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Pounds, Jonx, Account of, 115.
| PROPERTY. The Latin root of this word is POVERTY, THE GODDESS of, p. 439. In this propë, near ; whence property meamng a
allegorical apostrophe, the author, resort man's peculiar quality, possession, &c. ing to the mythological license of the PROVERB. The explanation of the word ancient poets, under which they deified “proverb " (says Trench) I believe to lie the quality or attribute which they would here. One who uses it uses it pro (for) exalt, has made Poverty a goddess, and verbo (a word); he employs, for and intold us how much the world has been in stead of his own individual word, this debted for its great deeds to the stimulus more general word, which is every man's she inparts. There is much truth in the Proverbs of all Nations, 64. thought. Whatever may be the obstacles From Proverbs of Solomon, 443. and privations of the poor man's son, he E BALMIST. The word psalm is from the may be assured that they are less peril Greek psallo, I twang or sing. The title ous to his successful fulillment of the ac of the psalmist," and "the sweet psalmtive purposes of life than the temptations ist of Israel," is applied to King David. to pleasure and inertness that beset on Pronounced sam'ist (the a as in father) every side the youth brought up in alllu or salmist. ence.
PUFFERS, THE, by Macaulay, 162. PRACTICAL JOKES, Danger of, 77.
PUNCTUATION, Derivation of, &c., 49. PRAGUE (Prag), a city of Bohemia, on the Puk'ITAN, the name by which the dissent
river Moldau. It contains a fine Gothic ers from the Church of England, about the cathedral, built in the middle of the year 1564, began to be known. The term fourteenth century ; also a university, the was assumed, as the word implies, from oldest in Germany.
the superior purity of cioctrine and dis PRAIRIE (prâ're), a French word ; meaning, cipline which they claimed.
in the U. States, an extensive tract of PYRAMID. The etymology of this word 18 land, mostly level, and destitute of trees, I undecided. Some derive it from the Gr. and covered with tall, coarse grass.
pur, fire, because of the resemblance of PRAYER, EFFICACY OF, 318.
the form to a spire of flame ; others de PRECISIAN (pre-siz'yan), a person ceremoni rive it from Egyptian and Greek roots
ously exact in the observance of rules. combined. PRE'Fix, a letter, syllable, or word, put to PY-THAG-U-RE'AN. So the word is accented
the beginning of a word, usually to vary by Walker ; but Webster makes it Pyth its signification, as un, not, in unseen, a-gore-an. The followers of Pythag'on not seen ; ex, out, in erclude, to shut ras, a Greek philosopher, born B. C. 570, out ; mis, ill, wrong, as misconduct, ill | were thus called. The doctrine of mo. conduct; inter, between, as interpose, to tem'psychosis, or the transmigration of place between. The English prefix pre souls through different orders of animal is from the Latin pre, before.
existence, was held by them. PREJUDICE. The original meaning is
QUAINT. This word is believed to be derived simply a judgment beforehand; but so
from the Lat. comptus, decked, dressed. apt are we to judge harshly and unfavor
In common use it means, odd, fanciful. ably before knowledge, that a prejudice is almost always taken to signify an un
QUALITY (from the Latin qualis, of what
sort?), anything pertaining or belonging favorable anticipation about one. PREROGATIVE (Lat. pre, before, and rogo,
to a thing ; property, disposition, temper,
rank. I ask), an exclusive, peculiar, or prior
QUANTITY OF WORDS, p. 25. privilege.
QUARRY, the game which a hawk or eagle is PRESCOTT, WM. HICKLING, a distinguished American historian, born in 1795.
pursuing or has killed; thought to be
derived from the Lat quæro, I seek. Pizarro in Peru, by, 417.
The word also means a mine or pit. PREVENT' (Lat. pre, before, and venio, I
QUAR'TAN (Lat. quartinus, the fourth), 0ccome), to come before, anticipate ; now
curring every fourth day, as a quartan more generally used to signify to hinden
ague or fever. PRIESTLEY, JOSEPH, an eminent theologian and experimental philosopher, b. in Eng
QUARTERLY REVIEW, LONDON, On Educa
tion, 184. On Shakspeare, 311. land in 1733 ; died at Northumberland,
On Milton, 146. Pennsylvania, in 1804. He was a friend | of Dr. Franklin.
