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named a new emperor, the prefect Atta- Under the protection of her nephew, lus, and took him with him to Ravenna Theodosius II, the young emperor of the in 409. Honorius was on the point of East, the son of Placidia and Constanthrowing himself into the arms of his tius, a child of but six years, was procousin, the young emperor Theodosius, claimed emperor of the West, with the at Constantinople, when he saw his throne title of Valentinian III. Placidia was desaved by the fidelity and wisdom of his clared regent, and maintained her power general Heraclian in Africa, by the fideli- as such during twenty-five years, in which ty of his body-guard, secured by lar- the Western empire was continually gesses, and by the imprudent measures brought nearer to its fall. Under Valenof Attalus. Alaric himself deposed Atta- tinian, the Vandal kingdom was founded lus, and sent the ensigns of his dignity to in Roman Africa, by Genseric, king of Ravenna. But Sarus, the general of Ho- the Vandals, in 428.' The Western emnorius, attacked Alaric, killed many of his pire experienced a further loss in the cesfollowers, and declared him an enemy of sion of the western part of Illyria to the the empire, and unworthy of the alliance emperor of the East, by which Placidia of his emperor. He therefore returned to obtained in marriage for her son, Eudoxia, Rome, which he took in the night of the the daughter of Theodosius and Athenais, 24th of August, 410, one of the gates in 437, and likewise indemnified the court having been opened to him by the treach- of Byzantium for the expenses of a war ery of slaves in the town. The old capi- against John, who had been private secretal of the world was pillaged, and in part tary of Honorius, and, after his death, had burned. The treasures of the inhabitants, sought to obtain possession of the throne. including many valuable works of Ro- Attila, king of the Huns, an ally of Genman or Grecian art, became the prey of seric, now demanded the hand of Honoria, the barbarians. The churches and their sister of Valentinian, with her inheritance. treasures remained inviolate, by the From Constantinople,whither she had been special order of Alaric. This took place banished on account of her too great in1163 years after the building of the city timacy with her chamberlain Eugenius, by Romulus. Alaric now left Rome, and she had offered to the king of the Huns pillaged the south of Italy, where he died ber person and her claims upon Italy. A in 410. Adolphus, his successor, left refusal immediately caused a war, which Italy in two years, laden with the booty Attila began with an attack upon Gaul, of Rome and of the southern provinces, and which ended with a great battle in after having received in marriage Pla- the Catalaunian plains (near Chalons), in cidia, the sister of Honorius. He went, 450, when the Roman general Aëtius, toin 412, to Gaul and to Spain, where he gether with Theodoric, king of the Goths, founded the kingdom of the Visigoths. defeated the army of Attila, and might, Italy now breathed more freely. Rome perhaps, have entirely destroyed his powarose proudly from its ashes; and the er, if the political consideration of preempire might perhaps have acquired new serving in the Huns a counterpoise against vigor, but for the weakness of its ruler, the powerful Goths, had not induced who lived eleven years after the departure Aëtius to retreat, and to separate from his of Adolphus. Gaul, indeed, was brought ally. Thereupon Attila, to make good again under his power by the valor of his claims upon the princess Honoria and the Roman general Constantius, who con- her inheritance, broke into Italy, in 451, quered Constantine, and obtained in recom- where he destroyed Aquileia, Padua, Vipense the band of the widow of Adolphus, cenza, Verona and Bergamo. He had who had shortly before been murdered, plundered Milan and Pavia, when Valenand a share in the imperial power with Ho- tinian made proposals of peace by an emnorius. But Gaul, as well as Spain, was bassy sent from Rome. The eloquence incessantly torn by domestic strife. Brit- of the bishop of Rome, Leo I, who was ain and Africa were lost, and the most at the head of the deputation, and the unhappy discord reigned at Ravenna, impression which his representations prowhere Placidia, a second time a widow, duced on Attila, induced him to refrain after the death of Augustus Constantius, from the pillage of Rome, for a sum equal was seeking to retain her power, when in value to the inheritance of Honoria. Honorius died, on the 24th August, 423, in The beautiful Ildico made Attila forget the twenty-eighth year of his reign. Pla- Honoria, who, by imprisonment for life, cidia carried the news to Constantinople, atoned for her desire to become queen of whither she had fled with her children, the Huns. After the death of Attila, in on account of the troubles at Ravenna. 453, Valentinian might have ruled happi
