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THE LAST RESORT FOR IRELAND. shores, to eat the bread of charity ; they strive to It is surely impossible that Irish affairs can go wring a pauper-squatter's subsistence out of the on as they have done—the English people will not soil, by deterring landlords from collecting their bear it. They are beginning to understand Irishism rents or changing their tenants ; and if their desbetter. So long as Ireland was really oppressed, titution is not in all cases and in all parts voluntary,

wrongs of Ireland” were always translated the generally low condition which subjects them to to be the crimes of English officials ; but now the the chances of that condition has been the choice English are beginning to understand with painful of the ignorant Irish, abetted, if not applauded, by distinctness how much was contributed to the those educated Irish who set up for patriots, and wrongs of Ireland” by her own children. Do not are now coming as sturdy beggars to the British let us be told of exceptions to the general conduct : parliament. But England has learned to know such there are, no doubt, and large exceptions; their case, and their reception will be different but the bad spirit belongs to the widest districts, to from what it has been. Mr. Roebuck is out of the the most multitudinous classes, to the most active. house, but they will find his spirit there. The good exceptions are too weak, too passive, per

How will ministers venture to grant money ? haps, to act on what is properly the national char- Already influential writers have been recommendacter. Rebellion was a crime easily excused by ing, in so many words, that the Irish should be left

oppression,” but rebellion was far from being to starvation if nothing else will teach them. And the worst crime committed by Irishmen; nor is although Mr. Trevelyan and General Burgoyne, their propensity to murder their worst-nor their too close to the misery of the wretched people and conspiracy-nor their repudiation of contracts to over-imbued with a natural feeling of compassion, pay rent and other social obligations: their most have by anticipation indorsed the begging appliheinous and deplorable treason is their treachery cations, yet Lord Clarendon has been addressing to truth, and the worst shape of that delinquency is the Irish themselves in quite an opposite sense. the systematic falsehood which is employed by From Lord Clarendon to Mr. Campbell Foster, “ Irish patriots” to flatter the weaknesses and bad such objectors speak with a knowledge of the passions of their countrymen. These are strong feeling in England, and of the necessity. The terms, and we pause while we use them ; but they Irish, flattered in their suicidal weaknesses, have are the only terms equal to express the fact. The made their own case impracticable, and have exgrossest “ wrongs of Ireland” are those inflicted hausted the patience of England. by educated Irishmen, who teach their countrymen

For it is not a mere dislike to give money that to look for subsistence to other things than indus- will confront the representative beggars: England is try—who call the enforcement of rent

not close-fisted, and enough could be found for propmination”—who extenuate murder by a quibbling er uses.

It is that in Ireland the money does no set-off which calls the landlords“ murderers'' good. It excites no gratitude ; but as soon as the who are coming from those that will not work to Irish have received it, they turn round upon us and importune hard-working England for money. Yes, say that we have only injured them—that we misparliament reässembles, and a reinforcement of apply the alms—that it was their own alreadythese patriots stands open-mouthed 20 burst upon nay, they will even say that it has not reached the British Commons with the old nauseous mix-them! “ Thank you for nothing' is the Irish ture of vituperation, falsehood, and mendicant im-) thanks for ten millions. Well, even that might portunity.

