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be a disposition on the part of men to be very tolerant of women who were wellfavored or young, and at least an equal disposition on their part to be tolerant of woman who were old and ugly. Let the tenderness of Colonel Hobson testify.

to clear herself, consented to be ducked; and the parish officer promised her a quince if she should sink. The place appointed was by the river Ous, by a mill. There were, I believe, 500 spectators. About 11 o'clock in the forenoon the woman came, and was tied up in a wet sheet, all but her face and hands; her toes were tied close together, as were also her thumbs, and her hands tied to the small of her legs. They fastened a rope about her middle, and then pulled off her cap to search for pins (for their notion is, if they have but one pin in them, they won't sink).

In the year sixteen 'forty-nine the people of Newcastle-upon-Tyne were much troubled with witches, and two of the town-sergeants were despatched to Scotland in order to enter into agreement with a Scottish witch-finder. On the arrival at Newcastle of this public functionary, the magistrates of the town sent the bellman through the streets, inviting any person to bring up suspected witches for examination. Thirty women were accordingly produced at the town-hall, and most of them, after trial by the thrusting of pins into the flesh, were pronounced guilty. The witch-finder informed Colonel Hobson that he knew whether or not women were witches by their looks, but when the said person was searching a personable and well-favored woman the Colonel replied and said, “Surely this woman is none, and need not be tried." But the Scot said, "Yea, she was, for the town said she was, and therefore he would try her." Presently afterwards he ran a pin into her, and set her aside as a child of Satan. Colonel Hobson proved on the spot that the man was deceived grossly, whereupon the witch-strings which tied her; had carried her back to finder cleared the woman, and said she was not a child of Satan. Nineteen women were ordered to be burnt at Newcastle upon the conviction of this man, who then went into Northumberland where he tried witches at three pounds a-head. It is poor consolation to be told that this ruffian himself died on the gallows, when it has to be added that he confessed himself to have caused the death of two hundred and twenty women in England and Scotland, and, taking them all around, to have earned about a pound upon each job.

"When all the preliminaries were settled, she was thrown in. But, unhappily for the poor creawhile under water. Upon this there was a conture, she floated, though her head was all the fused cry: A witch! a witch! Drown her! Hang her! She was in the water about a minute and a half, and was then taken out half-drowned. When she had recovered breath, she was tried twice more but with the same success; for she floated each time, which was a plain demonstration of guilt to the ignorant multitude! For, notwithstanding the poor creature was laid down upon the grass speechless and almost dead, they were so far from showing any pity or compassion, that they strove who should be the most forward in loading her with reproaches-such is the dire effect of popular prejudices! For my part, I stood against the torrent; and when I had cut the

the mill, and endeavored to convince the people of the uncertainty of the experiment, and offered to lay five to one that any woman of her age, so tied up, in a loose sheet, would float; but all to no purpose, for I was very near being mob'd. Some time after the woman came out, and one of the to try a witch-which was to weigh her against company happened to mention another experiment the Church Bible; for a witch, it seems, could not outweigh it. I immediately seconded the motion (as thinking it might be of service to the poor woman), and made use of an argument which (though weak as K. James for their not sinking) had some weight with the people; for I told them that if she was a witch, she certainly dealt with word of God, it must weigh more than all the the devil, and as the Bible was undoubtedly the works of the devil. This seemed reasonable to several, and those that did not think so, could not answer it. At last the question was carried, and she was weighed against the Bible, which weighed about 12 pounds. She outweighed it. This convinced some and staggered others; but the parson, who believed through thick and thin, went away fully assured that she was a witch, and endeavored to

Of the trial of witches by water every one has heard. A scene like the following used in fact to be one of the incidents of ordinary life in English villages, and was not altogether rare when this letter was written, a hundred and eighteen years since, to the London Magazine:

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Oakley, three miles from Bedford. "SIR,-The people here are so prejudiced in the belief of witches that you would think yourself in Lapland, was you to hear their ridiculous stories. There is not a village in the neighborhood but has two or three. About a week ago I

was present at the ceremony of ducking a witch, a particular account of which may not perhaps be disagreeable to you.