ly, had he been able to restrain his pas- he adorned by his virtue and his wisdom. sons. The insinuations of the eunuch Many useful regulations, especially with Heraclius made him suspect treachery in regard to taxes and public morals, distinthe pride of his general Aetius. He there- guished his domestic administration, före slew him with his own hand, in an while, at the same time, he had the good mercation in the palace at Rome. He fortune to defeat Theodoric, and also to dierwards dishonored the wife of the obtain some advantages over Genseric, senator Maximus. The injured husband who had again attacked Italy. Nothing avenged hiniselt, and, on the 15th March, but the accidental loss of his fleet, in the +35, Valentinian tell on the field of Mars, year 460, prevented him from utterly dewith his favorite Heraclius, under the stroying the power of the Vandals. But words of two followers of the murdered Rome was no longer worthy of such a ietius, who belonged to the emperor's ruler; and Majorian fell a victim to the body-guard. The senator and patrician general corruption, and the hatred of his Petronius Maximus was hereupon pro- enemies. Ricimer suddenly took from claimed emperor by the senate and peo- bim the purple, and, five days after, tuis pie. lle married his son to the eldest lite, Aug. 7, 461, having spread the redaughter of the late emperor, and obliged port that he had died of the dysentery. A Falentinian's widow, Eudoxia, to espouse certain Livius Severus was proclained him. After three months, he fell a vic- emperor, but was put out of the way in aim to her hatred. Eudoxia, unable to 465. The supreme power, in the course obtain assistance from Constantinople, of these five years and the two following, called upou king Genseric, in Carthage, during which the throne remained vacant, to deliver her from an abhorred husband. was solely in the hands of Ricimer, who Genserie landed in the port of Ostia. The did not, however, dare to take the impeilving Maximus was stoned in the streets rial tidle. But, being pressed by the ot Rome, and thrown into the Tiber; but l'andals, he soon saw himself obliged to the capital, again saved, by the eloquence ask the assistance of the emperor of the of Leo the Great, from tire and sword, East; and the court of Constantinople was pillaged during fourteen days. All made a league with Rome, on condition the monuments of tormer times and all that it should be left to the emperor Leo the wealth collected in forty-tive years, to name the ruler of the test. The Gresince the sack of Alaric, became the prey cian parrician Antherius was appointed, of the conquerors, who likewise dragged and entered the capital with great pomp, in Africa, in their ships many thousand April 12, 407. He gave his daughter in Romans of both sexes. While these events marriage to Riciner, and many interests were taking place in Rome, Aritus, a Gaul, formeriv divided seemed now reunited for prefect of Gaul under Valentinian, and ap- the welfare of Rome. But the war with pointed by the emperor Maximus general of the l'andais was continued with varying the army in that country, a man of great ial- fortune. li cost immense sums; and, ents and knowledge, supported by The- soon arier, a misunderstanding took place odoric, king of the lisigoths, received the between Anthemius and Ricimer, the latter crown of the Western empire at Aries, of whom had marched to Milan. By the Aug. 15, 453, was acknowledged by the mediation of Epiphanias, bishop of Pavin court of Constantinople, and also, though a reconciliation was indeed, etfected bewith scret diwatisfaction, by the senatetween them; but, shortly after, Ricurer, and people of Rone. Theodoric, who at the head of a large army, reinforced by went, as an aiiy of the Romans to drive the Burgundians and Suevi, appeared bethe Sueri from Sjurin, treated this country fore Rome, proclaimed the senator Olybwith the severin ota conqueror. Avitus rius son-in-law to Valentinian, emperor reniered himæli contemptible by his sen- of the West, March 23, 472, and took suality. Reiner, one of the chief com- Rome, which Anthemius had defended for manders of the mercenary troops, sent for the months with a people devoted to his the detence of Italy. atter a victory over cause. Anthemius was put to death by the fiert of the landa's returned, and order of his son-in-law. July 11, the was bailed by the people as their deliver- city was pillaged, and filled with the er, and announced to Avitus Oer. 10, blood of its noules ciuzens; and Olybrius 457, that his reim was ended. Avius con- was placed upon the throne. In the next demned to death by the senate, fled, and month, Aug. 20, the tyrant Ricimer died, perished in his thighi. Majorian, formerly and, soon atter, the new emperor, Oct. a solurer under Aeuus was now raised 23. Rome now saw itself exposed to the by Ricimer to the imperial diguity, which arbitrary caprice of the barbarians, at