be got over ; but the money really does seem to But that infliction is not the worst that England work mischief. It makes the Irish worse beggars will have to endure. There are false facts as well-it is a premium to them to be more destitute, as false words. We know in England that the more helpless, until the very heaping up of aid destitution of our professional beggars is not al- seems to extinguish hope. The demand for monways feigned-sach is not the sole form of beggary; ey will be hateful, not only for its begging imbut misery is often voluntarily incurred: the beg- portunity, but for its thrusting these convictions gar prefers the passive endurance of privation to an irresistibly on the English mind. industrious struggle for his bread. What distin A change of policy towards Ireland, therefore, is guishes the lowest class in the scale of English unavoidable. Last week we indicated the nature society is a national characteristic in Ireland. of the only innovation that is practicable—a thorHow shameful a reproach !—and yet the indigna- ough enforcement of every law. We see that tion felt in England is less provoked by the knowl- the idea has taken root elsewhere, and probably it edge of having been imposed upon, than by de- will reappear in the substantial form of ministerial spair at finding that the Irish will not be helped measures. We believe that for any ministry which They cry out that they want “capital :" but af- does not wish to become the object of odium and ter all it is a mere pretext. Capital is but “ ac- contempt in England, there is but one alternative cumulated labor ;” and if the Irish want it, the to that policy of thorough enforcement : the union reason is that there has been no labor accumu- must be thoroughly carried out—all must be done lated. The Irish preferred to live miserably on for Ireland that would be done for a part of Engthe potato because it required the minimum of la- land, and no less exacted from Ireland—or Ireland bor ; they prefer now to live miserably on alms must cease to be a part of the same kingdom : from England ; they neglect the fish at their very there must be an English measure of Repeal.

exter

That repeal, too, must be thoroughly carried force allegiance to the laws ?-Spectator, 20 Novemout. If Ireland cannot continue to form part of the ber. United Kingdom, the United Kingdom must be quite freed from the embarrassing connection. The

EXTERMINATION AND VENGEANCE." repeal of the union must be absolute, complete, and accompanied by due precautions—by an alien act, “EXTERMINATION” is the offence alleged by protecting the English. laborer from the competition Irish incendiaries, lay and clerical, against the of the hostile Celt, whose standard of remuneration landlords : we have this week full explanations of ranks just above starving, though his indifferent conduct in two instances to which this term had industry and squalid habits make him anything but been applied, and they throw much light on the cheap at the money ; and the whole Western coast Irish meaning of the word. Mr. Ussher was deof Great Britain must be fortified against Celtic nounced from the altar as an “exterminator,” has inroad. The ministers of England must either been a target for the aim of the assassin, and is now manage Ireland as England is managed, with equal again denounced : it appears, however, that the laws and equal responsibility of the subject; or exterminator is what in England we should call an England must be relieved of the connection. improving landlord. So it was with Major Mahon.

With all her improvidence, what dark, despair. The case of Mr. Ormsby Gore is very instructive. ing dismay would strike on the soul of Ireland at The Irish papers, alluding to his estate of Legasuch a course ! Imagine the return of the Irish la- nommer, had a terrific story of “extermination in borers, in sudden multitudes regurgitated on the Leitrem,” full of direct falsehoods. Setting aside shores—not coming back with the wages of an smaller matters, it appears that the tenants on the English harvest, but dismissed, forever dismissed estate owed rent for several years, in some infrom England, her employment, and her comforts. stances for as many as twelve or fourteen ; one Call upon the busy and clever “leaders” of the year's rent was demanded, under pain of a twelvepeople—the O'Connells and the O'Briens, the month's notice to quit: not a shilling of rent was Reynoldses and the Meaghers, to say how they offered, and the notice was enforced ; but the enwould provide for all those ultitudes added to forcement was accompanied with a declaration that their own. Would they give them employment? those who could not retain their holdings would be -How? What industrious work is it that re-aided by their landlord to emigrate to America. pealers, “ Young” or “Old,” provide for their Such is the conduct which the Irish incendiaries countrymen ? Would they give them money ?- name “extermination.” It is well, in the apWhence? There would be no English millions to proaching debates, that the Irish meaning of that snatch without thanks. Would they emigrate ?- word should be understood. In what ships ? Would they give food? What food ? “ Give a dog an ill name, and hang him," is They have not been teaching their countrymen to rendered into the Irish dialect,“ Call a good landgrow enough for themselves ; and till now the lord an exterminator, and shoot him.” Major shortcoming has been made good with English Mahon, Mr. Ussher, and other landlords who go money to buy maize. True, they might seize the far beyond their English brethren in their sense of corn and stock of the landlords and better farmers. Mr. Drummond's dictum that “property has its That would be the sole resource : it is the natural duties as well as its rights,” are shot, not only one—the Irishman's gun: there would be a because they exact their rights, but because they jacquerie. “ Tenant-right” would on the moment fulfil their duties. In the Irish vocabulary this swell to confiscation. Landlords would here and assassination is called “vengeance ;'' and it is an there try to save their estates, and their lives, as act which is praised, all but directly, by that “adthey tried in France, by falling prostrate before vocate of peace," the “ venerable Archdeacon the mob—but vainly. All would be eaten up. Laffan.” The archdeacon's notions as to what One mad, burning, bloody holyday, would consume is manly and courageous further illustrate the difall ; and then the nation would awake, cold and ference between the English and Irish use of hungry, and ask its leaders for bread.