"An old woman of about 60 years of age had long lain under an imputation of witchcraft, who being anxious for her own sake and her children

*King James's argument why witches would not sink was this: they had renounced their baptism by water, and therefore the water would not receive them.

inculcate that belief in all others. I am, &c., beat her on the face, breast, and stomach &c." with the wooden bar of her door. When left to herself she crawled for protection A hundred years ago, three men were to the constable and was refused it; but tried at Hertford for the murder of Ruth in the house of a merciful woman, who Osburn, who was suspected as a witch. was a widow, she found refuge, and the The overseers of the parish wishing to widow, Alice Russell, bound her neighsave the woman (who was seventy years bor's wounds, and put her into her own of age), from threatened danger, removed bed. By this Christian deed, she incurred her and her husband to the workhouse. the wrath of the people brutalized by suA body of about five thousand people, perstition, and was subjected by them to however, assembled at Tring, and behaved indignities, and kept in a state of inceswith so much violence that the authori- sant terror, whereof twelve days afterties were at length obliged to give up the wards she died. But on the day after the victim. The poor woman was so much ill-first outrage, Anne Izzard was again dragtreated by the ignorant mob in their ex- ged out for ill-usage, after which she took periments to prove whether she was a refuge under the roof of the clergyman, witch, that she died shortly after. who was blamed sorely for the shelter he afforded.

The belief in witches, even at this day, survives in many corners of the land, among an untaught people; while superstition of the grossest kind, though not the most atrocious, is to be met with everywhere. In the London drawing-room of the wealthy conoisseur in rappings; in the remote hovel of the poor man, who to avoid misfortune, is induced to swallow

It is not fifty years since Mr. Nicholson, the incumbent of Great Paxton, in Huntingtonshire, preached against the belief in witchcraft to his ignorant parishioners, and told them some of his experience. A poor woman, the mother of eight children, persecuted as a witch, had gone to him weeping, protesting innocence, and asking leave to prove it by being weighed against the pulpit Bible. Mr. Nicholson then expostulated with his people in the necromantic mixtures, and among whose church, but to no purpose, for soon after-household treasures are to be found conwards their violence increased. At St. stantly such documents as this: "The Noet's market a woman coming home in gar (jar) of mixture is to be mixt with half the wagon, was about to put her parcel of a pint of gen (gin), and then a table-spoon grocery on the top of some corn-sacks, to be took mornings at Eleven O'clock, and was advised by Anne Izzard, a neigh-four and eigt, and four of the pills to be bor, not to do so; she did it, nevertheless, took every morning fasting, and the paper and on the way home, by some accident, of powder to be divided in ten parts, and the wagon was upset. This set the whole one part to be took every night Going village in an uproar, and on the following to bed in a little honey. The paper of Sunday night, its inhabitants went in a arbs (herbs) is to be burnt a small bit at a mass to the unhappy woman's cottage, time, on a few cooles with a little hay and dragged her naked from her bed, dashed rosemery, and whiles it is burning, read her head against the stones of the cause- the two first verses of the 68 Salm, and way, mangled her arms with pins, and say the Lord's prayer after."

LITERARY MISCELLANIES.

THE press has been unusually active during the past month, favoring the public with more and better issues than usual. We have time to notice only a few, in a cursory manner. Mr. Prescott's long-expected Philip II. has made its appearance, realizing to the full all the expectations entertained both of subject and author. Mr. Abbott has supplemented his Life of Napoleon by a handsome volume in uniform entitled, "Napoleon at St. Helena," detailing with utmost particularity all the facts of the Emperor's exile as related by his friends, Las Casas, Montholon, O'Meara, &c.

MESSES. Carter have published a few valuable works, among which the "Chart of History," by Rev. John Young, may be mentioned as possessing preeminent ability and value. A better specimen of inductive reasoning it has seldom fallen to our lot to

read.

vine.

MR. Dodd augments his useful list by several new works and new editions. A new edition of Dr. Spring's admirable work, "The Contrast between Good and Bad Men Mentioned in the Bible," in two vols., furnishes religious readers a volume of great excellence, both of sentiment and style. Wise, candid reasoning and an admirable spirit are qualities which distinguish the writings of this venerated di"The Wonderful Phials" is a lively tale for young readers, from the French, in which the vivacity of conversation and the excellence of moral are equally commendable. "One Word More" is a candid and affectionate appeal to unbelievers, in behalf of the verity of the Scriptures, and the obligations of religion, by John Neal of Portland. "The World's Jubilee" is an inquiry into the probable state and destination of our world, after the winding up of the Gospel dispensation. It insists upon the generally received doctrines in this respect; reasoning them with much ingenuity and fairness, and making a good impression upon both the reader's conscience and under-eries. standing. The author is Miss Anna Shipman.

