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fir. Prams, Bkrxardht de, an ingenious | French writer, author of the popular tale of "Paul and Virginia," b. 1731, d. 1814.
Storm in the Indian Ocean, 200.
Bal'amis, an island on the eastern coast of Greece, celebrated for a naval victory gained over the Persians by the Greeks, B. C. 480. The present name of the island in Colouri.
Eult. The allusion (p. 385, line 5) is to an ancient custom. Salt, if used too abundantly, is destructive of vegetation, and causes a desert. Hence, as an emblem of their doom, destroyed cities were sown with salt, to intimate that they were devoted to,perpetital desolation. There is an allusion to the practice in Judges 9: 45.
Samaritans, a mixed race of Israelites and Assyrian colonists, who, in the time of the Saviour, were looked on with great dislike by the Jews. The Samaritans took their name from Samaria, their capital city, ^he race is now dwindled down to a few families. The Saviour's parable of the "good Samaritan" (Luke 10 i 30) has wade the phrase proverbial.
Sa" Ativh (Lat. sabn, 1 heal), having the power to cure or heal.
8a.* Francisco, a city on the bay of that l-me on the west coast of North America. The growth of this city has been unprecedented in the world's history. In 1847 H was an insigui ficant pi ace; through the discovery of gold in California, it is D^w a great city. For a description of its local and maritime advantages, see p. 290.
Sann, Georce, the name assumed in her published writings by Madame Dude van t, a French novelist, of great but irregular and not always well-directed talents. Extract from, p. 439.
Banious .sa'nious), pertaining to sanies, which is a thin, reddish discharge from wounds or sores. *sanscrit (that is, the perfect), the present dead language of the Hindoos, in which the books of their religion and laws are written. It is understood now by the Brahmins alone. The Hindoos are the people of Hindustan' in Asia.
Bantillane (pronounced San-teel-yah-ne in Spanish; San-teel-yahn in French; t!:e a in both as in father). Santillana is the name of a town in Spain.
Sarmatia, the ancient name of Poland.
Saturday (in Latin, Satur'ni dies, Saturn's day), so called from the planet Saturn.
Sati-rnalia (sftt-ur-na'-li-a), a feast among the Romans in honor of-Saturn,, an old Italian divinity. The Sa-tur'nian period was the golden age, according to the poets.
&av,»yahd (pronounced in French Sa-vc-ayar'), a native of Savoy, a duchy bordering on France, Switzerland, and Piedmont. Many of the organ-grinders and exhibitors of shows in Paris are Savoyards.
Schili.hr (pronounced Shiller), John Christopher Frederic von, one of the most illustrious poets of Germany, was born at Marbach, in Wirtemberg, in 17fi9; died 1805. The extract (p. 343) is from his celebrated historical tragedy of Wallenstein, admirably translated by Coleridge,
School. The Greek word sch6le, from which this is derived, means leisure^ spare time ; that is, spare time for study; implying that the time must speedily come when our opportunity will be past, and the engrossing occupations of life wili leave us little leisure, comparatively, for storing the mind- The word school is sometimes used by seamen as synonymous with shoal! thus we hear of a school of Jishes, as on p. 400. In this sense the word seema to be derived from the Saxon sceol, a crowd. On our Common Schools, 185. The Schoolmaster Abroad, 269.
Schoolmen, the teachers of that method of philosophizing which arose in the schools and universities of what are commonly called the middle- ages ,-mbracing the period from the reign of Constantine, A. D. 325, to the era of the invention of printing, 1450—1455. The Schoolmen adopted the principles of Aristotle, and spent much time on points of nice and abstract speculation. Their works are now little read.
ScnotthL, The Seasons, from the German of, translated by Charles T. Brooks, 83.
Schubert, a German writer, from whom the extracts on Telegraphs (p. 37ti) and on Photography p. 370) were translated by the Rev. W. Furness.
Schwanac, pronounced Hhvar'no.
Science (Lat. set en .?, knowing, present participle of scio, I know), in its most comprchensive sense, knowledge, or certain knowledge. The knowledge of reasons and their conclusions constitutes abstract, that of causes and effects and of the laws of nature natural science The science of God must be perfect , the science of man may be fallible. See p. 419.
