Literature,” he natural as the actual ; it belongs to the says in a note to his " Athens" – -" literature domain of spiritual nature, which is surely as commences with poetical fiction, and usually real as physical nature. But the formula terminates with prose fiction. It was so in “ true to nature" may seem vague, and must the ancient world – it will be so with Eng- be more accurately defined. The province land and France. The harvest of novels is, of the novel, in its widest expression, is life ; I fear, a sign of the approaching exhaustion of life in every aspect, under every condition of the soul."! This is certainly an opinion which circumstance ; life as bounded by the laws by no means Aatters that department of of the actual world we live in, or life under literature which the speaker has so brilliantly the conditions of a perfect humanity and a adorned ; but we fear it contains much of perfect social system. As its province is life. truth. When men, like overgrown children, so the actors in the novel are drawn from life cry out for amusement, and when authors, in all its aspects; hence the ultimate work responding to the cry, all rush forward with of the novelist is to portray character. Here, their wares, careless in great part of artistic again, we must guard against error from a merit, and adopting as their motto the words, misconception of the ideal. Character may *** who peppers the highest is surest to please, be true to nature, though it has no actual the prospects of literature may be considered present existence on the earth ; but it must dark. Why gird on the armor of the legion- ever be true to the conditions of humanity. ·ary, when the light arms are as effective; The nature with which the ideal concerns why earnestly gaze on the face of nature for and connects itself, is a nobler nature than the revelation of the beautiful, or dig sedu- the actual ; if we consider well, we will find lously in the mines of thought for the true, that the actual is, in a true and important if tinsel passes well enough with the “ gen- sense, less natural than the ideal; for the eral reader” for the one, and pointless com- ideal is always somebodying forth of that monplace, or cloudy sentimentality, or. mere first and noble nature from which humanity bluster, for the other? And is not this too has fallen, and to whích, beyond the portals of much the case among us at present? Towards time, it shall yet attain. To portray the i novel-writing there is a tremendous attraction ideal is the highest possible effort of the : at present for every entrant into the ranks novelist; as indeed it is of the epic poet and of literature ; if the gold of heaven gleams dramatist. elsewhere, here, at least, is the gold of earth. But this is a province which has hardly been