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1799.] Account of the Public Schools in the French Republic. 115 ment of matter, is divided into three ports and their buildings- examination principal branches stereotomy, civil of the most important works on the meworks, and military architecture. Ste-chanic arts and chymistry-third object reotomy has for its object the laws and of chymistry, relating to mineral promethods of descriptive geometry applied ductions—art of drawing. to the cutting of stones, to carpenters' After the first triennial course, the fuwork, to the Thadows of bodies, to per- 'ture pupils are to be separated into three spective, to levelling, and to simple and divisions, each of which will successively complex machines. Civil works com- advance to the course of the following prehend the construction and repair of year. The period when the pupils are roads, bridges, canals, ports, the work., to quit the school, the mode in which ing of mines, architecture, and the plan- their places are to be filled by others, and ning of the public fetes. Military archi- the gradation of their instruction, are retecture extends to the disposition of forti. gulated by a special ordinance. For the ked posts and towns, of lines on the convenience of their private exercises, the frontiers, and to their attack and defence. pupils are again subdivided into three The art of drawing, which is the second companies, who, under the inspection of part of the graphic developement of mat a preceptor, alternately work in the chyter, is employed in the imitation of pro. mical laboratories. minences, in designing from nature, and The management of this institution is in cultivating the principles of taste by conducted by the director, preceptors, adthe study of works on composition. ministrators, heads of companies, artists

2. Physics extend to all the produc- and workmen of the laboratories, and other tions of nature, and the most essential of persons intrusted with its interior ecothose produced by chymistry, General nomy. The constitution prescribes a par. physics develope the principal properties ticular rule for the employment of each. of bodies, and the inechanic arts de The council of the institution consists pendent thereon; and embrace the know- of the diretor, the preceptors, their alledge of the structure, strength, and mo- liftants, the administrators, and a secretion of all animals, together with the use tary. This council regulates the inttructo which they may be applied in me- tion, the time, the choice of labours, the chanics.- Particular physics, or chymistry preparation of inftruments and models, in all its branches, has for its object and digelts plans for carrying the institubrute matter (together with its applica- tion to perfection. It direčts its intercion to the different arts, especially those nal police in the first instance, allots the which bear relation to the public works), annual expenditure, and presents a statethe salts and organised bodies found in ment of it to the minister of the home dethe three kingdoms of nature.

partment. The executive directory noThe instruction in all these branches minates the director: the council nomiof knowledge is the result of the infor nates the administrators, on presentation mation given by the teachers, and of the by the members to whom the vacant places private labours of the students. All to are subordinate. The days for the meetgether it occupies three years.

ing of the council, and the form of its First year-stereometry-general prin- deliberations, are also prescribed in the ciples of analysis, applied to geometry- plan. first principles of ftaticsstereotomy

The institution publishes every month general course of physics—first principles its Polytechnic Journal, in which it gives of chymistry, applied to falts-art of an account of the progress of the instrucdrawing:

tion, and of the labours of the precepSecond year-civil works-analysis of tors, pupils, and other persons employed. mechanics applied to solid bodies and The materials for this publication are fluids — architecture zootechnics * _ collected by the secretary: principles of the purification of the air At the expiration of the year, the dithe second object of chymistry, relating rector renders to the minister of the home deto animal and vegetable organisation-art partment an account of the expenditure, and of drawing

gives in an estimate of the necessary funds Third year-o-military architecture for the ensuing year. At the same tiine he application of analyses-calculation of the delivers to him a sketch of the state and effect of machines fortification -- sea- labours of the institution.

Such are the foundations on which rests * The application of animals to mechani. this grand and excellent establishment. cal purposes.

The number of the pupils has been fixed

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at three hundred and fixty. They must phitheatre capable of containing above
give proof of their talents previous to ad- fitteen hundred auditors; and the en-
mission, and none are admitted under the trance is free to whoever chooses to attend
age of fixteen or above that of twenty the public meetings.

Here follow the names and rank of the
This establishment is the nursery of teachers and their assistants, according to
artillerists and engineers for the land and the plan of a three years' course,
fea service. Whoever withes to be ad-

First Year. mitted into either of these bodies, must be Geometry—Monge, Hachette, presented to the polytechnic school, and Chymistry-Fourcroy, Vauquelin. undergo an examination. The case is Phyfics Hassenfratz, Barnel. the same with those who are desirous of

Second Year. being employed on the bridges and roads, Bridges and roads-Lambardie, Griffet. in the construction of ships, or the direc- ArchiteEture and decoration Battard, tion of mines. The youths who are Durand, Gaucher. found to possess the requisite abilities, MechanicsProsny, Fourier, are, after having passed through the gra- Chymistry-Bertholet, Chaussier. dations of the schools and completed their

I hird Year. course, admitted to the places vacant in Fortification--Catonare, Say. those different departments, each in that Mechanics--Prosny, Fourier. line which he has particularly made the Chymistry--Guiton-Morveau, Pelletier. object of his studies.