Scott, Sir Walter, eminent as a poet, a novelist, and a'historian, was bot.i in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1771, Knj died 1832. His death was accelerated by too great mental effort made to reni-.ve him self from pecuniary difficulties incumd by the failure of his publishers. A lew minutes before he sank into the state if unconsciousness which preceded his death, he called his son-in law and biograpl :r, Lockhart, to his bed-side, and v id, "Lockhart, I may have but a minui- to speak to you. My dear, be a good man, — be virtuous, be religious, — be a p-wd man. Nothing else will give you nny comfort when you come to lie here." Let every youth take the admonition to heart, as if it had been addressed per>«ially to himself by this good and gUtsd man. Scott an Early Riser, p. 226. Pibroch of Donuil Dhu, 46. Hymn of the Hebrew Mail, 164.
Humanity of Brace, 178.
Bcripti'hh (Lat. scriptnm, past participle of scrib-erf, to write), a writing. By way of distinction, the word is applied to the books of the Old and New Testament, as being the one Scripture needful; just as the term Bible (from the Greek Initios, a book) is applied by way of eminence to the one book.
Scureilous (Liit. scurra, a buffoon), using low, obscene, or abusive language.
Seasons, Portry Of Thh, in four parts, 83, 297, 337, 374, 433.
Bbour, Count De, quoted, 329.
Select Passages, in Prose, 367.
In Verse, 100, 113, 177, 256, 309, 410.
Self-killing, by Chambers, 171.
Semi, a Latin prefix, signifying half; as semi-diameter, half a diameter.
Sem Inary (Lat. semina're, to sow), literally, a place where seeds or first principles are implanted; hence, a school, a place of education.
Be-mir'amis, an Assyrian queen, wife of Minus. Her history is much mixed up with fabulous matter. She won great battles, founded many cities, and erected buildings of rare magnificence; but she was cruel, unscrupulous, and treacherous.
Ben'timent (Lat. sentio, I discern by the senses, I feel), hence it is a thought prompted rather by feeling and impulse than elaborated by the judgment; wherefore sentiment should be under «the check and control of principle.
September (Lat. septem, seven), so called from its being the seventh month in the o^d Koman year, liegi nning with March. It is the ninth mouth of our year.
Bequa'ciois (Lat. sequax) , following, pursuing. It is a poetical word.
8ergeant, John, an eminent American lawyer and statesman, who died in 1853. Declaration of Independence, 381.
Seven Barhs. The "seven sages" of Greece (referred to p. 429) were Periander, or, as some say, Epimen'ides, Pit'tticus, Thales, Solon, Bias, Chilo, and Cleobii'lus. All of them, except Thales, acquired their distinction by their practical wisdom in regard to the affairs of life. They seem to have been the Franklins of their day. They flourished about 600 B. C.
tex'taNt (Lat. sextans, the sixth part, the f limb of the instrument being the sixth / part of a complete circle), an astronomical / instrument, used principally at sea for / measuring the altitudes of celestial objects, by which the latitude in which a ship may be is ascertained. £haespeare, William, or Shakespeare, as his name is sometimes spelled, was born in the little town of Stratford on the Avon, in Warwickshire, England, in April, 1564, and died in 1616, having just sompleted his fifty-second year. By all Who can read the English language be is accounted the greatest dramatic writer
of any age. Little !s known of his life.
His means of education must have been imperfect; but he must have supplied the want by much solitary and intense, though, perhaps, desultory, study. On his Power of Expression, p. 312. Adam and Orlando, 319. Isabella and Angelo, 320. Brutus and Cassius, 350. Scenes from Hamlet, 371. Passages from Bhakspcare, 391. Wolsey and Cromwell, 421.
Shu Dird In Beacty, p. 378.