Extent of the Universe, 404. PRIM'ITIVE WORD, an original word ; a word RACK. This word, as used by Shakspeare not derived from another.
(p. 237), is from to reek, like vapor or PRISONER AND RATS, THE, 59.
smoke ; hence it simply means, a vapor, PROBLEM (from the Gr. proballo, I throw an exhalation.
or lay before), anything proposed ; a RAD'ICAL, having reference to the root of a question for solution.
matter ; a primitive word ; an uprooting PRONUNCIATION (Lat. pro, before, and nun politician.
cius, 2 news-bearer, or announcer). The RADIUS, a Latin word, meaning a ray ; in meaning of the word, in its modern use, is! geometry the semi-diameter of a circle. limited to the act and mode of uttering or RAFFAELLE (sometimes spelled Raphael) articulating syllables and words. See re- the most celebrated of Italian painters, marks on, p. 38.
born 1483, died 1520.
arks on, 1, 24eare places
on Scotland, 1721, a
RANDOLPA, THOMAS, an English poet, who ance, applied chiefly to religious cere
died 1634, before his thirtieth year, 256. monies. RAVEN, a large bird of a black color, hav. RI'VAL (Lat. rivus, a river). Rivals, in the
ing its name from ravenous, because of primary sense of the word, were dwellers its greedy disposition. The proverb (p. on the banks of the same river, contenders 65) is directed against those who would for its water privileges ; whence the word pull out the mote from a brother's eye came to be applied to any who were on before heeding the beam in their own.
any grounds in more or less unfriendly READING, Remarks on, 13, 52, 399.
competition with one another. RECORD. On page 320, Shakspeare places ROBERTSOX, WM., a celebrated historian, b.
the accent of the noun on the last syllable. in Scotland, 1721, d. 1793. It should be on the first, to distinguish it Discovery of America, 188. from the verb. To suit the measure of Mary, Queen of Scots, 244. the verse, however, an exception may here ROGERS, HENRY, a distinguished contributor be made.
to the Edinburgh Review in 1849-53. RECORD'ER, a species of flageolet, in Shak Vanity, &c., of Literature, 345. speare's time.
ROGERS, SAMUEL, a highly-esteemed EngRECTILIN'E-AR, right-lined, straight.
lish poet, b. 1760, and alive 1854. REDUNDANCE (Lat. redundans, streaming In Rome, 307.
over, overflowing), superabundance. ROLAND (pronounced Rolang' ; the a as in Reef, a range of rocks seeming to be reft father), Madame, the wife of a French or rift from the main land.
statesman, was born in Paris, in 1754. RE-ENFORCEMENT, an increase of strength She was remarkable for her beauty and or force by something added.
intellectual gifts. She was one of the vicRELIGION. This word is believed to be from tims of the French revolution. See an ac
the Latin rel'igo, I bind back or fast; count of her execution, p. 291. whence it means, an acknowledgment of ROME, a city of Italy, formerly the metrop'. our bond or obligation as created beings olis of the greater part of the world
to God, our Creator. See pp. 279, 313. known to the ancients. Its present popuRESERVOIR (rez-er-vwor'), literally a place lation is estimated at one hundred and
where anything is reserved or kept ; a eighty thousand, including about pineteen tank or pond in which water is collected thousand foreigners, 307, 386. and preserved in order to be conveyed by ROM'ULUS, the reputed founder of the city pipes where it is needed.
of Rome. He is supposed to be a mythiRETRIBUTION (Lat. retribuo, I give back), I
repayment, requital. The proverb, “ the Root. The root of a word is the primary feet of retribation are shod with wool ” signification to which it can be traced. (p. 66), indicates how silently and surely RO'SARY (Lat. rosarium, a rose-garden). punishment must come to the transgress A Catholic devotional practice, consisting or. “Thy sin shall find thee out," - if in repeating certain prayers a certain not to-day, at some future time. Thou number of times. As the computation is mayest have long credit, but thou must made by beads, the string of beads used pay at length with interest.
for this purpose has acquired the popular REPUBLIC (Lat. respublica, public wealth, or name of a rosury.