Art of drawing, for the three years The great, and we might say eccentric, Neveu, Merimée, Genou. luxury, in which the directory, through a Mathematics, for the three years-L4 peculiar and well-founded predilection, Grange, supports this new establishment, appears dangerous to its duration. Already, from Next to the polytechnic school, that of various quarters, complaints have been the mines is one of the most remarkable heard against the exceflive and unnecessary of the newly-organised institutions. It expenses; and the government has even was founded by the committee of public already begun to retrench fuperfluities. fafety, by a law passed in July 1794, but Of this kind were the twenty-four la-, has been since reformed in every particuboratories destined for the private labours lar, and entirely re-crganised, by a new of the pupils, where considerable sums ordinance of the directory, of the 24th of were dissipated in smoke without any October, 1795. Its object is a subteressential utility, before those young men raneous knowledge of the republic with had acquired a sufficient portion of fub- respect to its mineral productions, the arftantial knowledge to derive any great be- rangement and improvement of the labours nefit from their costly experiments. The of the mines, and of the different pronumber of those laboratories has been re fessions engaged in colletting and working duced to eight-a reform which has al- the minerals adapted to various uses, in ready produced a considerable saving, order to procure to the nation all the ad

The apparatus of the instruments of vantages which the can expect to derive natural philofophy is rich, and those in- from her own foil. struments are perfectly well executed. For the labours of this inftitution, One remarkable circumstance attending there has been appointed a certain numthis colle&tion, is, that it contains the ber of agents, inipectors, engineers, and identical instruments which were employed pupils. It is directed by a council estain the great discoveries of Lavoisier, Cou- blished at Paris; and the whole of the lon, and others, who have created an æra establishment includes the following arin natural philosophy: precious reliques rangements : of the sciences, and of thole great men ! i. A practical school, established in the An equal share of admiration is due to vicinity of a mine already wrought with the collections of models, of moulds in success, to inttruct the pupils in the mode plafter of Paris, and of drawings, which of tearching for mines, and subjecting are exposed in great halls finely orna mineral subitances to the usual processes. Inented, for the instruction of the pupils. 2. A public and gratuitous course or The systematic arrangement of the mo lectures on the art of searching for mines. dels is disposed in chronologic grada 3. A collection of mineral productions, tion, from the first and coarteft invention arranged in systematic order, and comof machines, 'to their latest stage of per- posed, principally, of indigenous minerals, fection. The great auditory is an ann- besides the foreign 1pecies.


5799,] Account of the Public Schools in the French Republic. 127

4. A laboratory, and a collection of five hundred livres*, are afterwards chymical productions, directed by a chy- promoted to vacancies in the institution, mist, as inspector, and manual operator.

and fucceeded by pupils of the polytech5. A collection of books relating to nic school. Ten non-resident pupils are metallurgy, assaying, mineralogy, and admitted to the school at their own exlithology, under the inspection of a libra- pense. Two professors are assigned to rian skilled in foreign languages.

the practical school of mines; the others 6. A collection of plans and drawings are employed in teaching the art of affayof mines and fossils.

ing and metallurgy. For alliftants they 7. A collection of models of furnaces, have two mineral engineers. The school and of all the instruments used in the will be established at Sainte Marie aux working of mines.

mines, in the department of Upper 8. A cabinet of mineralogico-historic Rhine. manuscripts and memoirs.

The teachers in the theoretic school at The direction of this institution is Paris are as follow : yested in three perfons. They hold cor HAUY, for mineralogy, with the ad. respondence with the directors of the ditional office of inspector of the collecmines belonging to the republic; they tion of minerals. fuperintend the searches for mines, and VAUQUELIN, for the art of aflaying; prescribe the use to be made of the diffe- at the fame time inspector and operator rent minerals: they render to the govern- in the laboratory. ment an account of the state and progress LOMET, for geometry. of the school, as well as of the mines : DOLOMIEU, for the site of minerals. they publish every month a Journal of the CLOUET, librarian, and professor of Mines, in which they also give the public the German language. an account of those particulars.

