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D. C. Stone, of Marysville, from the standing committee of the previous year, reported against the practicability of starting

such a journal.

Sparrow Smith, also of the committee, in a minority report, dissented, and urged an attempt to establish one.

Professor Swezey, J. L. Wilbur, J. C. Pelton, George Tait, James Stratton and Superintendent Swett, spoke in favor of a journal, and Dr. Gibbons and Mr. Rodgers rose in opposition.

A committee, consisting of Messrs. Smith, Tait and Seymour, was appointed, who reported in favor of establishing a State educational journal, called the California Teacher, to be published at one dollar per annum, and to be edited by a board of resident editors, consisting of John Swett, George Tait and George W. Minns. Mr. Minns declined to serve, and nominated Mr. Swezey to fill his place. The first number of this journal was issued in July following.

The subject of a State professional society being brought before the Institute, the plan was advocated by Rev. John E. Benton, Theodore Bradley and others.

A committee was appointed, with Mr. Bradley chairman, who made a report, and requested all interested in forming such a society to meet after the final adjournment of the Institute. A State Educational Society was soon afterwards formed on the plan recommended.


The revised school law having made provision for the adoption and compulsory use of some uniform State series of textbooks, no small share of the time of the Institute was taken up in discussing the merits of school-books. The Institute voted to recommend to the State Board of Education the following series, which was afterwards adopted by the State Board with hardly any variation: Willson's Readers and Spellers; Eaton's and Robinson's Arithmetics; Cornell's and Warren's Geographies; Quackenbos' Grammar and History of the United States.


One hundred teachers entered the examination for State diplomas and certificates. The examination was conducted in writing, by means of printed questions, and nearly three thousand pages of manuscript were carefully examined and credited by the Board.

State educational diplomas, valid for six years, were granted to the following teachers: T. C. Barker, Stephen G. Nye, Bernhard. Marks, T. W. J. Holbrook, Joseph W. Josselyn, Thomas Ewing, William K. Rowell, Cyrus C. Cummings, Edward P. Batchelor.

State certificates were issued as follows:

First grade certificates, valid for four years..
Second grade certificates, valid for two years...
Third grade certificates, valid for two years.

Whole number, including diplomas...






Aside from the incidental labors and benefits of the Institute, its practical and solid results may be summed up as follows: First. A State educational journal;

Second. Action recommending a State school tax;
Third. A State educational and professional society;
Fourth. Adoption of a State series of text-books;

Fifth. The granting of a large number of State diplomas and certificates;

Sixth. The publication of a valuable volume of proceedings and lectures.


A State Teachers' Institute was held in the city of San Francisco from September 19-24, 1865. No appropriation in aid of such Institutes was granted by the State Legislature in 1863; but owing to the liberality of the Board of Education of San Francisco, which tendered the use of the Lincoln Schoolhouse, and paid the bills for gas, the State Superintendent was enabled to hold one without any expense whatever to the State.

The Institute was convened in September, during the vacation of the city schools, that being the only time in the year when the Lincoln Hall could be used for such a purpose. Notwithstanding the fact that many of the schools in the interior had just opened their new terms for the year, in consequence of which the teachers were unable to attend, three hundred teachers from various parts of the State were present.

The most important purpose for which it was convened wast the holding of an examination of applicants for State diplomas

and certificates. How well that purpose was accomplished is set forth in another part of this report.

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The following lectures were delivered before the Institute: "The State and the School," John E. Benton; "School Law," John Swett; "Geography of California," Charles Russell Clarke; "A Practical Education," Prof. Kellogg; "Physical Training, Ebenezer Knowlton; "Physiology and Hygiene," H. P. Carlton; "Force," Dr. Washington Ayer; "Comparison between the European and American Systems of Education," Bernhard Marks; "Moral Training," Rev. S. H. Willey; "Modern Languages in Public Schools," Ralph Keeler; "Education," Dr. Luckey.

Several of these addresses were published in the California Teacher. The subjects of "School Libraries," "Course of Study for Ungraded Schools," and "Teachers' Life Diplomas," were discussed at length.

A committee of all the County Superintendents present at the Institute acted in detail on the sections of a bill of amendments to the school law, and, with a few immaterial changes, approved the provisions submitted to the committee by the Superintendent of Public Instruction.

