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stepped without affecting us disagreeably. forms: some figures are cast. The moulds In Florence, all parts of the human body ought to be of gypsum, and consist of are, at present, imitated, in colored wax, many pieces, covered inside with oil. for the study of anatomy. More than The wax is poured into a hole at the feet, thirty rooms, in the palace, are filled with and the whole is then thrown into cold these wax preparations ; also plants are water, that the wax may be separated the found there, imitated to deception, in more easily. A composition, of which sculpwax. Exact imitations, in wax, of ve- tors form their first models, consists of sixgetable productions do not produce the teen parts wax, two parts Burgundy pitch same unpleasant emotions as wax images or shoemaker's wax, and one part hog's of men and animals, because they have, lard; or of ten parts wax, one turpentine, by nature, a more stationary character. as much shoemaker's wax, and as much The first idea of forming figures of wax hog's lard. This is melted by a slow fire, of this kind was conceived by Nones, of and afterwards well stirred and strained, Genoa, an hospital physician, in the seven. so as to expel all the air. A composition teenth century. He was about to pre- of wax and other substances is very serve a human body by ernbalming it; proper for impressions of figures cut in but, not being able to prevent putrefaction stones. It is prepared thus :an ounce entirely, he conceived the idea of having of virgin wax, melted slowly in a copper the body imitated, as accurately as possi- vessel, and a drachm of sugar candy ble, in wax. The abbate Zumbo, a Sicil- pounded well, half an ounce burnt soot, ian, who understood nothing of anatomy, and two or three drops of turpentine. The but was skilled in working in wax, imi- wax is warmed if a cast is to be taken, and tated the head of the body so perfectly, the stone, having been a little moistened, under the direction of Nones, in colored is pressed on it. Gem-cutters use this wax, that many who saw it took it to be composition. the real head. Zumbo secretly made Wax-MYRTLE, or BAYBERRY (myrics another copy, and went with it to France, cerifera); a low, spreading shrub, comwhere he pretended to have invented the inon along the coast from Maine to Louart. He soon died. De Nones then had the isiana. The leaves are lanceolate, with a whole body perfectly copied by a French- few indentures towards the extremity, man named De Lacroix. In 1721, La and sprinkled with resinous dots. The Courege exhibited similar figures in Ham- bark and leaves, when bruised, emit a burg; and, in 1737, others were publicly delightful fragrance. The berries are sold in London. The works of Ercole as large as a pepper-corn, and, when Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and his wife, ripe, are covered with a whitish-green which were formerly preserved in the in- wax, which is collected by boiling them: stitute of Bologna, and were thence car- the fat then melts out, floats at the top of ried to Paris, were remarkably fine. the water, and may be skimmed off. Beautiful figures in wax, made by An- When congealed, it looks like tallow or na Manzolini, are preserved in Turin wax, but has a diriy-green color. It is and Petersburg. She died in 1755. More therefore melted again, and refined, by modern artists in this line, in Italy, are L. which means it acquires a fine and pretty Calza, Filippo Balugani, and Ferrini. transparent green color. It is dearer The celebrated Fontana, in Florence, than common tallow, but cheaper than carried this art to a high degree of excel. wax. A bushel of the berries will yield lence. He received so many orders that four or five pounds. This wax is used he employed a large company of anato, for a variety of purposes, but chiefly for mists, model-cutters, wax-moulders and making candles, which burn slowly and painters. Yet he generally confined him- with but little smoke, emit an agreeable self to representations of the intestines. odor, and never melt and run down at the Vogt, in ihe university of Wittenberg, sides, like tallow and spermaceti ; but, as used, in his lectures, wax preparations, they do not give a strong light, especially in imitation of the fine branches of during cold weather, it is usual to add a porvessels. Pinson, and, at a later period, tion of tallow. Such candles are a beauLaumonier, at Rouen, distinguished them- tiful and economical article, and it is surselves in this department, in France. The prising they are not in more general recomposition for this purpose consists of quest. A fine-scented and excellent soap four parts wax, three parts white turpen- and also sealing-wax, are made from these tine, and some olive-oil or hog's lard, suit- berries. At present, however, little use is ably colored. The bulk of the figure is made of the bayberry, except in districts formed with the hands: the finer parts where the bushes are very abundant. It are made with instruments of various is often called talloro-shrub, or candleberry
tree. The flowers are inconspicuous, and home. Being desirous of serving his counare disposed in aments. (Further infor- try in a military capacity, to which his mation is given in the article Myrtle Wax.) natural bent was strong, he retired from
Wax PAINTING. (See Encaustic Paint- civil employment in September, 1775, ing.)