Shellry, Percy Bysshe, an English poet, b. 1792; drowned by the upsetting of a boat on the Gulf of Lcrfci, near Leghorn, 1822. He had great genius, unquestionably, but was conceited and presumptuous, undertaking, while yet a boy, to settle questions in philosophy and religion, which, to grapple with fitly, require* a lifetime of study and meditation. Hia intimate friends were of opinion that, had he lived, the goodness of his heart would eventually have corrected the errors of his head, and that poetry would haft worked the cure of his irreligion. Address to a Sky-lark, by, 415.
Sheridan, Richard Brinslry, distinguished as an orator and dramatist, was born in Dublin, in 1751; died 1816. He had splendid abilities, but was wanting in that high and steadfast moral principle which could control his appetites, and keep him from being immersed in debt. Anecdote of, p. 278. Extract from his speech against Hastings, 268.
Shell, an instrument of music; the first lyre being made, it is said, by drawing strings over a tortoise-shell.
Ship, The, by Wilson, 228.
Shore. This word is the old past participle of the verb to shear. "Shore" (says Tooke), "as the sea-shore, shore of a river, is the place where the continuity of the land is interrupted or separated by the sea or the river." The word sAore also means a prop or support for a building, ship, &c.
Sicrle (sik'l). This word is from the Latin seu'ula, a sickle, which is from seco, I cut.
Sidnry, Sir Philip, was born in 1554, in Kent, England. He wrote "The Defence of Poetry," and other works. He commanded a detachment of forces sent to assist the people of the Netherlands against the Spanish, and fell in a victorious engagement near Zutphen (pronounced zoot'fen), in 1586. See anecdotes of, 172, 278.
Sirge (seej). The word is derived from the Latin sedo, I sit; and an armed force ia sometimes said to sit down before a town. A siege is the act of besetting a fortified place with an army. To raise a siege is to relinquish a siege, or cause It to be relinquished.
Sieera (ai-fr'ra) is the Spanish name for a saw. Applied to a ridge of mountains, it suggests the resemblance of their outline to that of a saw.
Sign Or, the French mode of spelling the Spanish seiior, a title of respect, pronounced setn'yur.
Bimms, Wm. G., an American poet and miscellaneous writer, born 1806, in South
/Carolina. Quoted, p. 298. \<fl;'nk-crkk (Latin, *inf, without, euro* care), an office which yields profit, with little A * no care attending it.
Srarah (pronounced sir'rah, or sir'rah), a word of reproach, probably derived from Sir ha! — though this derivation is disapproved by Webster.
Shy, Tur, Our neglect of, 263.
Shy-larh, To Thr, 415. See Lark.
Sloixu, pronounced s/ou, when meaning a miry place ; and sluf, when meaning the cast skin of a serpent, or the part that separates from a foul sore.
Slug, to lie idle, to play the drone.
Smitn, Horacr, an English poet and essay-
On the Coming of Spring, 298.
Smitn, Rev. Sydnry, an English clergy-
Soule (so'kl or sok-kl), in architecture, a
Bou'ra-tes, one of the greatest intellects of
Soliloquy (Lat. so/us, alone, and loquor,
Boph'ist (Gr. sophos, wise), a Greek word,
Sophocles (Sof-o-cles), a Greek dramatic poet, h. 495 B. C. In his ninety-fifth year he is said to have expired from joy, In consequence of the unexpected success
of one of his dramas. Extract from,
translated by Lytton, 406. Sokchkkr (the 0 pronounced as in nor). This word is from the Latin sorti'tor, a caster of lots, and means a con'jurer, a wizard. Sounds And Lrtters, 15. Sound And Sense, 236. "u H-rroit, cabbage cut fine, pressed, and!