terms ; a difference which it is most desirable to But meanwhile, how would " the Black North" keep in view behave? Would it look on in timid ease with its Saxon blood unstirred? Would it share the wild

“ The Saxon scoundrel," says the venerable joys or wilder despairs of the real Irish? No; the well afford to call his poor, honest, starving fellow

pastor, “ with his bellyful of Irish meat, could very north would stand to its arms, defensively. The countrymen, savages and assassins ;' but if in the dispossessed landlords would rally round it : supplies victualling department John Bull suffered one fifth would be obtained from England ; there would be of the privations to which the Tipperary men were civil war between Irish Catholic anarchy and Protes- subject, if he had courage enough, he would stand tant order ; Ulster and the landlords would recon- upon one side, and shoot the first man he would quer Ireland ; and Ireland, thus self-pacified, would Saxon had not courage to do anything like a man;

meet with a decent coat upon his back. But the petition to come back to her old allegiance.

he growls out like a hungry tiger.' Does any one see another outlet ? And will the loyal in Ireland not think it best and safest for Such is the view of courage, manliness, justice, themselves to render such a process superfluous, and providence, inculcated by a dignitary of the by energetically aiding "the government” to en- Irish church. The man who is in want, and who

does notstand upon one side and shoot the first lence incited by the “ Irish Confederation” in Belman he would meet with a good coat on his back,” fast exhibits as dangerous a proneness to defy the has not “ the courage to do anything like a man" law as more sanguinary outrages have done. -to speak out, and not to shoot from behind a We have no desire, however, to put harsh conhedge, is tiger-like! It is impossible to imagine a structions on the state in which Irishmen suffer more striking departure from the English use of their country to remain ; though the simple fact these epithets.

that they do so is difficult to comprehend. Lord It is to be observed that the Irish notion of Stanley, an Irish proprietor, and a statesman not vengeance is quite peculiar. It is not as in Cor- altogether ignorant of the country, broadly asserts sica—the land of the typical “ vendetta”-re- that “ in Ireland it is safer to violate than to obey venge for a personal injury sustained by the aven- the law;' undoubtedly the general belief in Engger but it is revenge because the avenger has failed land is the same ; and if it is true that there is a to inflict an injury. In Corsica, the “ vendetta” is large majority of the Irish people among whom dictated by a barbarous spirit of chivalry, and is the law is revered, their apathy in permitting a kept within set bounds by a rude sense of honor ; worthless minority to bring upon the whole nation but the Irish vengeance knows no such limits, be- an unfounded calumny of the most disgraceful kind, cause it is determined by the extent to which the is as monstrous a fact as any in Ireland. But if avenger may be disappointed in inflicting injury. the assertion is true, assuredly the Irish people The more rent a dishonest tenant has withheld will at once exonerate themselves from the refrom his landlord, the bitterer the vengeance. proach. Why they have not done so hitherto, is Corsica has usually been accounted almost at the past comprehension. It cannot be sheer cowardbottom of the European scale of civilization ; but ice; because, whatever appearances may be in Ireland, we see, is far lower.- Spectator, 20th Nov. Ireland, we remember the gallantry of Irish sol

diers in our army. It cannot be that the whole

nation is overawed ; because the lawless, as we THE RE-CONQUEST OF IRELAND.