and raised a company of volunteers, of WAX, SEALING. (See Sealing-War.) which he was unanimously elected colo
WAYNE, Anthony, a distinguished gen- nel. In January of the ensuing year, he eral in the American army, was born in was appointed, by congress, colonel of the township of Easttown, Chester county, one of the regiments which they had rePennsylvania, Jan. 1, 1745. His father solved to raise in Pennsylvania, and, at was a farmer of great respectability, and the opening of the campaign, received orpassed a long life of usefulness to his ders to join the army under general Lee, country, having frequently occupied a at New York. Thence he proceeded with seat in the provincial legislature, and re- his regiment to Canada, and shared in the peatedly distinguished himself in expedi- unsuccessful attack upon the enemy at tions against the Indians. His grandfa- Three Rivers (conducted by general ther was a warm friend of liberal princi- Thompson), on which occasion he was ples, and commanded a squadron of dra- wounded, and distinguished himself for goons, under king William, at the mem- his bravery and good conduct in uniting orable battle of the Boyne. He emigrated and bringing off the broken troops. After to America in 1722. The subject of this the retreat from Canada, and the departure sketch received a good education, though, of Gates to join Washington's army, he for some time after his entrance into school, was intrusted, by general Schuyler, with he spent much more time in planning and the command of the fortresses of Ticonexecuting military amusements, than at his deroga and mount Independence. Feb. books; but, in consequence of a threat of 21, 1777, he was promoted, by congress, his father to consign him to the drudgery to the rank of brigadier-general. He conof the farm, he applied himself assiduous- tinued in command of Ticonderoga and ly to study, and, in mathematics, attained its dependencies until the month of May, great proficiency. After leaving the Phila- when, in consequence of his earnest sodelphia academy, at eighteen years of age, licitations, he was allowed to join the he took up his residence in his native main arıny, under Washington, in New county, and commenced the business of Jersey, where he was immediately placed a surveyor, in wbich he acquired great at the head of a brigade, which he made reputation and success, devoting also a every exertion to bring into the field in portion of his time to practical astronomy the highest state of discipline. After the and engineering. On these subjects he British retreated from New Jersey, the left manuscripts, which have obtained high commander-in-chief complimented him commendation from adequate judges. Me on his bravery and good conduct. As soon likewise filled some county offices, and as the object of the next movement of sir took a very active part in the preparation William Howe was developed, general for the struggle which resulted in the Wayne, in pursuance of the directions of independence of these United States. Washington, left his brigade under the He was one of the provincial deputies, next in command, and proceeded to Cheswho, early in the year 1774, were chosen ter, in Pennsylvania, to arrange the miliby the different counties of Pennsylvania tia who were to rendezvous there. In to take into consideration the alarming the battle of Brandywine (Sept. 11, 1777), state of affairs between Great Britain and he commanded a division stationed at her colonies, and report concerning it; Chad's ford, for the purpose of resisting and a member of the Pennsylvania con- the passage of the column under Knypvention, which shortly afterwards assem- hausen. He maintained the contest with bled at Philadelphia, and excited power- the utmost gallantry until near sunset, ful emulation in the other colonies. In when, at length, overpowered by numbers, the same year, he was chosen a represen- and perceiving the enemy, who had detative of Chester county, in the provincial feated the right column of the American legislature, and, in the summer of 1775, army, approaching his flank and rear, he was appointed a member of the commit- was compelled to retreat. A few days aftee of safety, to whom the duty apper- terwards (on the 16th), Washington detertained of calling into actual service the asso- mined to try the fate of another battle ; ciators (as they were termed), and provid- and, both armies being arrayed in Goshen ing for the defence of the province against township, Chester county, on the road invasion from abroad and insurrection at leading from Philadelphia to Lancuster,
