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may honestly avow a desire to exclude all who unworthily or unfitly intrude themselves into the noble office of teaching.

A State Society would unite the teachers of our State in the bonds of fraternal sympathy; a certificate of membership would entitle the holder to the aid of members in all parts of the State; it would be a passport of employment when he should change his residence; it would entitle him to the substantial benefits of an honorable reception among all teachers; and a small annual membership fee would soon constitute a fund for the establishment of a teacher's journal, as the organ of the society.

The subject of a State professional society being brought before the Institute, the plan was advocated by John E. Benton, Theodore Bradley, and others.

A committee was appointed with Mr. Bradley, Chairman, who made a report, and requested all interested in forming such a society to meet after the final adjournment of the Institute.

A State Educational Society was soon afterwards formed on the plan recommended, with the following constitution:


We, as teachers of California, in order to further the educational interests of the State, to give efficiency to our school system, to furnish a practical basis for united action among those devoted to the cause in which we are engaged, and for those purposes to elevate the office of teacher to its true rank among the professions, do hereby adopt the following



SECTION 1. This organization shall be known as the "California Educational Society."

SEC. 2. All holders of State Life Diplomas, or State Educational Diplomas, shall be eligible to membership on the recommendation of the Executive Committee, and the payment, in advance, of an admission fee of five dollars.

SEC. 3. Any member may be expelled for unprofessional conduct by a two-thirds vote of members present at any regular meeting; provided, that a copy of the charges be deposited with the Recording Secretary at least four weeks before the meeting at which the charges are acted upon, and immediate notice thereof be given to the accused.

The society assumed the publication of the California Teacher, and elected annually a Board of Editors, until 1873, when the control of the journal passed into the hands of the State Superintendent.

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[NOTE.-The names of deceased members are marked *; of those retired from the profession t.]

Anderson, J. W.

Anderson, Mrs. A. B.
Atwood, Mrs. C. L.
Austin, Miss M. F.

Allen, L. D.

Adams, J. G.

Bradley, Theodore.
Bagnall, John.
Bolander, Henry N.
Brown, George.

+ Brown, F. R.

Braly, J. H.

Brodt, A. W.

Baker, G. F.
Beanston, George.
Bennette, Fannie E.
Barre, Miss S. A.
Bragg, Mary J.
Baldwin, Nellie.
+Brown, Louisa.
+ Cottle, Melville.
Cleveland, Miss E. A.
Cook, Hannah.
Denman, James.
*Deal, M. S.

Dubois, Mrs. A. E.
Deane, Mrs. Margaret.
Dolliver, Clara J.
Doud, Nettie.
Deetken, Mrs. L. G.
+Fitzgerald, O. P.
+Flood, Noah F.
Fuller, A. L.

Finch, J. B.

Farley, A. J.
Fenton, H. W.
Fitzgerald, A. L.
Fink, Miss A. P.
Field, Miss C. P.

Fowler, Laura S.

Goodrich, S. H. +Holmes, Ahira. +Holmes, Ellis H. Humphrey, E. D. Higbie, Alfred. +Huntley, O. H. tHoitt, Ira G. Howe, Converse. Hunt, Carrie L. Hucks, Annie. Johns, Chas. T. Kellogg, Martin. Knowlton, Ebenezer. Kennedy, W. W. Kennedy, J. G. Kennedy, Kate. Kincaid, Mary W. tLeonard, T. C. +Louttit, J. A. Lyser, Albert. Levison, Rosa. Myrick, Thos. S. + Marks, Bernhard. McGlynn, A. E. Makinney, H. E. *Morris, Geo. F. McChesney, J. B. + McBride, H. E. Moore, John A. Nutting, H. N. Nicholson, Thomas. O'Connor, Joseph. Peck, Geo. H. +Pelton, John C. Preston, E. M. +Penwell, S. A. Prior, Philip. Pascoe, Mary.

+ Parker, Jean.
Prescott, Miss D. S.
tRowell, W. K.

Randall, Ambrose H.
Rousseau, E.

Rattan, Volney.
+Swezey, S. I. C.
Stratton, James.
Swett, John.
Smith, Sparrow A.
Stone, D. C.
Sibley, J. M.
Schellhouse, E. J.
Scott, M. M.
Smith, Jessie.
Smith, Jennie.

Stowell, Miss M. E.
Stowell, Miss P. M.
Slaven, Miss A. E.
Sullivan, Kate.
Sumner, J. H.
Stone, W. W.
Smith, J. D.
Shaw, Miss E. A.
+Tait, George.
*Townsend, Dennis.
Templeton, M. L.
Thurston, E. T.
Thompson, Helen.
True, Chas. F.
Upham, Isaac.
White, Silas A.
White, William.
Winn, A. T.

Williams, W. J. G.
Warren, R. B.
Wermouth, Hamilton.
Wade, Margaret.
Zimmerman, Wm.

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In 1864, the State Board of Education, consisting of Governor Stanford, Surveyor-General Houghton, and State Superintendent Swett, met and adopted a State series of text-books, taking the series recommended by vote of the State Teachers' Institute that met in San Francisco, May 7-10, 1863.