COQUEPERT, for geography as conEight inspectors and twelve engineers nected with mines. are attached to this school. Twenty To the schools for the public service five young pupils are maintained in it at belong also the following institutions, the expenle of the state, and are admitted which have been either recently founded, after undergoing an examination. During or recently organised : right months of the year, the pupils, with The schools of the nine regiments of artilthe inspectors and engineers, are leparated, lery— 6 artillery schools”-under the dito perform mineralogical tours through rečtion of the minister of the war departthe whole territory of the republic, which ment.—They are established at the headis divided into eight fubterraneous depart. quarters of the nine regiments, at La ments. On these tours, they visit and exa Fere, Belançon, Grenoble, Metz, mine all the founderies, and the preceptors Strasburg, Douai, Auxonne, Toulouse, instruct their pupils in all the different and Rennes; but they are not yet all orworks, give advice and encouragement to ganised. Before they can be admitted the proprietors for the discovery and work- into these schools, the youthful candiing of new mines, make collections of mine- dates are obliged to undergo an examinarals, lay down maps, take drawings of tion in the preliininary branches of knowfurnaces and every sort of machines, note ledge, and the sciences subservient to that down the process of searching for mines, art; and they are required to have passed and keep a journal of researches, disco- through a previous course of at least two veries, and experiments. At the conclu- years' study in the polytechnic fohool at fion of their tours, conferences are held Paris; after which they receive the additioon all those objects in the meetings of the nal education requifite to quality them for council of mines,

officers of artillery. They are instructed in The theoretic instruction in the school all the arts connected with the erection of at Paris comprehends the four courses of works, and in all the military details, le&tures on mineralogy, physical geogra- and the exercises relating to the artillery. phy, metallurgy, assaying and the search The professors reside in the schools; and for mines. After a competitory examina- each school is under the direction of a tion, a part of the pupils are chosen to commandant or brigadier of artillery. go and reside at the mines, and there re The school of military engineers at Metz, ceive practical instruction.

under the direction of the war minifter. Every year two pupils are chosen, who The examination of such youths as are rise to the grade of supernumerary engineers with an annual appointment of

* 201. 16s. 8d. Sterling.


admitted to this school, takes place once school of 'naval engineers, they are pera year at Paris, whence they repair to fected in the knowledge of the construcMetz. Their number is limited to tion of ships both for war and commerce. twenty. Their employment in the poly. It is under the direction of BORDA, a technic school, and the essential object of naval character. The pupils are allowed their instruction, is the acquisition of a yearly maintenance of hifteen hundred theoretic knowledge respecting the con- livres*. ftruction of all kinds of works in fortifi.

The school of navigation, under the di. cation, mines, countermines, dispositions rection of the minilter of the marine defor the attack and defence of towns, the partment. The two former schools--the drawing of plans, and all the minutix of hydrographic and mathematic---destined the service of engineers in fortified places for military and mercantile navigation, and in armies. The pupils at Metz have have been united in one. There still exift the rank and pay of súb-lieutenants. two other schools for mercantile navigation,

The school of bridges and roads, under the one at Arles, the other at Morlaix. the direction of the minister for the home The marine schools, at Brest, Toulon, departinent.-The pupils, whose number and Rochefort, under the authority of is limited to thirty, are taken from the the minister of the marine department.-polytechnic school. A collection of mo. The pupils are not admitted into these dels, relating to the construction of high- schools until previoully examined in ways, bridges, canals, and lea-ports, is arithmetic, algebra, geometry, statics, annexed to this school. The instruction and navigation. In each of those three in it comprehends the application of all ports, is annually equipped a corvette, the physical and mathematical principles which frequently puts out to sea, runs connected with the planning and construc- along the coast, is dismantled, and rigged tion of all the various works of this kind, anew. Every thing which concerns the as well as to the estimates and calcula- equipment and management of thips, tions of such works.

and naval military maneuvres, is the obThe geographic school, under the autho- ject of the instruction given in these exrity of the minister for the home depart- cellent schools. ment.--It contists of twenty pupils taken from the polytechnic school. Their examination turns their preliminary

DESCRIPTION OF MALTA. knowledge—the mathematics, their ap [The following valuable article respecting an plication, and especially geometrical al Iland which has always attracted the tronoiny, trigonometry, and the art of attention of mankind, and which has drawing maps. Their principal employ lately become a very interesting subject of ment in this school is directed to geogra

political speculation, has been communi. phic and topographic operations, and

cated no us by a gentleman whose opporthe calculations necessary for carrying

tunities of collecting original information

are considerable, and who has combined them into execution. The instruction is

with his own materials those of all the divided into two branches, - the opera. writers who have had occasion to describe tions in the field, and the labour in the

it.] cabinet. To the firit belong geometrical

(Continued from page 48.) measurements, the survey of the ground, and astronomic observations ; to the se


tioned, Malta contains twenty-two cond, all the conclusions, descriptions, villages, (five of which the inhabitants the drawing of maps, and trigonometric also, though improperly, term cities), and calculations. The geographer PRONY the whole island is in a manner covered is at the head of this inftitution.

over with neat country and farm-houses. The school of navel engineers.-Under

Every village contains a noble church, this denomination las been preserved the elegantly finished, and adorned with ftaformer school of engineer-builders, newly tues of marble, rich tapestry, and a large organised. The pupils must have received at least one year's instruction in the fact, by much the handsomeft country

quantity of silver plate. They are, in polytechnic school. The choice of the churches to be seen in any part of Euslepends on the progress they have made rope. The villages are all, or most of in the principles of descriptive geometry, them, in the ealtern part of the island : of inechanics, and of the other branches the farm-houses are in the western part. which constitute the basis of the first year's courte in ihat School.

