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Per-ol'ogy (Or. theos, God. and logos,

discourse), the science of God and divine

things.

The-o-ret'ical (Gr. theCreo, I behold, con-
tem'plate), speculative, not practical.
Theory is a doctrine or scheme of things,
without reference to practice.

Ther-mop't-lje, a oarrow defile in Greece,
celebrated for a desperate resistance
against the Persian army, made by three
hundred Spartans, under Le-ou'idas.

Thiret or Tiret, a country of Asia, the
most lofty part of the continent. The
Himalaya Mountains, the highest in the
world, rise here. The name given to the
region by the natives means "the north-
ern land of snow."

Thomson, James, one of the most eminent
of British poets, was born in Scotland in
1700, died 1748. His "Seasons" and
"Castle of Indolence " justify his claim to
the celebrity which he enjoyed while in
this world.
Extracts from "The Seasons," 177,
298, 337.

Extracts from "Castle of Indolence,"
114,128.
Thoughts To Dwell Or, 84.
Thraldom (thrawl'dum), a Saxon word,

meaning a state of bondage.
Thursday. This day derives its name from
Thor, the old Scandinavian god of thun-
der. .

Tide, to work in or out of a river by favor
of the tide.

Titillation (Lat. titil'lo, I tickle), a tick-
ling, or being tickled.

Titus Vespania'ncs, a Roman emperor, b.
A. D. 40. He took Jerusalem (A. D. 70)
after a terrible siege.

To. The pronunciation of this word,
whether to or too, depends much on its
application and emphasis. In such
phrases as go to, heave to, where to is
used adverbially, it is pronounced too.

Toracco, A Paper Of, 353.

Torin, John, author of " The Honey-Moon,"
b. in England 1770, d. 1304. Quoted,
385. 1

Toulon (Too-long'), a seaport of Prance. A

Tour (toor), a journey in a circuit.

Toward or Towards ; pronounced UVardz -,
sometimes tOwrdz, as if in one syllable.
As used p. 295, line 8, it is in two sylla-
bles, and an adverb meaning near at
hand.

Thade-wwds. Explained, p. 209.

Tradition (Lat. trado, I give up, deliver
down), doctrines or facta transmitted by
word of mouth from age to age.

Thao'edy. The word is said by late Ger-
man critrs to be derived from tratfos,
an old Greek word, signifying melan-
choly'. In tragic compositions, the dic-
tioc must be elevated and the ca-tas'tro-
phe melancholy.

Transport (Lat. toons, over, and porto, I
carry), the being carried beyond one's self;
rapture, ecstasy.

Tran'svt;rsu' (Lat. trans, over, and versuit,
turned), lying in a Ctosr direction.

Trench, Bichard Chetrnin, formerly pro-
fessor of Divinity in King's College, Loo-
don.

Shortsightedness of Man, 113.

On the Study of Words, 119.
Tri'ton, in mythology, a fabled sea demi-
god, supposed to be the trumpeter of Kep
tune.

Trium'virate (Lat. tres, three, vir, a mar'
a union of three men.

Trope (Gr. trepo, I turn), in Rhetoric, ft
word or expression turned from its pri-
mary and proper meaning.

Troyrs (pronounced trwa, the a as in
water), an old city of France.

Tu'rer, in Botany, a kind of fleshly stem,
formed under ground, and filled with
starch.

Tuesday, the third day of the week ; named
after Tuisco, the Saxon god of war.

Tully, the Anglicized name for Tullius, be-
longing to Cicero, whose entire name waa
Marcus Tullius Cicero.

Tumrler, a clown j one who plays tricks of
tumbling.

Tu'mult (Lat. tumeo, I swell), a noisy ris-
ing; a commotion.

Turning The Grindstone, 103.

Ty'ro (Lat. tiro, a raw soldier), a beginner
in learning.

Tyr'rhrne Sea, the ancient name of thai
portion of the Mediterranean south-west
from Tuscany.

Ulys'ses, one of the principal Greek heroes
in the Trojan war, celebrated by Homer.
He is also the hero of "the Od'yssey,—
Odysseus being merely another name
for the hero. The story, p. 100, is told by
Homer.

Um'pire. This word, according to Brande,
appears to be derived from the Fr. im-
pair, uneven in number; an umpire
being a third party, to whom a dispute ii
referred.

U'sury, the taking of interest for money.
from the Lat. word usu'ra, which is fro»
..w£or, I use.

r

Vadutz (pronounced Vah-dootz'), a town o»
Germany on the Rhine. In the German
phrase (p. 181, last line but 2), a is pro
nounced like a in father ; e like e in pen ,
it likeee in meet; au like ou in house.

Vag'arond (Lat. vagor, I wander), a va
grant; one having no certain dwelling.