An evening ticket lecture was delivered by J. Ross Browne, about "Queer People and Queer Places," which netted the sum of $54 for the benefit of the California Teacher. Also an evening lecture on "Natural Philosophy," by Professor Minns, of the State Normal School.

The California Steam Navigation Company gave all members of the Institute free passes to and from San Francisco, over their several routes of travel, and the railroad lines gave free return passes to Institute members.


The Fifth Institute was held in San Francisco May 7-11, 1867, and attended by 500 teachers. Addresses as follows:

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Supt. John Swett: "Educational Progress." D. C. Stone: Self-Improvement." Rev. C. G. Ames: "The Teacher's Motives." Ralph Keeler: "The Oldest Scholar." Rev. John E. Benton: "Readiness." William White: "Teachers and Parents."

The Sixth Institute convened at Lincoln Hall, May 4–7, 1869. Addresses were delivered as follows:


State Supt. Fitzgerald: "Educational Condition." John Le Conte: "Nebula Hypothesis." Geo. W. Simonton: "True Education." John Swett: "Arithmetic."

The subject of "Text-Books" was discussed and reported upon.


The Seventh State Institute met in San Francisco, Sept. 13-16, 1870. Addresses and lectures were given by Supt. Fitzgerald; Prof. E. S. Carr, on "Air," and "Industrial Education;" Mr. Marks, on 'Mathematics." J. P. Garlick: Ungraded Schools." Miss Dolliver: A Poem. Dr. Schellhouse: "Grammar." Miss Fowler: "Defects in Education." Dr. Luckey: "State Normal School." Prof. Joseph Le Conte: "Universal Law of Cyclical Movement."

The Eighth and last Institute met in San Francisco, Nov. 7-10, 1871. Supt. Fitzgerald delivered an annual address. Lectures were given as follows:

Dr. Schellhouse: "The Art of Teaching. The Art of Teaching." Dr. Logan: "School Ventilation and Hygiene." Dr. Gibbons: "Hygiene of Dress." Miss Dolliver: “Cobwebs and Brooms." Dr. E. S. Carr: "The Educational Work of Sarmiento."

The discussions were, in general, on unimportant topics. This was the last of the State Institutes, the Legislature of 1872 having cut off the annual appropriation of $250 for



The State Board of Education called, by resolution, a convention of teachers at San Jose, June, 1875, but the attendance was small.

A State Teachers' Association was organized, but the proceedings were of no special consequence.



Mr. President and Teachers: During the past few weeks the world has been watching the sudden, and to the unobservant eye, almost miraculous transfer of power and prestige from one of the great leading European States to another. A quiet, home-loving practical people have suddenly developed a vast amount of latent force, which it puzzles us to name. Is it brains versus bullets, science versus sentiment, that awaits the arbitrament of war, or a territorial question only? Somehow or other, ideas and education have gone up in the scale as they never did before in any ten weeks of human history.

We are all foolish enough to fix our eyes upon the two central figures of the strife; but neither Teuton fox nor Gallic wolf have had very much to do with the results which so astonish and appal the world.

If Prussia, so far victorious, has been busy rearing a nation of soldiers, she has done it openly, in the face of the world. She has made every soldier a fortification by the completeness of an educational system which makes the most of whatever a man is born with. That system is on exhibition, not only of its value for defense, but its moral power, its temperance and self-control. Whatever the final political result may be, it is certain that not one Prussian who has fallen has felt himself a tool or a dupe, played upon by superior cunning and selfishness.

There is not a soldier of that grand army who has had less than ten years' schooling (most of them have had from fifteen to eighteen years); their bodies have been as carefully trained as their minds, and by teachers who make this their life business.

What would you expect from a country that has an army of three million children at school, whether they wish to go or not and whether their parents wish them to go or not, and for a Government that provides for this largely by devoting to it the heaviest outlay of its resources?

Would you expect Prussia to be beaten, when you know that until the year 1831, France had made no provision for the instruction of her millions, had no public elementary schools when Guizot sent Victor Cousin to study the school system of Prussia, with a view to its adoption?

Power is cumulative, and although Napoleon III has nobly fostered education and science, he started at a disadvantage. Poor, beleagured Paris trembles to-day in greater terror of the ignorant and

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Abstract of a lecture before the State Teachers' Institute, September, 1870, by Ezra S. Carr, M.D.

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