now learn, are sa paltry a fraction. It cannot be The ministerial measures for the pacification of that the majority sympathize with the lawless. Ireland may be decreed in Westminster, but it is We remember a story, indeed, of a consultation in on the other side of St. George's Channel that Dublin, between the executive and the judges, as they will be tested. It is not any particular “bill” to the best mode of putting down some former -whether it be an arms bill or a coercion bill—disturbances, which would seem to bear on the but the degree to which the law is enforced, that present state of affairs. An English lord chanis the cardinal question. Possibly the common cellor suggested that the usual proceeding was to law might suffice if it were thoroughly worked ; call out the posse comitatus ; on which an Irish perhaps more power expressly declared by statute chiet baron wittily said that the“ posse comitatus may be convenient; but we await a sight of the was the very thing that it was desirable to keep ministerial bills with far less anxiety than we watch at home if the country was to be pacified ; but we för ministerial action. There have been bills enow now learn that that libellous dignitary was sacrificalready, and to spare. A ruling will is the thing ing his country to his joke. Marvellous and inwanted now.

Cromwell is ever in the mouths of credible as it may seem to downright English the Irish ; he misused his will, but he had it, and understanding, Ireland is disposed to order, reveres to this day the Irish retain the impress of it; Crom- the law, and is quite willing to control herself; so well is their bugbear; yet they invoke a will like say all the Irish members, and some of our minishis, for their own purposes, as Mr. Henry Grattan ters seem to sanction the assurance. did on Tuesday. It is “civil war” in Ireland We will not venture to contradict it. Perhaps so says Lord Stanley, Lord Lansdowne, Lord the measures successfully taken by Mr. Grace, Brougham ; Mr. John O'Connell describes a war representative and resident of the disturbed county of landlords on the tenantry; Lord Roden and of Roscommon, in arming his tenantry as a kind Mr. Stafford, a war of tenantry on the landlords ; of defensive militia, is the practical beginning in in name or in spirit, all agree that it is civil war ; the new social polity of Ireland. His effort deand there is need of a strength adequate to cope serves the attention of the executive. We make with civil war.

no great account of the facts that Mr. Grace is of Some say, indeed, that crime is strictly “ local" an old feudal family ; that he is a constitutional —that it is limited to "five” or “six” counties. whig, and not a repealer. We only say that if a We have a difficulty in understanding what is like spirit of order and energy is general, it will at meant by this limitation, since we find recorded in once show itself, not only in parliamentary speeches our own columns, within this instant November, and assurances, but in acts—in honest verdicts to or in the Irish papers of the week, acts of outrage vindicate the law; in a manly promptitude to aid indicating a lawless spirit in nearly twenty coun- the victim against the assassin : in a zeal to sup ties—Carlow, Limerick, Roscommon, Galway, port constituted authority, before any other quesTipperary, Longford, Kilkenny, Clare, Ferma- tions of legislation and improvement are attended nagh, Down, King's County, Queen's County, to. A time of “ civil war" is not the best time Sligo, Tyrone, Louth, Antrim, and some others. for bucolic speculations. If Irishmen are bent on We say Antrim, because the three days' turbu- restoring order, they will set about it without delay

and new statutes of “coercion” will be super-| he found the remains of the Moor; in Moscow, of fluous.

the Tartar. And, indeed, the reflection had continShould it happen that these assurances are all ually been forced upon him, that man is everywhere a mistake-that the peaceable Irish majority have so much alike, in his moral attributes, his sympathies not the zeal, the courage, or the energy, to enforce human family should so long have been enemies.

