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IV. COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS.

Holding office from the first Monday in March, 1876, to March, 1878.

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COUNTIES. Alameda. Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa.. Contra Costa.. Del Norte El Dorado. Fresno Humboldt Inyo Kern Lake Lassen Los Angeles. Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced.. Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada. Placer. Plumas. Sacramento. San Benito. San Bernardino. San Diego... San Francisco. San Joaquin.. San Luis Obispo. San Mateo.. Santa Barbara. Santa Clara, Santa Cruz. Shasta Sierra Siskiyou. Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba

NAMES. .Rey. W. F. B. Lynch..... R. H. Ford.. W. H. Stowers Arthur McDermott. Charles R. Beal.. Samuel Houchens . A. Thurber.... .Max Lipowitz... .John P. Munson. .R. H. Bramlet. E. C. Cummings .John W. Symmes. .L. A. Beardsley. Louis Wallace. .S. A. Doyle.. Thomas A. Saxon. Samuel Saunders. Richard Kane.... .John C. Ruddock. .B. F. Fowler, W. T. Estes.. Miss Alice Walker. .R. C. McCroskey. .L. Fellers. E. M. Preston. Eugene Calvin W. S. Church. .F. L. Landes, H. Z. Morris Charles R. Paine F. N. Pauley H. N. Bolander. S. G. S. Dunbar.. J. M. Felts G. P. Hartley .G. E. Thurmond E. Rousseau. W. H. Hobbs.... Mrs. D. M. Coleman, A. M. Phalin... William Duenkel.. C. W. Childs... A. C. MeMeans. W. B. Howard. M. C. Clark. E. S. Campbell Mary N. Wadleigh. .R. P. Merrill.. Rose E. Morgan. .F. S. S. Buckman. H. B. Pendergast.. Th. H. Steele.

POST-OFFICE. East Oakland. Silver Mountain. Plymouth. Oroville. San Andreas. Princeton, Pacheco. .Crescent City Placerville. .Fresno. .Rohnerville. Independence. Bakersfield. Lakeport. Long Valley. Los Angeles. San Rafael. .Mariposa. Ukiah. Merced. Cedarville. Bridgeport. Salinas City. Napa City. Nevada City. Auburn. La Porte. . Sacramento. Hollister. San Bernardino . San Diego. San Francisco. Stockton. Cambria. Spanishtown. Carpenteria Santa Clara. Soquel. Shasta. Port Wine. Yreka. Suisun City. Santa Rosa. Modesto. Yuba City. Red Bluff. Junction City. . Visalia. Columbia. San Buenaventura. Woodland. Marysville.

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II. SCHOOL REVENUE,

The school revenue is derived from the following sources:

I. Interest on the State School Fund.
II. State School Tax.
III. County School Tax.
IV. City School Tax.
V. District Taxes voted at Special School Elections.

I. THE STATE SCHOOL FUND is derived from the proceeds of the sales of the 500,000 acres of land, granted by Congress to the State, for the purposes of internal improvement, and set apart by the State Constitution as an inviolable school fund, and from the sales of the 16th and 36th sections of township lands, consolidated into a general State fund.

It amounts to $1,737,500, invested in six per cent. and seven per cent. State bonds. The Endowment Fund of the State University consists of $1,500,000, yielding an annual revenue of about $128,000.

II. A DIRECT STATE PROPERTY TAX is required to be levied annually, sufficient, with the interest on the State School Fund, to amount to $7 per census child, from 5 to 17 years of age. State apportionment, 1875, $1,210,808.

III. COUNTY SCHOOL Tax. Rate determined by each County Board of Supervisors. Maximum rate, not to exceed 50 cents on each $100. Minimum rate, not less than $3 per each census child. Amount of County Taxes, 1875, $1,115,530.

IV. CITY SCHOOL Tax. The rate is determined, in some cases, by the Board of Education, and in others, by the Common Councils, or Boards of Supervisors. In San Francisco, the amount required is $35 per child, on the average daily attendance for the preceding school year. Amount raised by City Tax, 1875, $391,364.

V. THE DISTRICT Taxes are voted at special school elections, generally for building purposes. Maximum rate, $1 on each $100. Amount raised in 1875, $315,000. Total School Revenue, 1875, $3,390,359. Total amount expended for Public Schools, from 1850 to 1876 inclusive, $25,000,000.

III. GENERAL PROVISIONS OF THE SCHOOL LAW.

ARTICLE X.

SCHOOLS.

SECTION 1662. Who may be admitted to.

1663. Schools to be graded.
1664. To be taught in the English language.
1665. Course of instruction.
1666. Other studies.
1667. Instruction in manners, etc.
1668. Physical exercise, etc.
1669. Schools for Negro and Indian children.
1670. How established.
1671. Governed by same rules as schools for whites.
1672. Sectarian books and teachings prohibited.

1673. Duration of daily sessions. Sec. 1662. Every school, unless otherwise provided by special statute, must be open for the admission of all white children between five and twenty-one years of age, residing in the district; and the Board of Trustees or Board of Education have power to admit adults, and children not residing in the district, whenever good reasons exist therefor.

Sec. 1663. All schools, unless otherwise provided by special statute, must be divided into first, second, and third grade. Each County Superintendent must, under instructions from the State Board of Education, determine the respective grade or class of schools in his county.

Sec. 1664. All schools must be taught in the English language.

SEC. 1665. Instruction must be given in the following branchesin the several grades in which each may be required-viz: reading, writing, orthography, arithmetic, geography, grammar, history of the United States, physiology, natural philosophy, natural history, elements of form, vocal music, and industrial drawing.

