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licans. The canvass was quite an exciting one, and resulted in the election of Bolander by 10,000 majority.

In 1875 the opposing candidates were Rev. 0. P. Fitzgerald, Democratic nominee, and Dr. Ezra S. Carr, Republican candidate. This was also an abusive canvass. Dr. Carr was elected by a majority of 7000.

It was expected that the office of State Superintendent would be " taken out of politics” by providing for the election at the special judicial election, but this measure only intensified the evil.



The first school reports published in pamphlet form by the Board were those of Superintendent O'Grady, 1854 and 1855. The Superintendent reported the average number of pupils to a teacher to be 87; that a uniform series of text-books had been adopted; and that a Teachers' Association had been formed.

Superintendent Theller in 1856 reported the following statistics:

Teachers, 39; Pupils, 3347.

District No. 1, Mr. Swett, Principal..
District No. 2, Mr. Denman, Principal.
District No. 3, Mr. Ellis Holmes, Principal,
District No. 4, Mr. Ahira Holmes, Principal
District No. 5, Mr. Carlton, Principal..
District No. 6, Mr. Morrill, Principal..
District No. 7, Mr. Macy, Principal.

683 580 635 733 374 200 142

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In the Ward Schools there were educated 1421 pupils. The Male Departments of the Ward Schools were taught by male and female instructors, and the Female Department by the ladies of the different religious orders of the city, known as Sisters of Charity, Sisters of Mercy, and Sisters of the Presentation-all of whom had certificates of capability, and were licensed to teach by the late County Commissioners of Education, and drew their salaries from the city, county and State educational fund.

The school law of 1855 abolished the separation of the school fund, and all these schools have been mingled into one uniform system. Since the 5th of May last there has been no religious, sectarian or denominational doctrine taught in them.

He reported the discipline good, and the instruction satisfactory.

In fusing the “Ward Schools” with the public schools, the following additional teachers were elected:

Principal of District No.4, Wm. Hammill, vice Ahira Holmes; Principal of District No. 5, Mr. T. S. Dunne, vice Mr. Carlton; District No. 7, Mr, T. C. Leonard, vice Mr. Macy; New School, Thomas S. Myrick; District No. 8, Mr. H. P. Carlton.

By the Consolidation Act, Mr. Pelton, who had been previously elected as County Superintendent, was made, ex officio, City and County Superintendent for one year.

His report contained the first full statistical tables of the schools. He recommended the establishment of evening schools; of a Teachers' Institute; the study of History of the United States; and published the “Course of Study.

The reports of Superintendent Janes for 1857 and 1858 were still more complete.

He reported the weekly Normal School a success, teachers being compelled to attend ; recommended the establishment of more evening classes, and treated at length of discipline and methods; gave a short historical sketch of the early schools; treated of methods of teaching; complimented his predecessors in office; opposed May festivals; and reported favorably on the City Normal School, Mr. George W. Minns, Principal; Messrs. Myrick and Swett, assistants.

Superintendent Denman's report, 1861, was longer than any preceding report. He summed up the improvements in 1860 as follows:

1. Better Classification.
2. The grading into Grammar and Primary Schools.
3. Better accommodations and new buildings.
4. New furniture.
5. School Registers furnished by the Board.
6. Monthly Reports of pupils.

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The questions used in the examination for admission to the High School were given in this report.


The four reports of Superintendent Tait, 1862, '63, '64, and '65, were all creditable documents. In his first report, 1862, Mr. Tait reported a list of graduates of the Minns Evening Normal School-16 for 1861, and 38 for 1862. He recommended that promotions in the primary grades be made semiannually; that Principals be required to make monthly reports to the board of attendance, etc.; and that no person under 18 years of age should be eligible to teach. .

In his last report, 1865, he advocated the reading of the Bible in school.

Superintendent Pelton's report for 1867, recommended an increase of salaries; a simplification of the course of study, and the appointment of a Deputy Superintendent.

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Concerning the school, Mr. Pelton said:

These schools of recent estabiishment are designed to afford the facilities for acquiring the modern languages–German, French, and Spanish--in connection with the ordinary English course.

As elsewhere stated, it has been conceived that the object of our Public School system, its true policy and leading idea, is to meet all reasonable educational demands. A few years since a great number of our citizens, native as well as foreign, were compelled to patronize private institutions, with their less perfect classification, and less thorough instruction, for the sake of the modern languages, which by the more observing and thoughtful of our people are considered of greater importance in the ordinary vocations and positions of society than much, very much else included in the English course, especially in our advanced High School course, And there were many of our best citizens who were unable to meet the expense of private tuition for their children; and yet they were unwilling to permit their sons and daughters to grow up to maturity, and remain forever ignorant of their mother tongue.

Some two years since, to meet this public demand, I recommended the establishment of a single class, now grown to be the Cosmopolitan Schools of this city. This system, though by no means unique, and confined to this city, is here perhaps better organized, and on a more liberal and comprehensive basis, than elsewhere. The plan is European; Germany has multitudes of schools where the French and English are recognized as we recognize the German, French, and Spanish. There are many such schools in the Eastern States.

This system, though at first opposed here, as it had been elsewhere when first proposed and adopted, and before its merits and

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