and antipathies, as to make it wonderful that this one law in their own land—their very love of order As in a little comedy which he had seen at Paris, will prevent them from being either surprised or Faute de s'entendre, all the hardships seem to rest grieved at any measure for effecting their wish-upon mistakes; and it is discovered at last that even to the appointment of a dictator.

every one may be happy if he only knows what But af all events, and at all cost, the law must the rest are about. Mr. Cobden made a special be maintained somehow. Ireland is a province of from all he had witnessed, that the regeneration

allusion to Italy. He had come to the conclusion, the British empire ; and if the Irish themselves arose from the quiet progress of thought and intelcannot maintain respect for the law, it must be ligence dependent upon the better cducation of the done by the imperial forces. The safety and dig- people. He had found that in that country great nity of the empire demand no less. To speak it efforts had been recently made for the education of out, there is a very general feeling, among all the masses : to his astonishment he had discovered, classes in England, whether liberal or conservative, that in almost every town of fifteen or twenty thouthat the turbulent Irish have too long been suffered infant schools, supported by voluntary contributions

sand inhabitants, there were established several to trifle with the law; that the British government and superintended by Italian nobles. He had even and empire are disgraced by tolerating so base and at Turin fallen in with a school where a marquis bloodthirsty a levity; and that if the ordinary ma- attended daily as director, joining the children in chinery of the country will not suffice to insure a their play and riding with them on a rocking-horse. better behavior, the government must not hesitate (Laughter.). There were now in Italy, as there to use the last resort—MARTIAL Law in the dis- had always been, leading minds, great and striking tricts that require it, on the summary proclamation engaged in discussing every question of social

individualities, in all directions—men who had been of the lord-lieutenant.—Spectator, 27 Nov.

importance; in every town of Italy men were to be

met with who took a deep interest, not only in The fifth annual soirée of the Manchester Athe-schools; but in prison discipline, and all other næum was celebrated in the Free Trade hall on questions affecting the moral condition of the peothe 18 Nov., with undiminished éclat. The chair- ple. He had been especially amazed at the number man was Mr. Alison, the historian of Europe. of practical people who sympathized with their Among the gentlemen on the platform, were Mr. efforts and controversies in England on the subject Cobden, Lord Brackley, Mr. Bright, Dr. Bowring, of political economy. Every lawyer, every counMr. Ralph Waldo Emerson the American essayist, sellor in Italy, now studied that science as a part of Mr. George Cruikshank the artist, and Mr. George his professional education : and hence arose the Wilson.

deep interest there taken on that subject in which Mr. Alison made an agreeable speech ; modestly they had so long and so arduously engaged in founding his claim to take part in the proceedings England. To this quiet, slow, and gradual influof the Athenæum, not on his being a literary man, ence of the few on the many, and not to popular but on his being a man of laborious life who has commotions and angry outbreaks, was the existing employed his leisure in literature.

hopeful condition of Italy attributable. If the Mr. Cobden signalized his first public appearance Italians were only permitted, unmolested, to work since his return to England by a speech full of sug- out their own regeneration, he doubted not that that gestive matter. A considerable part of it was same race from which civilization had twice before devoted to the immediate subject of the Athenæum proceeded to the rest of Europe, would again effect and its uses in a town like Manchester. He then their redemption. (Loud cheers.) glanced at his travels, which ranged from Cadiz to Nishni Novgorod. He took the first public oppor The Spectator says,

“ The colonial office has tunity of expressing his thanks as an Englishman chosen to set aside the facts; it has chosen to prefor the cordial welcome he had received in every tend that negro emancipation, which was neither so country that he had visited. It was something prepared nor so framed as to succeed, has been quite rare in the annals of the world, that a foreigner successful; it has chosen to affect a belief that the should travel into almost every country of the con- colonists, who have been brought to ruin, have not tinent, and should in each find men prepared pub- been injured; it has chosen to speak, and act, as licly to sympathize with principles with which he if the attempts to repress the slave-trade had some happened to be identified in his own country; these sort of success. It has therefore deprived its distant principles being applicable, as they at home had agents of the only infallible guides, abstract truth thought, only to the domestic concerns of their own and the facts of the case. There is nothing more people. The whole world, however, he hoped and silly in Sir Charles Grey's speech than the transparbelieved, was approaching the time when it would ent hypocrisy with which treaties against the slavebe discovered that the interests of all are identical. trade are made and spoken of, or than the solemn At the two extremes of his peregrinations, he had pretence with which squadrons are fitted out to found the Oriental type predominate ; in Andalusia I blockade Africa."