SEC. 1666. Other studies may be authorized by the State Board of Education, or Board of Education of any city, or city and county; but no such studies can be pursued to the neglect or exclusion of the studies in the preceding section specified.

Sec. 1667. Instruction must be given in all grades of schools, and in all classes, during the entire school course, in manners and morals.

Sec. 1668. Attention must be given to such physical exercises for the pupils, as may be conducive to health and vigor of body, as well as mind, and to the ventilation and temperature of school rooms.

Sec. 1669. The education of children of African descent, and of Indian children, must be provided for in separate schools; provided, that if the directors or trustees fail to provide such separate schools, then such children must be admitted into the schools for white children.

Sec. 1670. Upon the written application of the parents or guardians of such children, to any Board of Trustees or Board of Education, a separate school must be established for the education of such children.

SEC. 1671. The same laws, rules, and regulations, which apply to schools for white children, apply to schools for colored children.

Sec. 1672. No publication of a sectarian, partisan, or demoninational character, must be used or distributed in any school, or be made a part of any school library; nor must any sectarian or denominational doctrine be taught therein. Any school district, town, or city, the officers of which knowingly allow any schools to be taught in violation of these provisions, forfeits all right to any State or county apportionment of school moneys; and, upon satisfactory evidence of such violation, the Superintendent of Public Instruction and School Superintendent must withhold both State and county apportionments.

SEC. 1673. No school must be continued in session more than six hours a day; and no pupil under eight years of age must be kept in school more than four hours per day. Any violation of the provisions of this section must be treated in the same manner as a violation of the provisions of the preceding section.

ARTICLE XI.

PUPILS,

SECTION 1683. Pupils, how admitted.

1684. Must submit to regulations.
1685. Suspension and expulsion of.
1686. Defacing school property, liabilities for.

1687. Experienced teachers for beginners. Sec. 1683. Pupils must be admitted into the schools in the order in which they apply to be registered.

Seo. 1684. All pupils must comply with the regulations, pursue the required course of study, and submit to the authority of the teachers of said schools.

Sec. 1685. Continued willful disobedience, or open defiance of the authority of the teacher, constitutes good cause for expulsion from school; and habitual profanity and vulgarity, good cause for suspension from school.

Seo. 1686. Any pupil who cuts, defaces, or otherwise injures any school house, fences, or outbuildings thereof, is liable to suspension or expulsion; and on the complaint of the teacher or trustees, the parents or guardians of such pupils shall be liable for all damages.

Sec. 1687. In cities having graded schools, beginners shall be taught, for the first two years, by teachers who have had at least four years experience; and such teachers shall rank, in point of salary, with those of first grade.

ARTICLE XII.

TEACHERS.

SECTION 1696. General duties of teachers.

1697. School month, in relation to salary of teachers, defined.
1698. Appeal allowed from order removing teacher for incompetency.
1699. Appeals in other cases.
1700. No warrant to be drawn in favor of a teacher unless he performs

his duties.
1701. Nor unless he hold certificate, and was employed.
1702. Teacher's duty in regard to teaching morality, etc.

Sec. 1696. Every teacher in the public schools must:

First-Before assuming charge of a school, file his certificate with the County Superintendent;

Second-On taking charge of a school, or on closing a term of school, immediately notify the County Superintendent of such fact;

Third-Enforce the course of study, the use of text-books, and the rules and regulations prescribed for schools;

Fourth-Hold pupils to strict account for disorderly conduct on the way to and from school, on the play-ground, or during recess; suspend, for good cause, any pupil in the school, and report such suspension to the Board of Trustees or Education for review. If such action is not sustained by them, the teacher may appeal to the County Superintendent, whose decision shall be final;

Fifth-Keep a State school register;

Sixth-Make an annual report to the County Superintendent at the time, and in the manner, and on the blanks prescribed by the Superintendent of Public Instruction. Any school teacher who shall end any school term before the close of the school year, shall make a report to the County Superintendent, immediately after the close of such term; and any teacher who may be teaching any school at the end of the school year, shall, in his or her annual report, include all statistics for the entire school year, notwithstanding any previous report for a part of the year;

Seventh--Make such other reports as may be required by the Superintendent of Public Instruction, County Superintendent, or Board of Trustees or Education.

Sec. 1697. A school month is construed and taken to be twenty school days, or four weeks of five school days each.

Sec. 1698. In case of the dismissal of any teacher before the expiration of any written contract, entered into between such teacher and Board of Trustees, for alleged unfitness, or incompetence, or violation of rules, the teacher may appeal to the School Superintendent; and if the Superintendent decides that the removal was made without good cause, the teacher so removed must be reinstated.

Sec. 1699. Any teacher whose salary is withheld may appeal to the Superintendent of Public Instruction,

Sec. 1700. No warrant must be drawn in favor of any teacher, unless the officer whose duty it is to draw such warrant is satisfied that the teacher has faithfully performed all the duties prescribed in section sixteen hundred and ninety-six.

Sec. 1701. No warrant must be drawn in favor of any teacher, unless such teacher is the holder of a proper certificate, in force for the full time for which the warrant is drawn, nor unless he was employed by the Board of Trustees or Education; provided, that nothing in this section shall interfere with any special school laws now in existence for the counties of Trinity, Shasta, or Inyo.

Sec. 1702. It shall be the duty of all teachers to endeavor to impress on the minds of the pupils the principles of morality, truth, justice, and patriotism; to teach them to avoid idleness, profanity, and falsehood, and to instruct them in the principles of a free government, and to train them up to a true comprehension of the rights, daties, and dignity of American citizenship.

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