Valence (pronounced va-langse', the a as in
father), a town of France on the Rhone.

Valise. Pronounced va-lees'.

Vane, Sir Henry, the younger, an English
statesman, b. 1612. He was the fourth
governor of the colony of Massachusetts
in 1630; returning to England, he opposed
the royal government, and afterwards
the sovereignty of Cromwell ; and, through
the perfidy of King Charles II., wai
finally beheaded for high treason in 1662.
meeting his fate with Christian heroism
and composure. Mention of, p. 283.

Ven'ice, a town of Italy, duitton 136 island!
joined together by 450 bridges, at the head

ol the Gulf of Venice ; once a rich and
powerful city, but which lost its commerce
in 1498, through the Portuguese discovery
of the way by sea to the E. Indies.

Ventilation (Lat. vent us, wind, whence
ventilatio). See Remarks on, 362.

Vents De -mrdici (pronounced Ve'nus deh
Mede-che, tb<* ch as in chill), a cele-
brated ancient statue of Venus, which re-
ceives its name from having been placed
in the gallery of the Medici family at
Florence, after its discovery at Tiv'oli,
Italy, in 1695. It is of pure white marble,
four feet eleven inches in height. The
sculptor's name is unknown , but he is
■opposed to have flourished before the
Christian era.

Verdict (Lat. verum, true, dictum, say-
ing), true declaration.

Verse. The Latin verb verto, I turn, and
its derivative versus, gave origin to this
Word. The Roman farmers deseriiied the
swinging round of the plough at the end
of a furrow for the purpose of commencing
a new one by the word versus, a turning.
Then the furrow itself, or the line of earth
ploughed up, was called versus. Subse-
quently, a written line, whether in prose
or verse, received this name. Then it
was conlined to a line of poetry ; and
modern usage has enlarged the meaning
of the word so that it may apply to a
stanza or to several lines of a poem or
hymn.

Vbr'tk Al (Lat. vertex, the top), placed or
being in the zenith, or perpendicularly
over the head.

Vbr'ti-go (Lat. verto, I turn), giddiness, or
swimming of the head.

Vesuvius, Mount, a volcano near Naples, in
Italy, is three thousand nine hundred and
thirty-two feet high. See Volcano.

Vi'a (Lat. a way), via Liverpool, by the
way of Liverpool.

Vil'licle (Lat. villus, hair), in anatomy,
one of the minute fibrils of those internal
surfaces, which, minutely examined, look
like the pile or nap of velvet.

VMCInnSS (pronounced vang-s€nz'), a town
of France, about three miles east of Paris.

Vi'olet. Some philologists derive this word i
from the Latin via, because of the violet's
flourishing by the way-side; whence an
English poet has called it way-ling, the
postfix ling in Saxon meaning offspring.

Virgil. Publius Virgilius Maro, the most
distinguished epic poet of ancient Rome,
was b. near Mantua, 70 B. C., and d. 19
B. C. His supposed tomb is still shown
at Naples.

Virgin'ius, a centurion (military oflicer com-
manding a hundred men) of ancient
Rome, whose daughter Virginia being
claimed as a slave by Appius Claudius,
the father, to save her from dishor or,
i.ab)ied her with a knife snatched from a
butcher's stall.

Tista. Biena Vista (pronounced boo-e'na-
vis'ta), a town of Mexico, thirty-two miles
south oS Tampico, was the scene of an ac
turn, on the 22d and 23d Feb., 1847, in,

'which a Mexican army were repulsed by

a greatly inferior American force, ondff
Gen. Taylor. The Spanish words Buena
Vista signify good view.

Vizier (viz'yer), a Turkish minister of state.

Volca'ng, a mountain having an internal
fire, and at times emitting fire, smoke, and
lava. The word is derived from Vulcan*
the Roman name of the imaginary god
who presided over the forge and the
working of metals.

Voli'tion (Lat. volo, I will), the act of will-
ing; power of willing.

Volta'io. The Voltaic Pile or Battery
was discovered by Volta, a native of
Pavia, in Italy, about the year 1801. By
its means the phenomena resulting from
the accumulation of the electric fluid, and
from the evolution of electricity by chemi-
cal action, were manifested in a novel and
surprising manner.

Volunteer' (Lat. volun'tas, will), one
who enters into military or other service
H his own free will a voluntary fighter

Vowel Sounds. See pp. 16,17.

Wain'scot, in architecture, the framed lin
ing in panels wherewith a wall is faced
the timber lining or covering of a room.

Wallenstein (pronounced in German Vol'
lens tin), Duke of Friedland, a celebrated
German general, b. in Bohemia 1583 ; as-
sassinated 1634. On the incidents of hia
career Schiller has founded a noble
drama, an extract from which see on p.
343.