commonwealth), that form of government ROUEN (pronounced Roo-ang'; the a as in in which the supreme power is vested in father), an ancient city of France on the the people.
river Seine. On the American Republic, 287. ROUTE (pronounced rout or root), the way RETROSPECTIVE (Lat. retro, back, and of a journey ; a course.
specto, I look at), looking back on past ROUTINE (roo-teen'), a round or course of events.
occupation. It is from the Lat. rota, a A Rětrospective Review, 127.
wheel. REVOKE (Lat. rövõco, I call back). In RU'BICUND, inclining to redness.
card-playing a revoke is when a party Rußy, a crystallized gem of various shades does not follow suit, though in his power of red, found chiefly in the sand of rivers to do so.
in Ceylon, Pegu, and Mysore. REVENGE, BEST KIND OF, 213.
RUDDER. “He who will not be ruled by RHEIMS, an ancient city of France, where the rudder must be ruled by the rock”
most of the French kings have been (p. 65). He who will not be guided by the crowned. Pronounced Rängz.
restraints of conscience, enlightened by RHINE, a celebrated river of Europe, which, the monitions of religion and experience,
rising in Switzerland, flows into the North is likely to make a wreck of his happiSea. Its distance, following its windings, ness. is about six hundred miles. Lines on, RUSKIN, JOnx, an eloquent English writer, 359.
author of a work on “Modern Painters." RICITER (pronounced Reehk'tur), a cele
The Sky, 263.
The Two Roads, by, 92.
SAG'AMORE, a name for a chief among some RITE, a customary ceremony or obsery of the North American Indian tribes.
ST. PIERRE, BERNARDIN de, an ingenious SCHILLER (pronounced Shiller), John Chris
French writer, author of the popular tale topher Frederic von, one of the most illusof “Paul and Virginia ," b. 1737, d. trious poets of Germany, was born at 1814.
Marbach, in Wirtemberg, in 1759; died Storm in the Indian Ocean, 200.
1805. The extract (p. 343) is from his SAL'AMIS, an island on the eastern coast of celebrated historical tragedy of Wallen
Greece, celebrated for a naval victory stein, admirably translated by Coleridge. gained over the Persians by the Greeks, | SCHOOL. The Greek word schöle, from B. C. 480. The present name of the which this is derived, means leisure, island in Colouri.
spare time; that is, spare time for study; SALT. The allusion (p. 385, line 5) is to an implying that the time must speedily
ancient custom. Salt, if used too abun come when our opportunity will be past dantly, is destructive of vegetation, and and the engrossing occupations of life will causes a desert. Hence, as an emblem of leave us little leisure, comparatively, for their doom, destroyed cities were sown storing the mind. The word school is with salt, to intimate that they were de sometimes used by seamen as synonyvoted to perpetual desolation. There is mous with shoal : thus we hear of a an allusion to the practice in Judges 9: school of fishes, as on p. 400. In this 45.
sense the word seems to be derived from BAMARITANS, a mixed race of Israëlites and the Saxon sceol, a crowd.
Assyrian colonists, who, in the time of the On our Common Schools, 185. Saviour, were looked on with great dislike The Schoolmaster Abroad, 269. by the Jews. The Samaritans took their SCHOOLMEX, the teachers of that method of name from Samaria, their capital city. philosophizing which arose in the schools The race is now dwindled down to a few and universities of what are commonly families. The Saviour's parable of the called the middle ages smbracing the “good Samaritan” (Luke 10: 30) has period from the reign of Constantine, A. Inade the phrase proverbial.
D. 325, to the era of the invention of printBAYATIVE (Lat. sano, I heal), having the ing, 1450-1455. The Schoolmen adopted power to cure or heal.
the principles of Aristotle, and spent mucb SAN FRANCISCO, a city on the bay of that time on points of nice and abstract specu
L..me on the west coast of North America. lation. Their works are now little read. The growth of this city has been unpre- SCHOTT EL, The Seasons, from the German cedented in the world's history. In 1847 of, translated by Charles T. Brooks, 83. it was an insignificant place; through SCHUBERT, a German writer, from whom the discovery of gold in California, it is the extracts on Telegraphs (p. 370) and pow a great city. For a description of its on Photography p. 379) were translated lwal and maritime advantages, see p. by the Rev. W. Furness. 290.