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Berlin is but 25 works behind the great publishing mart of Germany. After these two great centres, come Stuttgard, with 197 publications; Hamburgh, 96; Munich, 93; Ratisbon, Frankfort on the Main, and Halle, each, 62; Breslau, 56; and Castty Dresden, Brunswick, Erlangen, and Weimar, with many others, yet smaller. In the thirteen cities which have been named, have appeared in all 2018 works, nearly two thirds of the whole number. It is not less interesting to know the part taken in this publishing of books by the different States of Germany. Here Prussia is far in advance of her neighbors; she has produced 1242 works, when Saxony has only printed 724; Austria, 715; Bavaria, 397; Wurtemberg, 270; Hanover, 109. The lowest ranks in this scale of production are occupied by the city of Lubeck, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, and the Principality of Waldeck; each have issued but three publications; Lippe Detwold only two; Antarlt Bernbourg and Hesse Hambourg, one single one each. Besides these, many German works have been published in other countries; 155 in Switzerland; 31 in Russia; 16 in Hungary; 12 in France; 10 in Belgium; 6 in Denmark; 3 in Holland; 1 in England; in all 235. This statement gives us the total of all the works published in the German language, during the first half of the present year, 4114.

THE misunderstanding between the British government and the Royal Society is at an end. We have much satisfaction in stating that the government has ordered the sum of £1000 to be placed at the disposal of the Royal Society this year for scientific purposes, and has informed the Council of the Society that a similar sum will be annually included in the miscellaneous estimates for the advancement of science.

DR. Barth is receiving in his own country the reward of his laborious travels and interesting discovThe king of Wurtemberg has conferred on him the order of the Wurtemberg Crown.

WE read the following in the Daily News: "It is proposed by the Schiller Union, at Leipsic, to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Schiller's birthday by sending diplomas of honor to those who by the pencil, dramatic art, criticism, translation, or otherwise, have distinguished themselves in extending and advancing the fame of the great poet. The names of Carlyle, in England; Adler-Mesnard and Hase, in France; and Maffei, in Milan, are among the names mentioned as entitled to this honor. Genoa paper announces a discovery at Rancla, in Egypt, of a great number of coins of the period of the Ptolemies, together with some other Egyptian antiquities, said to be of great interest. A guard has sion of these treasures. been placed over the ground to prevent the disper

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IN the Library of the British Museum may be seen a book printed in Low Dutch, containing upwards of sixty specimens of paper, made of differ

ent articles, the result of one man's experiments as early as 1772. In the manufacture of paper, almost every species of tough, fibrous vegetable, and even animal substances, has at one time or another been employed: the roots of trees, their bark, the vine of hops, the tendrils of the vine, the stalks of the nettle, the common thistle, the stem of the hollyhock, the sugar-cane, cabbage-stalks, wood-shavings, sawdust, hay, straw, willow, and the like, have all been used, says Herring in his work on modern and ancient paper-making, in the manufacture of paper.

THERE is a printing-office in Paris capable of printing the Lord's Prayer in three hundred different languages.

THERE are more than fifty Art Unions in Germany, some of which are connected among themselves, so as to form distinct provinces or districts (Kreise). The Northern district comprises the Unions of Bremen, Hamburgh, Lübeck, Rostock, Stralsund, and Griefswald; the Eastern district contains the Unions of Dantzig, Königsberg, Stettin, and Breslau; the Western district embraces the Unions of Hanover, Brunswick, Halberstadt, Magdeburg, Halle, Götha, and Hesse Cassel; in the Rhenish district we find the Unions of Darmstadt, Mannheim, Stuttgart, Carlsruhe, Freiburg, Strasburg, and Mayence; and, lastly, in the Thuringian district, those of Erfurt, Naumburg, Jena, Nordhausen, Suhl, and Muhlhausen. Independent Unions are those of Dusseldorf, Cologne, Münster, Potsdam, Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Dresden, Leipzig, Vienna, Prague, Salzburg, Pesth, Raab, Frankfort on the Maine, and Wiesbaden. There is no Art Union in Berlin, but every year a large academical Exhibition. In the course of last year, 1549 pictures, realizing a total amount of 195,404 thalers, have been sold by the combined means of the German Art Unions, including the sales of the Berlin Academical Exhibition.

PROFESSOR Aug. Stober, of Mülhausen (Alsatia), author of the literary monography, "Der Dichter Lenz and Friederike von Sessenheim," has just pub lished a biographical sketch, "Der Actuar Salzmann Göthe's Freund und Fisch, genosse in Strasburg." It is said to be full of interesting details referring to Göthe's abode at Strasburg, and to dwell minutely upon many incidents merely hinted at by Göthe in "Wahrheit und Dichtung," so much so that it may be considered, with regard to that epoch of Göthe's life, a valuable supplement to his autobiography. Besides some unpublished letters of Göthe, it contains letters of Lenz L. Wagner, Michaelis Hufeland, and others, and different communications about Werther and Lotte, from the diary of the late Rev. Jeremias Meyer.