the action was commenced with great sending to camp several hundred head of spirit by Wayne, who led the advance. It fine cattle, many excellent horses suited was soon arrested, however, by a violent for cavalry service, and also in securing a storm, which rendered it impossible to quantity of forage, and destroying much keep the field. On the 20th, Wayne, in more, for the whole of which, to the wellpursuance of the orders of the command- affected, he executed certificates in due er-in-chief, to move forward upon the en- form. He returned to the army about the emy, and endeavor to cut off his baggage, niddle of March, and, with his officers took an excellent position, with 1500 troops, and soldiers, received the thanks of the including militia, a mile south of the War- commander-in-chief. In all counciis of ren tavern, and three miles in rear of the war, general Wayne was distinguished left wing of the British army, whence, af- for supporting the most energetic and deter being reivforced, it was his intention cisive measures. In that which was held to march and attack the enemy's rear when before the battle of Monmouth, he and they decamped. He made every arrange- general Cadwallader were the only two ment to prevent a surprise ; but the British, of the seventeen general officers who having received full intelligence of his were in favor of fighting. This engagemovement, from traitors, and being faith- ment added to his reputation, his ardor fully piloted by them, contrived to attack and resolution having been so conspicuhim unawares, with superior numbers, ous that Washington mentioned him with and obliged him to retreat after an obsti- particular distinction in his official report nate resistance; but his troops formed to congress. In 1779, Washington, baving again at a small distance. This affair hav- formed a corps of light infantry, composed ing caused some to attach blame to him, of a select body of troops from the differhe demanded and obtained a court-mar- ent regiments of the army, appointed gential, by whom it was unanimously decided eral Wayne to its command." In July of that he had done “every thing that could this year, he was intrusted, by the combe expected from an active, brave and mander-in-chief, with the execution of a vigilant officer, under the orders which he design which he had formed for attacking then had;" and he was therefore acquitted the strong post of Stony Point, on the “ with the highest honor.” At the battle Hudson river. For the details of his sucof Germantown, he evinced his wonted cess in carrying the fort (on the 15th of valor, leading his division into the thick. July) by a night assault, and making the est of the fight, and, in covering the re- garrison prisoners with bayonets alone, treat, he used every exertion which bra- without firing a single gun, we must refer very and prudence could dictate. His to the history of the times. In the attack, horse was killed under him within a few he was struck by a musket ball on the yards of the enemy's front, and he receiv- forehead, which grazed the skull nearly ed two slight wounds, in the foot and in two inches in length, just under the hair. the hand. During a large portion of this He fell, but instandy rose on one knee, ercampaign of 1777, owing to a combina- claiming, “ Forward, my brave fellows, fortion of circumstances, he performed alone ward!" then, in a suppressed voice, said the duty of three general officers. About to his aids, “ Assist me: if mortally the middle of February, 1778, when the wounded, I will die in the fort.” They army was in winter-quarters at Valley did so, and the three entered amongst the Forge, and suffering miserably from the foremost troops. The wound fortunatewant of provisions, he was detached with ly proved slight. The thanks of congress, a body of troops to New Jersey, in order and a gold medal emblematic of the acto secure the cattle on the eastern banks tion, were presented to Wayne for his of the Delaware, and to destroy the forage “brave, prudent and soldierly conwhich could not be removed, lest it should duct.” At the end of the year 1779, the fall into the bands of the enemy. This corps of light infantry was dissolved; and, was a most hazardous and arduous enter- soon afterwards, general Wayne resumed prise, within the limits of the enemy's his command in the Pennsylvania line. lines, and in a district of country subject During the campaign of 1780, he was to his control whenever he chose to exert constantly actively employed; and, in it: but he cheerfully proceeded to execute that of 1781, which ended in the capture the orders of the commander-in-chief, of Cornwallis and the British forces at and literally carried on a winter campaign Yorktown, he bore a conspicuous part beyond the reach of any aid. After sev. He was sent by Washington to take comeral skirmishes with the enemy, in all of mand of the forces in Georgia, where the which he was successful, he succeeded in enemy were making formidable progress