SCHWANAU, pronounced Shvar'no. SAND, GEORGE, the name assumed in her SCIENCE (Lat. sciens, knowing, present
published writings by Madame Dudevant, participle of scio, I know), in its most a French novelist, of great but irregular comprehensive sense, knowledge, or cer. and not always well-directed talents. | tain knowledge. The knowledge of reaFxtract from, p. 439.
sons and their conclusions constitutes SANIOUS Bā'nious), pertaining to sanies, abstract, that of causes and effects and
which is a thin, reddish discharge from of the laws of nature natural science wounds or sores.
The science of God must be perfect, the SANSCRIT (that is, the perfect), the present science of man may be fallible. See p.
dead language of the Hindoos, in which 419. the books of their religion and laws are Scorr, SIR WALTER, eminent as a poet, a written. It is understood now by the novelist, and a historian, was born in Brahmins alone. The Hindoos are the Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1771, and died people of Hindostan' in Asia.
1832. His death was accelerated by tno SANTILLANE (pronounced San-teel-yah-ne great mental effort made to relieve him
in Spanish ; San-teel-yahn in French; self from pecuniary difficulties incurred the a in both as in father). Santillana by the failure of his publishers. A few is the name of a town in Spain.
minutes before he sank into the state of SARMATIA, the ancient name of Poland.
unconsciousness which preceded his death, SATTRDAY (in Latin, Saturni dies, Sat he called his son-in law and biograpl or,
urn's day), so called from the planet Lockhart, to his bed-side, and grid, Saturn.
“ Lockhart, I may have but a minut. to SATURNALIA (sắt-ur-nao-li-a), a feast among speak to you. My dear, be a good man,
the Romans in honor of Săturn, an old - be virtuous, be religious, - be a good Italian divinity. The Sa-tur'nian period man. Nothing else will give you any was the golden age, according to the comfort when you come to lie here." poets.
Let every youth take the admonition to SAVOYARD (pronounced in French Sa-vo-a heart, as if it had been addressed permale
yar), a native of Savoy, a duchy bordering ally to himself by this good and gifted on France, Switzerland, and Piedmont. man. Scott an Early Riser, p. 226. Many of the organ-grinders and exhib Pibroch of Donuil Dhu, 46. itors of shows in Paris are Savoyards.
Hymn of the Hebrew Mavi, 164.
of Hindostan?he Hindooc by the
Humanity of Bruce, 173.
of any age. Little is known of his life. Coronach, 258.
His means of education must have been BCRIPTURE (Lat. scriptum, past participle imperfect; but he must have supplied
of scrib-erë, to write), a writing. By the want by much solitary and intense, way of distinction, the word is applied to though, perhaps, desultory, study. On the books of the Old and New Testament, his Power of Expression, p. 512. as being the one Scripture needful; Adam and Orlando, 319. just as the term Bible (from the Greek Isabella and Angelo, 320. biblos, a book) is applied by way of em Brutus and Cassius, 350. inence to the one book.
Scenes from Hamlet, 371. SCURRILOCS (Lat. scurra, a buffoon), using Passages from Shakspeare, 391. low, obscene, or abusive language.
Wolsey and Cromwell, 421. SEASONS, POETRY OF THE, in four parts, 83, SHE DIED IN BEAUTY, p. 378. 297, 337, 374, 433.
SHELLEY, PERCY BYSSHE, an English poet, SEGUR, COUNT DE, quoted, 329.
b. 1792 ; drowned by the upsetting of a SELECT PASSAGES, in Prose, 367.
boat on the Gulf of Lerici, near Leghorn, In Verse, 100, 113, 177, 256, 309
1822. He had great genius, unquestionSELF-KILLING, by Chambers, 171.
ably, but was conceited and presumptuSEMI, a Latin prefix, signifying half; as ous, undertaking, while yet a boy, to semi-diameter, half a diameter.
settle questions in philosophy and reliSEMINARY (Lat. semina're, to sow), liter gion, which, to grapple with fitly, requires
ally, a place where seeds or first princi a lifetime of study and meditation. His ples are implanted ; hence, a school, a intimate friends were of opinion that, had place of education.
he lived, the goodness of his heart would SE-MIR'AMIS, an Assyrian queen, wife of eventually have corrected the errors of
Ninus. Her history is much mixed up his head, and that poetry would have with fabulous matter. She won great worked the cure of his irreligion. Ad. battles, founded many cities, and erected dress to a Sky-lark, by, 415. buildings of rare magnificence; but she SHERIDAN, RICHARD BRINSLEY, distinguished was cruel, unscrupulous, and treacher as an orator and dramatist, was born in ous.
