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much time and thought were being given to the work in heathen lands explains why less attention was paid to certain other problems which were occupying the minds of other sections of the Church. The closing years of the nineteenth century found the Evangelicals stronger than at any previous period. Thirty years earlier Ryle had calculated that they included about one-fifth of the clergy. Now fully a quarter of the parishes in England were in their hands. This is probably an under-estimate, for a quarter would mean only 3600 parishes, whereas more than 5700 were supporting the C.M.S. As "sober, peaceable and truly conscientious sons of the Church of England," they were doing their work as Churchmen on their own definite lines, entirely satisfied with the Church's system and the Church's formularies. What has been their special contribution to religious life and thought? For one thing they have taught their brethren to recognise the need of evangelization, the primary importance of home and foreign missions, the fact that the first duty of a Church is to seek and save the lost, as a good physician visits first the most dangerous cases, and a good shepherd gives most attention to the sheep that have wandered from the fold. Again, they have refused to allow men to ignore the Bible. In all controversy they have carried their appeal back to primitive times, to the simple faith and spiritual worship of the first century, rather than to the tangled tradition and ceremonial of the twelfth. Their plea has been that



Christian teaching must be tested by the New Testament, not by any nebulous formula known as "Catholic truth"; nor have they attributed to German Professors an infallibility which they have declined to acknowledge in the Pope. They have never allowed men to lose sight of the inspired Scriptures through interest in the speculations of later Christian ages. "Holy Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation; so that whatsoever is not read therein, nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of any man, that it should be believed as an article of the Faith, or be thought requisite or necessary to salvation." And this has led them to lay special stress on three important facts, which they have found specially prominent in the New Testament, facts which most of their fellow Churchmen acknowledge to be true, but which few have emphasized as Evangelicals have done. The first is the fact that Christianity is a religion of Redemption: that the Atonement is the very foundation doctrine of the faith that Calvary is the only spot from which a true view of Sinai and Bethlehem and Olivet can be obtained. "There is therefore now no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus"-this is the Evangel, the Good News from which they obtained their name. The second point is the supremacy of the spiritual over the external, the fact that the root of personal religion lies deeper than in any sacred rites or series of moral actions; that the "abysmal depths of personality" must feel the Presence of God

1 Thirty-nine Articles, Article VI.

moving upon the face of the waters; that conversion not conformity, change of heart not change of habit, is the thing to be worked for; that ritual, churchgoing, outward observances do not make a Christian, but the action of the Spirit of God transforming the inner life. The Evangelicals have never mistaken the machinery for the motive power. But the chief source of their success has lain in the third point. They have never allowed anything, however sacred to come between themselves and Christ. While all Churchmen strive to teach the whole Christian faith, each party tends to emphasize some particular point. High Churchmen are apt to accent the functions of the Church and Sacraments; Broad Churchmen lay stress on the thought of the universal Fatherhood of God; but with Evangelicals the central point has always been the Person of Christ, the glory and the all-sufficiency of His work, incarnate Lord, propitiatory Sacrifice, risen and ascended Saviour. To be a Christian is to know Christ, to believe in Him and to love Him, to walk with Him, to work for Him, to watch for His second coming. Personal devotion to a personal Redeemer has ever been the keynote of their message; their aim, that expressed in one of the most popular of the Keswick hymns

Nothing between, Lord, nothing between ;
Let me Thy glory see,

Draw my soul close to Thee,

Then speak in love to me,

Nothing between.



FOR FURTHER STUDY. Stock's History of the C.M.S. Moule's Evangelical School in the Church of England. Life of Archbishop Benson, by his son. Simpkinson's Bishop Thorold. Aglionby's Life of Bishop Bickersteth. Read v. Bishop of Lincoln: Judgement. Tomlinson's Historic Grounds of the Lambeth Judgement. Harford's Keswick Convention. Pierson's Story of Keswick. Canon Harford-Battersby and the Keswick Convention, edited by his sons. Account of the Union Meeting at Oxford, 1874. Record of Convention for Promoting Scriptural Holiness at Brighton, 1875. Mullin's Wonderful Story of Uganda. Dawson's Life of Bishop Hannington. Mackay of Uganda, by his sister. HarfordBattersby's Pilkington of Uganda. Faulkner's Life of Bishop Hill (Niger). Lewis' Life of Peck (Eskimo). Batty's Fortytwo years amongst Indians and Eskimo. Buckland's Life of Bishop Horden (Hudson's Bay). Halcombe's Stranger than Fiction (Duncan at Metlakahtla). Clark's Missions in the Punjab and Sindh. Clark's Robert Clark of the Punjab. Lewis' G. M. Gordon, Pilgrim Missionary of the Punjab. Birks' Life of Bishop French (Lahore). Grey-Edwards' Memoir of John Thomas (Tinnevelly). Eugene Stock's Japan Mission. Batchelor's Sea-Girt Yezo (N. Japan). Moule's Story of the Cheh Kiang Mission. Watson's Life of Robert and Louisa Stewart. Berry's The Sister Martyrs of Ku-Cheng. For Christ in Fuh-Kien (published by C.M.S.). Barnes' In Salisbury Square. For C. E.Z. M.S.: Barnes' Behind the Purdah, Behind the Great Wall, Between Life and Death. Carus Wilson's Irenie Petrie. Guinness' Story of the China Inland Mission. The best account of Bishop Ryle is in a series of articles which appeared in the Liverpool Courier, February 13, 15, 20, March 1, 1900.











Accession of George II.

The "Holy Club" at Oxford.

Conversion of the Wesleys.

Field-preaching begun.

Grimshaw, Incumbent of Haworth.

Hervey, Curate of Weston Favell. Rector 1752-1758.

Young Pretender's invasion.

1746-1761. Walker, Curate of Truro.

Adam of Winteringham became Evangelical

died 1784.

1749-1795. Romaine, Lecturer at St. Dunstan's.

1750-1780. Madan, Chaplain of Lock Chapel.

1753-1762. T. Jones, Chaplain of St. Saviour's, Southwark.


Conversion of John Thornton.

1754-1759. H. Venn, Curate of Clapham.

1755-1793. Berridge, Vicar of Everton.

1759-1771. H. Venn, Vicar of Huddersfield. Rector of


Yelling, 1771-1797.

Accession of George III. 1760-1785. Fletcher, Vicar of Madeley.

1764-1780. Newton, Curate of Olney.

1764-1795. Romaine, Rector of St. Andrew, Blackfriars.

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