CONTENTS OF No. 192. 1. Ralph Waldo Emerson,

Blackwood's Magazine, 2. The Watcher,

Dublin University Magazine, 3. An Unpublished French Novel,

Blackwood's Magazine, 4. The Last Resort for Ireland,

Spectator, 5. Extermination and Vengeance, 6. Re-conquest of Ireland,

Scrapg.–Foreign Miscellany, 107 and 143.

97 108 122 140 141 142

66

PROSPECTUS.-This work is conducted in the spirit of now becomes every intelligent American to be informed Littell's Museum of Foreign Literature, (which was favor- of the condition and changes of foreign countries. And ably received by the public for twenty years,) but as it is this not only because of their nearer connection with ourtwice as large, and appears so often, we not only give selves, but because the nations seem to be hastening, spirit and freshness to it by many things which were ex- through a rapid process of change, to some new state of cluded by a month's delay, but while thus extending our things, which the merely political prophet cannot compute scope and gathering a greater and more attractive variety, or foresee. are able so to increase the solid and substantial part of Geographical Discoveries, the progress of Colonization, our literary, historical, and political harvest, as fully to (which is extending over the whole world,) and Voyages satisfy the wants of the American reader.

and Travels, will be favorite matter for our selections ; The elaborate and stately Essays of the Edinburgh, and, in general, we shall systematically and very ully Quarterly, and other Reviews; and Blackwood's noble acquaint our readers with the great department of Foreign criticisms on Poetry, his keen political Commentaries, affairs, without entirely neglecting our own. highly wrought Tales, and vivia descriptions of rural and While we aspire to make the Living Age desirable to mountain Scenery ; and the contributions to Literature, all who wish to keep themselves informed of the rapid History, and Common Life, by the sagacious Spectator, progress of the movement—10 Statesmen, Divines, Lawthe sparkling Examiner, the judicious Athenaum, the yers, and Physicians—to men of business and men of busy and industrious Literary Gazette, the sensible and leisure-it is still a stronger object to make it attractive comprehensive Britannia, the sober and respectable

Chris- and useful to their Wives and Children. We believe that tian Observer; these are intermixed with the Military we can thus do some good in our day and generation ; and and Naval reminiscences of the United Service, and with hope to make the work indispensable in every well-inthe best articles of the Dublin University, New Monthly, formed family. We say indispensable, because in this Fraser's, Tait's, Ainsworth's, Hood's, and Sporting Mug- day of cheap literature it is not possible to guard against azines, and of Chambers' admirable Journal. We do not the influx of what is bad in taste and vicious in morals, consider it beneath our dignity to borrow wit and wisdom in any other way than by furnishing a sufficient supply from Punch; and, when we think it good enough, make of a healthy character. The mental and moral appetite use of the thunder of The Times. We shall increase our must be gratified. variety by importations from the continent of Europe, and We hope that, by "winnoring the wheat from the from the new growth of the British colonies.

chaffby providing abundantly for the imagination, and The steamship has brought Europe, Asia, and Africa, by a large collection of Biography, Voyages and Travels, into our neighborhood ; and will greatly multiply our con- History, and more solid matter, we may produce a work nections, as Merchants, Travellers, and Politicians, with which shall be popular, while at the saine time it will all parts of the world ; so that much more than ever it aspire to raise the standard of public taste.

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