Dublin, in 1751; died 1816. He had SENTIMENT (Lat. sentio, I discern by the splendid abilities, but was wanting in that
senses, I feel), hence it is a thought high and steadfast moral principle which prompted rather by feeling and impulse could control his appetites, and keep him than elaborated by the judgment; where from being immersed in debt. Anecdote fore sentiment should be under the of, p. 278. Extract from his speech check and control of principle.
against Hastings, 208. SEPTEMBER (Lat. septem, seven), so called SHELL, an instrument of music; the first
from its being the seventh month in the lyre being made, it is said, by drawing od Roman year, beginning with March. | strings over a tortoise-shell. It is the ninth month of our year.
SHIP, THE, by Wilson, 228. SEQUACIOUS (Lat. sequar), following, pur SHORE. This word is the old past participle suing. It is a poetical word.
of the verb to shear. “ Shore” (says SERGEANT, JOHN, an eminent American law Tooke), “as the sea-shore, shore of a yer and statesman, who died in 1853.
river, is the place where the continuity of Declaration of Independence, 381.
the land is interrupted or separated by SEVEN SAGES. The "seven sages” of the sea or the river.” The word shore also
Greece (referred to p. 429) were Perian- | means a prop or support for a building, der, or, as some say, Epimen'idës, Pit' ship, &c. tūcus, Thales, Solon, Bias, Chilo, and SICKLE (sik'l). This word is from the Cleobū'lus. All of them, except Thalés, | Latin sec'ula, a sickle, which is from acquired their distinction by their prac seco, I cut. tical wisdom in regard to the affairs of SIDNEY, SIR PHILIP, was born in 1554, in life. They seem to have been the Frank Kent, England. He wrote “The Defence lins of their day. They flourished about of Poetry,” and other works. He com600 B. C.
manded a detachment of forces sent to SEX'TANT (Lat. sextans, the sixth part, the assist the people of the Netherlands
limb of the instrument being the sixth against the Spanish, and fell in a victopart of a complete circle), an astronomical rious engagement near Zutphen (pro. instrument, used principally at sea for nounced zoot'fen), in 1586. See anecmeasuring the altitudes of celestial objects, dotes of, 172, 278. by which the latitude in which a ship may SIEGE (seej). The word is derived from the be is ascertained.
Latin sedo, I sit; and an armed force is CHAKSPEARE, WILLIAM, or Shakespeare, as sometimes said to sit down before a
his name is sometimes spelled, was born town. A siege is the act of besetting a in the little town of Stratford on the fortified place with an army. To raise a Avon, in Warwickshire, England, in siege is to relinquish a siege, or cause it April, 1564, and died in 1616, having just to be relinquished. completed his fifty-second year. By all SIERRA (81-er'ra) is the Spanish name for a who can read the English language he is saw. * Applied to a ridge of mountains, 1 accounted the greatest dramatic writer
ats the resemblance of their outline
translated by Lytton, 436. to that of a saw. SIGNOR, the French mode of spelling the SORCERER (the o pronounced as in nor)
Spanish senor, a title of respect, pro- This word is from the Latin sortitor, & nounced seen'yur.
caster of lots, and means a conjurer, a BIMMS, WM. G., an American poet and! wizard.
miscellaneous writer, born 1806, in South SOUNDS AND LETTERS, 15. Carolina. Quoted, p. 299.
SOUND AND SENSE, 236. BI'NE-CUBE (Latin, sinë, without, cura, care) SOUR-KROUT, cabbage cut fine, pressed, and an office which yields profit, with little or left to ferment till it is sour, 181. no care attending it.