War, Barbarism of, 303. See also pp. 271,
326, 343, 410.

Warn, Wahder. The primary meaning ol
the verb to ward is to look at or after,
and consequentially, to defend, to protect
A ward of a lock is that which guards ol
secures it; in other words, that pan
which corresponds to its proper key.

Ware. Wm., Vesuvius, by, 251.

Washington, George, the "first in war, *
as well as "in peace," among the Ameri-
cans, was born Feb. 22, 1732, uear thd
banks of the Potomac, in the county of
Westmoreland, Va. That he was diligent
and studious in his youth his writings in
mature years abundantly testified. He
entered the military service of the colony in
1751; was in Braddock's expedition against
Fort du Quesne (pronounced Kane) in
1755, and had two horses shot under him;
was appointed commander-in-chief of the
American army in 1775; was elected
president of the Convention for forming
the Constitution in 1787; was elected
President of the United States in 1789,
again in 1793, and died in 1799. M Great
he was," says Lord Brougham, "pre-
eminently great; a perfect, just man, with
a thoroughly firm resolution, never to be
misled by others, any more than to be by
others overawed. To his latest breath
did this great patriot maintain the noble
character of a captain the patron of peace,
and a statesman the friend of justice.
Dying, he bequeathed to his heirs thtf

eword which he had worn in the war for

liberty, and charged them ' Never to take it from the scabbard but in self-defence, or in defence of their country and her freedom.' Until time shall be no more, will a test of the progress which our race has made in wisdom and in virtue be derived from the veneration paid to the immortal name of Washington."

Eulogized by Webster, 147.

The Youth of, by Everett, 249.

Our Political System, by. 287.

Religion Essential, by, 313. Waterloo. The village of Waterloo, noted for the great battle fought on the 18th of June, 1815, between Napoleon and the allied forces, is in Belgium, about ten miles southward from Brussels. Water, Tub World Of, 206. Water-wraith (p. 276). Wraith is a Scottish word, signifying a spirit or apparition.

Waylann, Rev. Francis, President of Brown University, R. I., and distinguished as a theologian and a writer on Moral Science and Political Economy, was born in N. Y. March 11, 1796. His writings

1 are much esteemed. Quoted, 288, 369.

Wkrer, Charles Maria Von, an eminent musical composer, born in Holstein, a dependency of Denmark, in 1786 ; died 1826. He composed the celebrated opera of Der Freischutz (the Eree-shooter). Mentioned p. 172.

Werster, Daniel, highly distinguished as a lawyer, orator, and statesman, was born in Salisbury, N. H., Jan. 18, 1782; died at his residence in Marshfield, Mass., Oct. 24th, 1852. His parents were poor; but he was enabled to enter Dartmouth College in 1797. He first practised law in his native state, and was in Congress in 1812. He removed to Boston in 1816, was sent to Congress from that city in 1822, and from that time up to the period of his death was in public life, distinguishing himself by many remarkable efforts of eloquence, which place him in the front rank of great orators, with Demosthenes, Chatham, Mirabeau, and Patrick Henry. On his death-bed, he prepared an inscription for his tomb stone, in which he says that his *' heart has always assured and reassured " him " that the Gospel of Jesus Christ must be a divine reality."

Character of Washington, 147.

Education in the United States, 184.

On Early Rising, 226.

The American Union, 271.

Love of Home, 368.

Peculiarities of our Liberty, 424 Ppkrster, Noan, was born in West Hartford, Connecticut, in 1758, died 1843. He is principally known for his elaborate English dictionary. Into this work he introduced many innovations in orthography, which are still a subject of controversy among authors and publishers, and many of which are repudiated by philological scholars in England and this

country. fSee Philology.) In England his innovations have not been generally adopted. In the United States some of the principal printing-oflices have ad . mitted them; so that considerable confusion in the spelling of various words exists in American publications. Of the propriety of several of his innovations there seems to be little question. That in regard to doubling the last consonant before erf or ing in words of more than one syllable, not accented on the last syllable, was recommended, though not always adopted, by Lowth, Walker, and Perry. The arbitrary deviations from the usual rule, in such words as travelled, travelling, worshipped, equalled, jew elled, libelled^ modelled, &c., were rejected by Webster, who spells these words traveled, traveling, worshiped, &c.; and public usage begins to favor this reform, not only in this country but in England. As a defining dictionary of the English language, Webster's is probably the best in existence.

Wrdnesday (wenz'da) is so named from the Scandinavian deity Woden. His functions corresponded to those of Mercury in the Greek and Roman mythology.

Wel'hin, the visible regions of the air; the vault of heaven. It is from the Saxon welk, to roll.

West'minster, a city of England, now so united with London that they form one city,, and, in ordinary speech, are men* tioned as one, though they have separate jurisdictions.