After some sanguinary encounters, he ac- qualities, and none that will tend to create complished the establishment of security acidity, or produce other marked changes and order, and was presented by the legis- in the organic functions. lature of the state with a valuable farm WEAPONS. (See Arms.) for his services. Peace soon after follow- WEAR; to cause a ship to change her ed, when he retired to private life. In course from one board to the other, by 1789, he was a member of the Pennsyl- turning her stern to the wind. (See Ship.) vania convention, and an advocate of the WEARMOUTH, Bishop's, and Monk present constitution of the U. States. In WEARMOUTH. (See Sunderland.) 1792, he was appointed by Washington WEASEL (mustela); a natural group of the successor of general St. Clair in the carnivorous quadrupeds, recognised by command of the army engaged against the slender, elongated form of the body, the Indians on the western frontier. It and the shortness of the legs. The activa was at first supposed that his ardor would ity of these animals is astonishing; and render him an unfit opponent of a foe re- their flexibility is such that they are enamarkable for caution. He soon, however, bled to pass through extremely narrow proved the incorrectness of this idea. He apertures. They run with great rapidity; . established admirable discipline among and the form of their nails also permits his troops, and by his wise and prudent their climbing on trees. Notwithstanding measures in preparing for an engagement, their small size, they are the most sanguiand the skill and bravery with which he nary of all beasts of prey, and seem rather fought and gained the battle of Aug. 20, to seek the blood than the flesh of their vic1794, near the river Miami of the Lakes, tims. They will leap upon the necks of he brought the war to a completely suc- animals even larger than themselves, and cessful termination. In 1795, he conclud- never quit their hold till satiated. Many ed a definitive treaty of peace with the are extremely destructive to poultry, and, Jodians. General Wayne died in Decem- when they gain access to them, commencé ber, 1796.
an indiscriminate slaughter. They are WEANING (of the child from its mother's nocturnal and solitary animals. Some of breast). The mother's milk is necessary them take up their residence in the vicinfor the new-born infant; but, after a cer- ity of habitations; others pass their lives tain period, the cutting of the teeth shows altogether in the forests; and others, the capacity and the need which the child again, frequent the borders of streams. has of receiving other sustenance. This Their anatomical structure corresponds, takes place before the end of the first year. in every respect, with their habits and The age of twelve months, therefore, may disposition. The canines are long and be regarded as about the proper period pointed: the other teeth have cutting for weaning. With children who are edges, and bear a general resemblance to healthy, and cut their teeth early, it may those of the dog. The whiskers are long take place still sooner: with weak, sickly and coarse. The ears are small and children, it must be delayed longer, and rounded. There are five toes on each never should be attempted during sick- foot. The neck is almost as large as the dess or dentition. It is est for bot head. The usually composed of mother and child to bring it about gradu- two sorts of hairs. The skins of such as ally. By so doing, the secretion of milk inhabit northern climates are in great dein the former is gradually diminished; mand, and form one of the principal oband these complaints which arise from jects of the fur trade.- The European sudden weaning are prevented ; while the pole-cat (M. putorius) is fifteen or eighteen child is gradually accustomed to other inches in length from the nose to the orikinds of sustenance, and the restlessness gin of the tail. The general color is and want of sleep, which are so trouble- blackish-brown, paler on the sides, with some in sudden weaning, are avoided. white spots on the head. It lives in the The child remains healthy and well nour- vicinity of farm-houses, and is very deished. For this, it is only necessary, that structive to poultry, rabbits, &c. It emits the mother should give the breast to the a strong and very disagreeable odor, but child less frequently, and offer it proper not at all comparable to that of the skunk, kiods of nourishment oftener, than before. to which animal the same name is someThese must be, both during the weaning times applied in the U. States.—The ferand some time after it, very light of diges- ret (M. furo) is perhaps only a variety. tion, and more fluid than solid : in partic- The color is yellowish, or sometimes ular, they should have no stimulating wbite, with the eyes red.