whose head was Gundobald, nephew of lished their kingdom in Gaul. Thus the Ricimer, a Burgundian prince. "Gundo- barbarians had risen in proportion as the bald named Glycerius, one of his soldiers, spirit of the Romans had declined. From emperor of the West, but gave him so mercenaries of Rome they had become little support, that he was displaced hy its allies; from allies its masters. King Julius Nepos, a nephew of Marcellinus, Odoacer ruled Italy for fourteen years. and governor of Dalmatia, who had been in the year 491, he was conquered by proclained by the court of Constantino- Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, who, ple. Glycerius received, instead of the in 493, founded the kingdom of the Osempire, the bishopric of Salona (474). trogoths on the classic ground of Italy. Shortly after ascending the throne, Nepos The name of Rome was all that remained made peace with the Visigoths, ceding to of that empire, which had subsisted them the territory of Auvergne; but, soon twelve centuries since its foundation by after, a rebellion of the allied barbarians, Romulus. In the history of the decline under the command of their general of this gigantic state, we see the causes Orestes, obliged him to fly from Ravenna of its fall. The prevailing corruption of to Dalmatia. The fugitive emperor lived manners destroyed all moral energy; and, there five years, until he was assassi- from the time when Honorius ascended nated at Salona, at the instigation of Gly- the throne, to the total overthrow of the cerius, who received, perhaps on this ac- empire, it was in a continual death-strugcount, the archbishopric of Milan. Rom- gle. The system of dividing the empire, ulus Augustus, son of Orestes, was pro- introduced by Diocletian, in 284, and claimed emperor of the West, in 476. completed by Theodosius, was the chief The fall of the empire was now at hand. cause of its political weakness and final The German troops, Herulians, Rugians, dissolution, which its moral degradation &c., revolted under their general Odoa- made it impossible to avert, especially as cer, when Orestes refused to divide the increase of civilization among the among them a third part of the Italian barbarians who had broken into the emterritory. Pavia, where he sought to de- pire, gave them an overwhelming power. fend himself, was taken by storm; Ores- A new order of things commenced: the tes was executed ; Augustus abdicated; feudal system, introduced by the OstroOdoacer was proclaimed king by his ar- goths, Franks, and Lombards, altered the my, and the senators of Rome sent an whole character of a state which for centuembassy to the emperor Zeno at Constan- ries had boasted of a republican constitutinople to declare that it was neither tion; and even the Roman language gave necessary, nor desirable, that Italy should way before the total change in the spirit of any longer be governed by an emperor of the times; and its place was supplied by its own; and therefore they acknowledged, the Italian, French, Spanish and English in the name of the people, that, the seat tongues. (See Byzantine Empire.) of the general government being transfer- WESTERN Islands. (See Hebrides, and red from Rome to Constantinople, they Azores.) renounced the right of choosing an em- WESTERN UNIVERSITY. (See Pittsperor for themselves. The republic, burgh.) however, confiding in the virtues of Odo- WESTERWALD; a chain of mountains acer, humbly prayed that the emperor in the Prussian government of Coblentz, would grant him the title of patrician, and and the duchy of Nassau, connected with the administration of the Italian province.” the Siebengebirge. (9. v.) The highest So low had Rome fallen! The emperor point is near Neuburg and Salzkirch, Zeno first gave the senate to understand 2600 feet above the level of the sea. Flax that Nepos, who was still living in Dal- is cultivated and cattle raised on the noatia, was the lawful sovereign of Rome; Westerwald. It affords iron, copper, exbut, soon after, pleased with the prospect cellent building stone, and great quantiof being sole ruler, he received the honors ties of brown coal. of the emperor of the West. The dethron- WESTMACOTT, Richard, an eminent ed monarch, Romulus Augustus, whose sculptor, the eldest son of a celebrated first name had been changed, in Constan- artist of the same class, was born in Lontinople, to that of Momyllus, and whom don, about the year 1774, and, having the Romans called, in derision, Augustu- completed his preliminary studies, was lus, was banished by Odoacer to the villa sent abroad by his father, in 1792, before of Lucullus, in Campania, with a yearly he had attained his eighteenth year. The pension of 6000 pieces of gold. Soon first work of any importance that he was after, in the year 486, the Franks estab- engaged in, on his return to bis native