Eaton's Series of Arithmetics;
Cornell's Primary Geography;
Warren's Intermediate Geography;
Greene's Introductory Grammar;

Quackenbos's English Grammar;
Willson's Series of Readers;
Willson's Speller;

Quackenbos's History of the U. S.

In 1866, the Board, reorganized under the Revised School Law, Governor Low, Chairman, met and readopted, for a term of four years, the list of 1864, with the exception of the geographies and Quackenbos's Grammars, which were indefinitely continued, but not readopted for four years. Clarke's Geography was also added to the list of geographies, and the Spencerian and Payson, Dunton & Scribner's Penmanship were continued in use.

In 1869, the Board, Governor Haight, Chairman, Superintendent Fitzgerald, Secretary, adopted Monteith's Series of Geographies, in place of Cornell's, Warren's and Clarke's, and Brown's Grammars, in place of Greene's and Quackenbos's-the change to take effect July, 1870.

In 1870, July 12-13, the State Board met, and, under the reenacted California School Law, adopted the following


McGuffey's Series of Readers;

Robinson's Series of Arithmetics;

Monteith's Series of Geographies;

Brown's Series of Grammars;

Willson's Spellers;
Cutter's Physiologies;

Payson and Dunton's Penmanship.

A year later, the Board added to this list Swinton's Condensed History of the United States, and Swinton's Word Analysis.

In 1874, June 22d, in compliance with a new section of the School Law, the Board passed a resolution inviting publishers

to lay before them, on or before January 5th, 1875, proposals for supplying text-books for use in the public schools of the State.

January 5th, 1875, the Board met-Governor Booth in the chair, and Superintendent Bolander, Secretary-considered the proposals received, and adopted the Pacific Coast Readers, in place of McGuffey's; Cornell's Geographies, in place of Monteith's; Spencerian Penmanship, in place of Payson, Dunton & Scribner's; and readopted Robinson's Arithmetics and Cutter's First Book in Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene. The Board also recommended Swinton's Language Series for teachers and school libraries.

On February 3d, 1876, a writ of certiorari was issued by the Sixth District Court, Sacramento, Judge Ramage, against the introduction of the new Readers. The case was carried to the Supreme Court, which, on April 19th, 1875, declared the action of the Board, in adopting the Pacific Coast Readers, null and void, on the ground that the record did not show that six months' notice of a proposed change in Readers had been given, as required by law.

On June 1st, the Board again met, and advertised for proposals for all the books, it being considered that the ruling of the Supreme Court, on Readers, applied to all the books adopted at their former meeting.

Dec. 5th, 1875, the Board again met, pursuant to advertisement, to adopt text-books, but were enjoined by Judge Braynard, County Judge of Tehama County, and Judge Reardon, District Judge of the Fourteenth District, "from receiving, opening, or acting in any manner upon proposals for supplying Readers and Geographies, or taking any action whereby any Readers other than McGuffey's, or any Geographies other than Monteith's, may be used in the public schools of this State." The Board being still free to act upon all other books, adopted Robinson's Arithmetic, Swinton's Word Analysis, Spencerian Penmanship, Smith's Drawing, Mason's Music Reader's, and Cutter's First Book in Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene.

In the case of Readers and Geographies, the Board postponed action to Dec. 28th, the hearing of the injunctions being set respectively for Dec. 15th and Dec. 22d. Meanwhile, a bill was introduced into the Legislature, Dec. 9th, that the text

books in use in 1873-4-5, be continued in use in all the public schools of the State, until otherwise provided by statute. This bill became a law on Dec. 13th, when the injunction suits were at once dismissed.

As the case now stands, the old list of books throughout remains in the schools, and all power of changing is vested in the State Legislature.


The Legislature of 1860 passed a law prohibiting colored (Negro and Mongolian) children from being admitted to schools for white children, under penalty of forfeiting all public moneys.

Previous to this, colored children were prohibited from attending schools for white children, but there was no penalty. The law had allowed trustees to establish separate schools for colored children, but had not required it.

The first legal recognition of the rights of colored children is found in the Revised School Law, 1866:

SEC. 57. Children of African or Mongolian descent, and Indian children, not living under the care of white persons, shall not be admitted into the public schools, except as provided in this act; provided, that, upon the written application of the parents or guardians of at least ten such children, to any Board of Trustees, or Board of Education, a separate school shall be established for their education, and the education of a less number may be provided for by the trustees in any other manner.

SEC. 58. When there shall be in any district any number of children, other than white children, whose education can be provided for in no other way, the trustees, by a majority vote, may permit such children to attend schools for white children; provided, that a majority of the parents of the children attending such school make no objection in writing, to be filed with the Board of Trustees.

SEC. 59. The same laws, rules, and regulations which apply to schools for white children shall apply to schools for colored children.

Under this qualified provision, most of the colored children in the State were admitted to school privileges, though in a few outlying districts-notably the city of Oakland-they were ex

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