In the

* 621. jos. Iterling.



1799.] History and Description of Malta.

119 In the interior of the island are two manner by their large continued white casals, or country-houses, of the ci-devant walls, which hold up or incase what little Grand Masters. In one of these, St. earth is on the island, as well as what is Anthony, lying between Valetta and fabricated there ; for by grinding small Çivita Vecchia, they had of late years the soft rock, and mixing it with what cut down a shady grove of old orange- earth they have, filling the bottom with trees, and in its place formed a parterre the best of it, and watering the whole, or flower-garden in the French taste, and the industrious natives have formed a foil which was reckoned here a very great well calculated for cultivating cotton, and curiosity. Contiguous to this is the villa the other produce of their country. Here of the General of the Gallies. These are also ditches of a vast fize, with bafedifices are neither of them great or mag- tions, all cut out of the folid rock, and nificent ; but they are admirably well extending many miles into the island. adapted to a hot climate, by the desirable These great works, which have been exThade of fine orange-groves which they pedited by their situation, require no other afford, and other contrivances. In the repair but a finall cement applied to the other casal, called the Bosquetta, or the natural crevices of the stone. Castle of Mount Verdalle, was a park well The dress and ornaments of the Mal. ftored with Corsican stags and Iceland tese peasants, or farmers, are extremely deer; and the inenagerie (which in this light. They wear long breeches, a blue climate would preserve the animals of any linen shirt, and a broad fash, and leave their country) contained some gazels, which arms and feet entirely naked. In the ciare accounted the handsomest, swifteft, ties, their costume is nearly the fame as and most delicate of all quadrupeds : their in Italy. Their features are as completely eyes represent the gallant comparisons of Arabian as their language, which laft, oriental lovers while celebrating the beauty however, is rather a kind of dialect of of their mistresses; their motions are the Arabian, and is represented by some astonishingly agile, and their legs are so writers as a rude jargon, without rules very flender, that the beholder is con- and without orthography: it is also in stantly afraid of their breaking. The termixed with some remains of the Phce cattle, or palace, exhibits nothing par- nician, or Carthaginian, the Greek, the ticular, except the furniture, which is Spanish, and the Italian. In the towns three or four hundred years old, and the Italian is commonly spoken. Their carved in the most Gothic style ima. manners still retain the traces of their ginable: the Grand Master, however, Arabian conquerors, and their character feldom or never resided here. The pro- seems compounded of the characters of fpect from the top of it is celebrated as the different nations to which they have very fine. What they call a forest, in been successively subject. Interested and the vicinity, and their annual hunt in it, careful in their bargains, they are scrudo not merit those names, there being pulously exact in fulfilling every engageonly a few scattered trees hereabouts : it ment, by which means commercial interis, however, the only thing like a wood course with them is at once safe and easy. in the island. This wood is situated in a Their women, as in the Levant and well-watered valley, and tends greatly to among the eastern nations, are exempted relieve the eye, fatigued with the aridity from labour of every kind, which is perof the surrounding landscape. The fal- formed by the men, even to the most trifconry at the foot of the valley is a de- ling occupation of houshold work. From lightful place, and the only wild and a custom prevailing here, that in their rural retreat by which the Maltese can marriage contracts the women take care form any analogous idea of the forests of to have a clause inserted, obliging their other countries. The old large orange- husbands to conduct them to the different trees, which grow thereabouts, are watered festivals celebrated in the island every by Äreams which flow from plentitul year : it seems as if the liberty which springs, and diffuse a freshness the more they enjoy is extremely restrained. The grateful, as water is scarcer and more fair fex here, being limited to the fole desirable in that quarter than in other department of pleasure, are justly reckonplaces.

ed beautiful; they have as fair a skin and The rest of the island, or what they call fine complexions as the inhabitants of the the country, scarcely deserves the appella- north, with all the impassioned expression tion ; for it seems almost as well covered of the Orientals; they have almost all, large with buildings as the cities and villages : eyes, with long eye-lids, under which it also appears fortified in a remarkable love seems to lie in ambush, and though


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