left to ferment till it is sour, 181. Soutn, Rorhrt, an eminent English divine,
b. 1633, d. 1716. Quoted, p. 314. Southry, Rorert, an English poet and miscellaneous writer, born in Bristol, in 1774, died in 1843. He was appointed poetlaureate (see Laureate) in 1813. He was a very diligent writer, but overtasked bis brain to such an extent that he was insane the last few years of his life. The remarks on self-killing (p. 171) apply to hifl case. « The Cataract of Lodore, 36. The Complaints of the Poor, 63. Comfort in Adversity, 113. Thv Father's Return, 136. Night in the Desert, 178. A Fair Day in Autumn, 374. Spain. The kingdom of Spam comprises nearly four-fifths of the Pyr-e-ne'an penin'sula, separated from France by the Pyrenees. It is a thoroughly mountainous country. Its chief articles of export are wines, fruits of southern Europe, salt, olive-oil, corks, quicksilver, and a little wool. By the fanatic and insensate proceeding of expelling the Moors (the last remnants of whom were driven out of the country in 1609), Spain lost 800,000 of her most diligent and industrious inhabitants, -and the consequences were fatal both to her manufacturing and agricultural interests. Thus does injustice, in the order of Providence, carry with it its own punishment, to nations as well as to individuals! Spah'ta or Lac-e-d-e'mon, one of the most powerful states of ancient Greece. The distinguishing traits of the Spartans were seventy, resolution, and perseverance. Defeat and reverse never discouraged them. Their children were early inured to hardship, and at a certain annual festival they were severely flogged, for the purpose of enabling them to bear pain with firmness. Whoever uttered the least cry during the scourging was disgraced. See story of the Spartan boy, p. 77. Special (special), designating a species or sort; particular, peculiar. Special pleadm^, in law, is the allegation of special or new matter, as distinguished from a direct denial of matter previously alleged on the opposite side. A special verdict is one in which the facts of the case are put on the record, and the law is submitted to the judges. Spider. The Apologue of "The Spider and the Bee" (p. 108), from one of the early productions of Swift, had reference to an active contest going on at the time between the advocates of ancient learning and those of modern learning. The Bee
represents the Ancients, the Spider the Modern*. The Apologue may be not unjustly applied to those "sell-applauding writers ** of the present day, who, " furnished with a native stock," and despising accuracy and careful investigation, undervalue the importance of study and instruction. See Swift.
Spinach (generally written, as pronounced, Spin'age), a garden plant, the leaves of which are boiled for greens.
Spirit (Lat. spiro, I breathe). The word primarily signified a breathing or gentle blowing of air. According to Locke, il spirit is a substance in which thinking, knowing, doubting, and a power of moving, do subsist."
The Body's Motive Power, 138.
Bponta-ne'ity (Lat. sponta, of free will), voluntariness.
Bpraoue, Charles, on the Indians, 303.
Spring, Portrt Of, 117, 297.
Sqcrern, a character in Dickens's tale of "Nicholas Nickleby;" the exaggerated type of a class of schoolmasters who once existed in England.
Btalao'tites (Gr. stalak'tis, that which
's" drops), a concretion of carbonate of lime, hanging like an icicle from the roofs of caverns, &c., and formed by the gradual dropping of water holding the carbonate in solution.
Etar. "lie saw a star shoot," &c. (p. 92). The meteors, commonly called falling or shooting stars, are supposed to be masses of matter inflated with phosphureted hydrogen gas, and which, being spontaneously ignited, shoot from the upper region of the atmosphere in a downward direction to the earth. The will o' the wisp, or ignis fatuus (Latin for fire of fools), is supposed to have a similar origin, though formed nearer the ground from decomposing substances.
Btareoard. Standing on the deck of a ship, with the face towards the bowsprit, the side to the right is the starboard, that to the left the larboard.
Still (Lat. stillo, I drop), a vessel, or apparatus, used in distilling liquors.
Stocr. Of this word, in its various meanings, Trench says, "They are all derived from and were originally the past participle of to stick, which, as it now makes stuck, made formerly stock; and they cohere in the idea of fixedness, which is common to every one."
Bto'ics, a celebrated sect of antiquity, so called from the stoa (porch or portico), in Athens, where Zeno, the founder of the sect, taught (B. C. 300). Th3 Stoics are proverbially known for the sternness and austerity of th'nr doctrines. They represented virtue chiefly under the character of self-denial; but, with a strange incon sistency, did not disapprove of suicide. They studied to make themselves indiffer ent at once to the pleasures and pains ot sense, and to exercise complete control over the passions.