country, was a statue of Addison, which wich in 1550. The city of Westminster was placed in Westminster abbey about is comprised in two parishes, St. Margathe year 1806. In 1809, he was elected ret and St. John, and the liberties consist an associate of the royal academy, at of seven parishes. The population of which time he completed and erected, in the city and liberties, which return two St. Paul's cathedral, the monument of sir members to parliament, is, by the census Ralph Abercrombie, and, subsequently, of 1831, 202,090. Here are Westminster that of lord Collingwood in the same hall, abbey and school, St. James's palchurch. On his engagement to execute ace, Buckingham house, Carlton house, the bronze statue of the duke of Bedford, Whitehall palace, &c. Westminster hall, in Russell square, he personally attended memorable as the scene of so many interto the whole management of the casting, esting transactions, was built by William and thereby acquired so much skill that, II, in 1097,and entirely repaired, with many after erecting the statue of lord Nelson at alterations, by Richard II, in 1397. The hall Birmingham, and of Mr. Fox in Blooms- exceeds in dimensions any room in Eubury square, he was able to accomplish rope unsupported by pillars, being 270 the colossal statue of Achilles erected in feet in length, 90 in height, and 74 in Hyde park, the greatest task in bronze- breadth. Parliaments have often sat in casting that has been achieved in any the hall, and the courts of chancery, excountry. (See Hyde Park.) In 1811, chequer, king's bench and common pleas, Mr. Westmacott completed his national have been held here, in different apart. monument to William Pitt in Westminster ments, ever since the reign of Henry III. abbey, which is a work of great talent. It has also been used for the trial of peers, Among his works are the beautiful statue and other distinguished persous, accused of a Peasant Girl, exhibited at the royal of high treason, or other crimes and misacademy in 1819, which is part of a mon- demeanors, such as the late lord Melville, ument erected to the memory of the late Warren Hastings, &c. In this hall, likelord Penrhyn; and the Hindoo Girl, for a wise, are held the coronation feasts of the work to be erected at Calcutta, in memo- kings of England. The old palace, at the ry of Alexander Colvin. The statue in south end of the hall, including the chapel bronze of George III, at Liverpool, is also of St. Stephen, is now used to accommothe work of Mr. Westmacott. His last date the two houses of parliament. The work is a colossal bronze statue of Can- interior of the house of lords is ornamentning, which has just been erected (1832) ed with tapestry, representing the dein Palace yard. He was elected an aca- struction of the Spanish armada. Here demician of the royal academy of arts, are the star chamber (9.v.), and the painted London, in February, 1811; and he is chamber, used as the place of conference also fellow of the society of antiquaries, between the lords and the commons. and a member of the Dilettanti society. Guy Fawkes's cellar, in which the gun
WESTMINSTER, a city of Middlesex, powder designed to blow up the two England, the seat of government, the res- houses of parliament (see Gunporoder idence of royalty, and the centre of fash- Plot) was deposited, is still examined by ion, is now so united with London, that, the usher of the black rod at the beginin appearance, they form one city, and, in ning of every session. (For the house of ordinary speech, are mentioned as one, commons, see Stephen's, St.) Westminster though they have their separate jurisilic- abbey was built by Edward the Confessor, tions. (See London.) Temple bar (q. v.) about 1050, on the site of an old Saxon separates the two cities. Westminster church; but all that part which extends lies to the west of London proper, with from the eastern extremity to the entrance which it formerly communicated by of the nave was rebuilt in its present means of the Strand, and forms the west state by Henry III (1220—1209). The end, or fashionable residence of the no- nave was carried on slowly afterwards; bility and gentry:
The existence of and the towers were not completed till Westminster is derived from the founda- the time of sir Christopher Wren, who tion of the abbey. In 1259, Henry III finished them as they now are. The granted to the abhot and convent of chapel, which bears the name of Henry Westminster abbey a market and fair, VII, was built by that monarch in 1502, which was the origin of the city and liber- as a royal sepulchre. The general plan ties of Westminster. At the general sup- is that of a Latin cross, of which the nave pression of religious houses by Henry is 234 feet long from west to east, and 90 VIII, it was converted into a bishopric, feet wide. The transept is 225 feet long which, however, was transferred to Nor: from north to south, and 100 feet wide.