What a Common Man may say, 293.

Whale, Capture Of A, 400.

When I Am Oln, 238.

Wherefore (composed of where and for). Both Walker and Webster pronounce this word hwdr'-fdr. Sheridan pronounces it hwer-far.

Whewell (pronounced Hu'el), Wm., an

eminent English theologian and writer.

Quoted, 407. Whittier, John G., an American poet and

prose writer, born 1808. Quoted, 178,

297.

Wipe. This familiar word is from "to weave ;" wife and woof are of one origin. It is a title {says Trench) given to her who is eugaged at the web and wog^ these having been the most ordinary branches of wifely employment when the language was forming. See Husband.

Wild. See p. 125.

Willis, Nathaniel P., a popular American poet and essayist, b. 1807. The New Year, by, 434.

Wilna, the name of a city and river ot West or Polish Russia. The city is twr hundred and fifty miles north-east of Warsaw, has considerable trade, and is noted for several remarkable churches, for its literary ^institutions and medical academy.

Wilson, John, eminent as a poet and critic* was b. in Paisley. Scotland, in 1788. He edited B'ackwood's Magazine, and was professor of Moral Philosophy in the University uf Edinburgh. Died 1854.

Titc Ship, by, 22ft.

Thia Life and the Next. 314.

Assurance of an Hereafter, 315.

WlX'Chf.lSBa, Coi'NTESS OF.

A Wished-for Retreat, by, 334. Wind And Rain, Thr, 208. Wind'ward, the point from which the wind blows.

Winter, Poetry Oe, 90, 433.

W:nthrop, John, b. in England, in 1587;

governor of Massachusetts in 1630 ; d. in

lo4(J.

Winthrop, Rorert C, of the family of John, was born about 1808. Quoted pp. •275, 333.

Wirt, Wm., an eloquent lawyer and graceful writer, was b. in Maryland, in 1772 j d. 1835. Quoted, 288, 332, 431.

Wise, a manner, mode, fashion. It is often compounded in such words as lengthwise, breadthwise, &c, incorrectly written lengthways^ &c.

Wolsev, Thomas, Cardinal, an eminent English prel'ate, was the son of a butcher, and was b. 1471; d. 1530. He rose to great power under Henry VIII.; but that treacherous king finally worked bis ruin. See p. 421.

Woman's Mission, 359.

Words, The Study Of, 119.
'4 The Permanence of, 160.

Wordsworth, Wm,, a great and good fnglisb poet, b. April 7th, 1770, d. 1850^ His claims to a rank among the greatest poets of England were long contested, but at length very generally admitted by those whose verdict is fame. He had a lofty sense of the worth of his art, and, in him, poetry, which is but anothvr name for the reverent study of nature, embraces all knowledge, all sanctity, all truth and is ever made subservient to the doctrines of Christian revelation. In 1843 he succeeded Southey as poet-laureate. Quoted, S98.

The Daffodils, by, 70.
The Blind Street-Fiddler, 93.
Affectionate Remembrance, 102.
Friendship, 113.

The Moral Law, 114.

Essential Knowledge, 177.

Address to Duty, 178.

Heroism of Grace Darling, 201.

The Old Man by the Brook, 257. Wound. The preferred pronunciation of Walker and Worcester is vioond, ofWebster, wound, rhyming with sound. Wracr, synon'ymous with wreck, and an ancient form of that word.

Yang-tse-riang', a large river of China Its total course is about 2500 miles.

Y-ClEPHd (e-klepf), called, termed. It is the perfect participle of the Saxon won? ge-clypian, to call.

Yea. Both Walker and Webster prefer U pronounce this word like the pronoun ye; Worcester, Sheridan, and others. pronounce it ya.

Young, Edward, author of "Night Thoughts," was b. in Hants, England, in 1681, d. 1755. It is impossible to open any page of his "Night Thoughts " with

"out finding something grand, true, and striking. Trust in God, 256. Death, 309. # Defiance, from "Zanga," 102.

Zeal. The Greek is zelost which is from seo, I boil.

Ze'nith (from the Arabic). In Astronomy, the top of the heaven, or vertical point; the point directly overhead.

Zi'on or Sion, the name of one of the moun tains on which Jerusalem was built. It was sometimes called "the city of David ;" also " the holy hill."

Zone (Gr. zone, a girdle). In Geography the terrestrial zones are the five broad spaces or belts into whic! rhe surface of the earth is divided by 'tie two tropics and the two polar circles.

Zschorre, Henry, a prolific German writer, b. at Magdeburg, in Prussia, 1771, d. 1848. He commenced life as a strolling player, but afterwards studied divinity, and became a teacher of youth. The Snow of Winter, by, 90.

Zutphen (Zoot'phen), a town of the Neth erlanda, with a population of 11,000.

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