Stomacn, Complaint Op A, 1ST.
Storm, on the Mountains, 333.
Story, Josepn, a distinguished American judge and writer on law, was bom in Marblchead, Mass., 1779, died 1845. He was associate justice in the Supreme Court of the United States, having been appointed in 1811.
Fulton's First Steamboat, 324.
Street, Alfrrd B., an American poet (b, 1812) remarkable for the fidelity of his descriptions of forest scenery. Quoted p. 297.
Strid'ulous, from the Latin stri'dulus, making any harsh or hissing sound.
Strong Drinh Marrth Fools, 294.
Study Of Words, Trench on the, 119.
Successive. To preserve the metrical harmony of the line (p. 321fcline 32), the accent may here be placea on the first syl lable in reading. The labors of lexicog'raphers (dictionary-makers) had not fixed the accent of a large class of words in Shakspeare's day. Success'tve is now properly accented on the second syllable.
Suf'fix (Lat. sub, under, fixi, I hava fixed), a letter or syllable added to the end of a word; a postfix.
Suffolk and Norfolr were the two broad divisions of Clsouthern" and "northern folk" into which the eastern part of England was divided.
Summum Boncm. See Bonum.
Summer, Poetry Of, 337.
Sunday, the first day of the week, is said to derive its name from the Saxons, who consecrated it to the sun in heathen times.
Superscription (Lat. super, upon, and scripsi, I have written), the act of writ Log upon; also the address, or direction written.
Swift, Jonathan, a celebrated political and miscellaneous writer, born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1667. He was a great master of irony and satire, but many of his writings will be deservedly forgotten, for their coarseness. He was created a Dean (an ecclesiastical dignitary) in 1713. In 1739 his intellect gave way, and he expired an idiot, "a driveller and a show," in 1745. With all his failings, he was a very great man.
The Spider and the Bee, 108. Sword. Webster's preferred pronunciation of this word is sword, although he admits sord, which is the mode preferred by Walker, Sheridan, Smart, Worcester, and other eminent philologists.
The Sword and the Press, 255. Syo'ophant. The derivation of this word ia curious and amusing. It is from the Greek sykos, a fig, and phaino, I discover; and originally meant an informer against those who stole figs. Hence it came to signify a tale-bearer then a parasite, one who tries to obtain - the favor of another by flattery, or by teb> ing tales of those whom he would eupplant.
covered with tar to render it water
Taylor, Henry, an English dramatic and
Taylor, Jane, the daughter of an artist in
Tennyson, Alfren, poet laureate of Eng
Teera'queous (Lat. terra, earth, and aqua, water), consisting of land and water, as the earth.
Terse (Lat. tersus, rubbed ofl). A terse
which various talents, more and few^r, i Tes'ter, the top covering of abed,
of languages," the root of all the present
Discontented Miller, 222.
Syllables, Derivation of, &c., 24.
who entertained a fanciful theory that the
Byn'onyme (written also syn'onym, and so
Bvr'actsk 'now Syragosa) was anciently
Sts run (Gr. *yn, with, and istlmaiy I
Tzhey, a term formerly applied to certain
Tao'mur, subsequently called Palmy'ra,
Talents. In our use of the word " talents"
in his absence, and give account of their
Tamerlane, called also Timour, one of the
Taepaulin (tar-polin), a piece of canvas
"Two Roads, 92. "Present Time, 93. "Blind Street-Fiddler, 93. "Wind and Rain, 208. "Village Preacher, 218, "Free Mind, 277. Theatre (Gr. theat'ron, from theaomai, 1 behold), a place for seeing; in modern use, a place for dramatic representations.
Thkres, an ancient city of Upper Egypt, on both sides of the Nile, about two hundred and sixty miles south of Cairo. Thebes is famous as " the city of a hundred gates." Its present ruins extend about eight miles along the N ile; and yet its glory belongs to a period prior to the commencement'of authentic history. Thebes was also the name of a city in Greece, the capital of Boeotia.
The-od'olite, a surveyor's compass, fur nished with a small telescope for the mors accurate measurement of angles.