It is only
Does in the domesticated state, and is annually collected in Canada. The fur is eboosed to drive rabbits out of their bur- used in manufacturing hats, and is most
Acording to strabo. it was brought generally preferred for ornamenting and or traily from Africa–The ermine M. increasing the warmth of winter dresses. seiras is about dine inebes in length - Tie European martin (.M. foina) is disfrom the pose to the base of the tail ; and tinguished from the preceding by a large tbe latter measures about four inebes. In patch of white on the throat. li appears summer, the color is chestnut-brown to the contined to the eastern continent.ature, and yellowish-white beneath; and, The fisher, or pekan (M. Canadensis), is in this state, the animal is sometimes readily distinguished by its larger size, called the stond: but in winter, it is es being from twenty-four to thirty inches tirely pure white, with the exception of long, exclusive of the tail, which measures the top of the tail, which is black ai ail sea- from thirteen to seventeen inches. The sons. It is fond of wild and rocky situations, general color is brown, with some of the and is found in all the extreme northern hairs gravish at the extremities. Tbe parts of the globe, and in this country name is an improper one, for it by no eren as far south as our Northern and means frequents the vicinity of water, but Middle States. The winter skins form a preys on sinall quadrupeds, birds and their well-known article of commerce. It is eggs &c.: indeed, its mode of life is simvery abundant in the vicinity of Hudson's ilar, in every respect, to that of the pine bav.-The true weazel (.V. rulgaris) is martin. It is peculiar to North America only about six inches in length to the and is found from Pennsylvania to the base of the tail, and the tail an inch and a sixty-second parallel of latitude.- The sahalf. The upper parts of the body, as ble .M. zibellina. All the preceding spewell as the tail, are clear brown, and the cies hare naked tubercles on the soles of under parts generally white. It is found the feet, but, in the sable, these parts are in the iemperate parts of the eastern con- entirely covered with hair. The general tinent, and frequents the vicinity of babi- color of the fur is brown, more or less briltations. The mink (.M. lutreola) is entire liant, with the inferior parts of the throat ly of a deep-brown, except a white spot and neck grayish. It lives in the same manon the lower lip, which sometimes extends ner as the pine martin, in the depths of in a straight line to the middle of the the forest, and inhabits all the northern throat. This animal lives in the vicinity parts of Europe and Asia. This is the of water-courses, and feeds on frogs, tish, most celebrated of the tribe, not only on &e.: in short, in habits and appearance, aceount of the richness of the fur, but it strongly resembles the otter in minia- from the horrors of the chase, carried on ture. The membrane which connects in the depth of winter, among mountains the toes is remarkable for its extent, which covered with ice, and in the deepes: structure renders the animal better adapi- snows, in the coldest and most desolate ed for an aquatic life: accordingly, the regions to which man has yet penetrated. mink swims and dives with great facility, It was the search for sables which led to and can remain under water for a consid- the discovery of Eastern Siberia. Their erable length of time. It does not, how. skins for a considerable article of comever, contine itself strictly to the water, merce with the Russians.-M. kuro of but sometimes invades the poultry yards, F. Cuvier is a species from Canada, har. when it commits as great ravages as any ing the fur almost as fine as that of the of the tribe. It is found throughout North sable, and the soles of the feet covered America, from Carolina to Hudson's bay, with hair in a similar manner, but of a and is also common in the north of Eu- pale yellowish-brown color, with the feet mope and Siberia - The pine martin (.M. and tail darker. Little is known of this martes) is nearly as large as a cat. The animal, or of the district which it inhabits color is a brilliant fulvous brown, inclin- A specimen was obtained by Lewis and ing to blackish on the limbs and tail, with Clarke, during their journey to the Pacific, a large yellowish patch on the throai. It and is now deposited in the Philadelphia lives only in the depths of the forest, as- museum. According to Pallas, skins of cending trees to surprise birds and squir- the sable are common among the furs rels, and often occupying the best of the sent from the extreme north-western latter for the purpose of bringing forth its point of America to the inhabitants of the young. It is found in the northern parts opposite angle of Asia. of both continents, and in this country as WEAVING, the art of producing cloth, far south as the Northern and Middle by the combination of flexible fibres, is States. A vast amount of the skins are performed upon a frane called a loom, the