Beyond the transept, towards the east, are Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1815, it was ceded five chapels. In the poets' corner are the by this power to Prussia, and was united monuments of most of the distinguished with the Prussian province of Westphapoets of England; and in other parts of lia. It then contained 1530 square miles, ihe abbey are those of distinguished with 134,715 inhabitants. statesmen, warriors, scholars and artists. 3. Circle of Westphalia. This comprised The kings of England are crowned in not only the land between the Weser, the choir of the abbey. Westminster Rhine and Ems, but also considerable school was founded, by queen Elizabeth, districts on the left bank of the Rhine; but in 1590, for the education of forty boys, the proper duchy of Westphalia, as an apdenominated the queen's scholars, who are pendage of Cologne, was considered as beprepared for the university. It is situated longing to the electoral circle of the Rhine. within the walls of the abbey, and is sep- It had also the official name of the Westphaarated into two schools or divisions, com- lian Circle of the Lower Rhine. It was one prising seven forms or classes. Besides of the larger circles of the ancient empire. the scholars on the foundation, many of 4. Kingdom of Westphalia. The peace the nobility and gentry send their sons to of Tilsit (q. v.) had made Napoleon masWestminster for instruction, so that this ter of all the Prussian territory west of establishment vies with Eton in celebrity the Elbe, and he also kept possession of and respectability. They have an upper the territories of the electors of Hesse and and an under master, with numerous as- Hanover, and the duke of Brunswick. sistants. Of these masters, many have He had not then conceived the idea of exbeen eminent in the walks of literature, tending the frontiers of the empire beyond particularly doctor Busby, so celebrated the Rhine; and he created, out of the counfor his severity of discipline, and doctor tries just mentioned, a kingdom of WestVincent, the author of the Voyage of phalia, comprising all the country of Nearchus. See the History of the Abbey Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the electorate Church of St. Peter's, Westminster, its of Hesse (except Hanau and KatzenelnAntiquities and Monuments (2 vols., quarto, bogen), the Prussian provinces of MagdeLondon, 1812); and Neale's History and burg and Altmark west of the Elbe, HalAntiquities of Westminster Abbey illustrated berstadt with Hobnstein, Hildesheim with (1818 and 1823, with 61 engravings). Goslar, Mansfeld, Quedlinburg, Eichsfeld
WESTPHALIA; a name, 1. originally with Treffurt, Mühlhausen and Nordhaugiven to a large part of Germany; 2. to sen, Stolberg-Wernigerode, Paderborn, a duchy in Germany; 3. to one of the Minden and Ravensberg, the Hanoverian circles of the Gerinan empire; 4. to a provinces, Göttingen, Grubenhagen with kingdom; 5. to a province of Prussia,– Hohnstein and Elbingerode, and Osnaof which we shall treat in the above order. brück, Corvey, and the county of Rittberg.
1. The name of Westphalia was given, The area amounted to 1530 square miles, in the middle ages, to all the country with 1,946,343 inhabitants. November 15, between the Weser, Rhine and Ems, 1807, the kingdom of Westphalia was crewhile the territory between the Elbe and ated, and Jerome, the brother of Napoleon, Weser was called Eastphalia. The latter then only twenty-four years old (see Jename was lost in the course of time: the rome), was made king, with a constiformer was retained, and was subsequent- tution formed in close imitation of that ly given to the circle of Westphalia, and to of the French, which abolished feudalthe Sauerland, or the duchy of Engern. ism, and might have done good in vari
2. Duchy of Westphalia. In early ous respects, could it ever have gone into times, this formed part of the great duchy full operation free from the weight of forof Saxony, and was then called Sauer- eign influence which continually pressed land, a name which is still in use among upon the kingdom.* Jerome appeared, Dec. the common people of that country, and in- The emperor Napoleon gave this consticludes also a part of the former county of tution to the country, as its preamble declares. Mark. In 1179, when Henry the Lion was
It stipulates of what the kingdom of Westphaput under the ban of the empire, the arch- lia is to consist; that half of all the domains of
the former princes shall be at the emperor's bishop of Cologne received it from the disposal, to be given to his officers of the army; empire as a fief, under the name of West- that Westphalia is to form part of the confedphalia, after which the name passed over eracy of the Rhine, with a contingent of 25,000 to the country. Cologne remained in men, of whom, however, in the first years." possession of it until the dissolution of only half are to be raised; the other half to be
furnished by France, and to form the arrison the archbishopric, in 1802, upon which of Magdeburg ; that Jerome Napoleon is to be it was given, by way of indemnity, to king, his direct male descendants to succeod