THE first translation of Schiller's entire works into Russian has just been brought out at Moscow. Our

Dresden correspondent tells us that in the Berlin collection of this author's autograph letters and papers, 140 have been proved beyond doubt to be false; they are principally poems.

SIR Thomas Browne is said to have written "A

Dialogue between two Twins yet unborn, respecting the World into which they were going;" but no trace of it could be discovered by Mr. Wilkin when he published his edition of the works of Browne.

EVERY body knows what "Foolscap-paper," is but would perhaps be puzzled to tell how it came to bear that singular cognomen. Well, as fairy tales say, once upon a time, some two hundred years ago, when Charles I. found his revenues short, he granted certain privileges amounting to monopolies. Among these was the manufacture of paper, the exclusive right of which was sold to certain parties who grew rich and enriched the government at the expense of those who were obliged to use paper. At this time all English papers bore in water marks the Royal Arms. But the misfortunes which attend all monarchs, befell Charles early, and when his blood had crimsoned the scaffold, the Parliament under Cromwell made jests and jeers at his law in every conceivable manner. Among other indignities to the memory of Charles, it was ordered that the Royal Arms be removed from the paper, and the fool's cap and bells be substituted. These also were removed when the Rump Parliament was prorogued, but paper of the size of that Parliament's Journals still bears the name of "Foolscap."

SOME unpublished letters of the witty Earl of Chesterfield have just turned up. In one he gives a lengthened criticism on Richardson's novels, and observes that when Richardson gets into high life he loses himself, and is untrue to high life. This is said, we understand, especially of "Sir Charles Grandison." The letters are now in Lord Stanhope's possession.

COUNT Ficquelmont is engaged on a work anticipated by diplomatists with great interest. It is a diplomatic history of Europe since the Congress of Vienna.

entitled to take rank amongst literary persons, by LORD Wharncliffe, whose death is just recorded, is virtue of a pamphlet on "The Abolition of the ViceRoyalty of Ireland," and another on "The Instituborn in 1801, and took an honorable degree at Oxtion of Tribunals of Commerce." His lordship was ford in 1821. He was the son of Mr Stuart Wortley, conspicuous as a politician during the closing years of the reign of George the Third, and created Lord Wharncliffe in 1826. The late Lord was a greatgrandson of Lady Mary Wortley Montague, whose only daughter, it will be remembered, married the Earl of Bute.

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ECLECTIC MAGAZINE

OF

FOREIGN LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND ART.

FEBRUARY, 18 5 6.

From the New Monthly Magazine.

THE PALACE OF FONTAINEBLEAU.

"IF," says a modern French writer, "there ever was a palace that appealed to the imagination, it is Fontainebleau. Here we invoke recollections of all ages, the mysterious visits of ancient kings, the most pompous scenes in French history, the great artists employed here-all in their day busy as bees in a hive. Brilliant galleries, priceless pictures, fine statues, a perfect mosaic of architecture, showing the varieties of ages, tastes, and talents that have been displayed in the construction of this palace, a vast forest near with its verdant shade, spreading oaks, and wonderful traditions-all, in a word, tells of grandeur, poetry, and art; every thing inspires the beholder with a desire of knowing from its very origin to the present day one of the finest monuments in France."

Fontainebleau does not afford those symmetrical proportions favorable to description. This royal residence, enlarged at different periods by succeeding monarchs, justifies the bon mot of a witty Englishman, who called it "a rendezvous of châteaux."

The different elements of which it is composed form an exception to all ar

VOL. XXXVII.-NO. IL

chitectural rules in any other known structure. They serve as an index to the state of the arts in France during three centuries-a history in themselves. Sebastian Sertio, Jamin, le Primatice, Du Cerceau, Mansard, all successively assisted in its erection.

Historians are not well agreed as to the derivation of the name of Fontainebleau. A great number considered it to be a corruption of Fontaine-belle-eau, on account of the fresh and abundant springs that are found here; but this etymology, though poetical, is not true. It appears that Bleau was the name of a person, the proprietor of the ground, who was the first to construct a habitation near the spring.

However, it is very difficult to fix the precise period of the foundation of this celebrated royal residence. It has been successively attributed, without sufficient reason, to various princes, such as Robert, Louis VII., and Louis IX. It is certain, that towards the middle of the twelfth century a forest and a royal residence existed at Fontainebleau. A donation of the time of Louis VII. to some neighboring monks bears this inscription: "Actum

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