SOUTH, ROBERT, an eminent English divine, Sirrar (pronounced sir'rah, or săr'rah), a b. 1633, d. 1716. Quoted, p. 314.
word of reproach, probably derived from SOUTHEY, ROBERT, an English poet and mis Sir ha! - though this derivation is dis cellaneous writer, born in Bristol, in 1774, approved by Webster.
died in 1843. He was appointed poet EKY, THE, Our neglect of, 263,
laureate (see Laureate) in 1813. He was SKY-LARK, TO TUE, 415. See Lark.
a very diligent writer, but overtasked his SLOUGH, pronounced slou, when meaning a brain to such an extent that he was insane miry place; and sluf, when meaning the the last few years of his life. The recast skin of a serpent, or the part that marks on self-killing (p. 171) apply to his separates from a foul sore.
case. SLIG, to lie idle, to play the drone.
The Cataract of Lodore, 36. SMITH, HIORACE, an English poet and essay The Complaints of the Poor, 63. ist, b. 1779, d. 1819.
Comfort in Adversity, 113.
The Father's Return, 136.
Night in the Desert, 178.
man, and a contributor to the Edinburgh SPAIN. The kingdom of Spain comprises Review ; distinguished for his wit. He nearly four-fifths of the Pyr-e-ne'an penwas born 1768, died 1845.
in'sula, separated from France by the Labor and Genius, 214.
Pyrenees. It is a thoroughly mountainResistance to Ridicule, 368.
ous country. Its chief articles of export SOCLE (so'kl or sok-kl), in architecture, a are wines, fruits of southern Europe, salt,
square member, whose breadth is greater olive-oil, corks, quicksilver, and a little than its height; used instead of a pod wool. By the fanatic and insensate protal for the reception of a column. It dif ceeding of expelling the Moors (the last fers from a pedestal in being without base remnants of whom were driven out of the or cornice. It is derived from the Latin country in 1609), Spain lost 800,000 of Soccus, a shoe.
her most diligent and industrious inhabBOC'RA-TES, one of the greatest intellects of itants, and the consequences were fatal
any age, was born in Greece, B. C. 470. both to her manufacturing and agriculHe taught the immortality of the soul, tural interests. Thus does injustice, in and strove constantly to enlighten and the order of Providence, carry with it its improve men, to make them happy here, own punishment, to nations as well as to and give them faith in a life hereafter. individuals ! He believed in one God, to whose provi- SPAR'TA or LAC-E-DÆ'MON, one of the most dence he traced all human blessings. powerful states of ancient Greece. The Being accused of hostility to the popular distinguishing traits of the Spartans were religion, he was condemned to drink hem severity, resolution, and perseverance. lock, a powerful poison, which he did Defeat and reverse never discouraged with perfect composure, and died in the them. Their children were early inured seventieth year of his age, retaining to to hardship, and at a certain annual festhe last his high and hopeful faith. Plato tival they were severely flogged, for the was his most eminent disciple.
purpose of enabling them to bear pain BOLILOQUY (Lat. solus, alone, and loquor, with firmness. Whoever uttered the least I speak), a talking to one's self.
cry during the scourging was disgraced. Contrasted Soliloquies, 80.
See story of the Spartan boy, p. 77.
SPECIAL (spěcial), designating a spe'cies or BOPB'IST (Gr. sophos, wise), a Greek word, sort ; particular, peculiar. Special plead.
originally signifying a wise person, but ing, in law, is the allegation of special or afterwards restricted to a bad sense, as new matter, as distinguished from a dithe persons calling themselves sophists, rect denial of matter previously alleged through their vain subtleties and dishon on the opposite side. A special verdict est arguments, fell into disrepute ; so that is one in which the facts of the case are sophistry came to mean fallacious rea put on the record, and the law is subsoning, or reasoning sound in appearance mitted to the judges. only.
SPIDER. The Apologue of “The Spider and BOPHOCLES (Sof-o-clés), a Greek dramatic the Bee” (p. 108), from one of the early
poet, h. 495 B. C. In his ninety-fifth productions of Swift, had reference to an year he is said to have expired from joy, active contest going on at the time be in consequence of the unexpected success tween the advocates of ancient learning