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Not To Myself Ai Dit*, 118.

November (from no iem, .line), the eleventh month of the Julian ye.ir (so called from Julius Ctesar, who reformed the Calendar); but the ninth month in the old Roman year, which began with March.

Obla'tion (Lat. oblatio, an offering) means, properly, an offering presented to the church.

Or'soletr, gone into misuse; neglected.

&nd contains seven stars, three of form what is called the belt of Ort'o Or'phbcs, one of the old bards of the Gre who is fabled to have tamed the wila animals by his lyre. There is a legend that his wife, Euryd'ice*, having died, be followed her to the infernal abode of Pluto, and, by the charms of his music, won her back from the inexorable deity. An Orphean song is one that pleases like the strains of Orpheus.

Octorer (Lat. ocfo, eight), the eighth ilfUllffl ! Gbcilla'tion, a motion backward and for

of the old Roman year ; the tenth of ours. Odd. According to Trench, odd is properly owed; an "odd" glove, or an "odd" shoe, is one that is " owed " to another, or to which another is "owed" for the making of a pair—just as we speak of a man being "singular," wanting, that is, his match. The plural form, odds, is often used to signify the excess of a thing, inequality, kc. Ode. The Greeks called every lyrical poem adapted to singing an ode. In the modern sense of the word, the ode is distinguished from the song by greater length and variety, and by not being necessarily adapted to music; and it is distinguished from the ballad by its admitting narrative, if at all, only as subsidiary to the expression of sentiment, or of imaginary thought. See Lyric.

Ode to Peace, 137. Ode to the Passions, 402. Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416. ""*"omsifa'rious, of all varieties, forms, or

One-pensiRd, having only a penny. Won are often compounded, by poetical license, which it would not be proper to use in


Opaque (u-pak7), dark ; not transparent.

Opie, Amelia, On False Pride, 57.

Op'tical (Gr. op'tomai, I see), belonging to optics, which is that branch of physical science which treats of light and vision.

Orato'rio, an Italian word, from the Lat. oratorium, a small chapel, which again is derived from ordrHy to pray. A sacred musical composition, the subject of which is generally taken from Scripture.

Ob'ator. The Latin word os, the mouth (genitive, oris), whence orars, to speak, is the root of this word, so that the literal meaning is, one who makes or utters a speech, 383.

Or'rit (Lat. orbis, a circle) is the path which any celestial body describes by its proper motion.

Order Of The Day (p. 136), in deliberative assemblies, the particular business previously assigned for the day.

OftOan'io, pertaining to an organ or organs. In organic disease, the structure of an organ is morbidly altered; in functional disease, the secretions or functions only are altered.

Dri'on, one of the forty-eight ancient constellations mapped out by Ptolemy, the astronomer. It is situated In the southern hemisphere with respect tc the ecliptic.

ward, like that of a pendulum. Os'sian, the name of a supposed Scottish bard, who lived in the third century. His productions were first given to the world in an English version by James M'Pherson, in 1760, with the assurance that these were translations made by himself from ancient Erse manuscripts. There was a long controversy as to the genuineness of these poems, which was finally settled by the decision of the Highland Society, in 1805, that they had not been able to obtain any one poem the same in title and tenor with the poems of Ossian. It is believed, however, that there was much traditional foundation for the poemi as they now exist. For extracts, see pp 47, 48.

Ovihdo (6-ve-a'do), a city in the north-west

of Spain, having a fine cathedral. Owl. The name of this dissonant night bird, according to Trench, has the same origin with " howl," differing from it only in the omission of the aspirate letter.

kinds ; omni being Latin for ail. Jkox'porn, a city of England, having a univer

~ -dsT si

sity founded or revived by King Alfred; which university consists of twenty colleges, each with separate students a«d teachers, but all united under one government. An Oxonian is one who studies at Oxford.

Oxyda'tion, the act of combining with oxygen.

Ox'ygen (Gr. oxys, acid, gennaein, to generate). This important element was discovered by Dr. Priestley, in 1774. It was called vital air, &c., from its property of supporting combustion and animal life — a term changed to oxygen from its property of giving acidity to compounds in which it predominates. See pp. 80L 362.

Pad'ua, an old city of the north of Italy, strongly fortified, and now held by Austria. It has a once celebrated university.

Pa'gon, or Pago'da, the East Indian name for a temple containing an idol. Sometimes it signifies the idol itself.

Palace is from Palr'tium, the court of the kings and emperors of ancient Rome. The Palr'tium was so named because ft was built on the Pal'atine Hill. Palatine is supposed to have been origir.ally Balatin, from the sound of the cattle which in the early days of Rome were kept there. Thus from the lowing of a cow we hava vJiia beautiful word palac*

pal'adrN, a knight-errant, one who wandered alKiut the earth to give proofs of his valor and gallantry. It is doubtful whether the word has a similar origin with palace, or whether it is from pains, a wooden Spear or lance.

Pal'at1ne. See Palace.

Pai.hy, Wm., an eminent English divine, b. 17-43, d. 1S05 one of the clearest reasonera on the subject of religious evidences.

Palliate. This word is derived from the Latin pallium, a cloak, and its original meaning is to cloak, to cover: though now to "palliate" our faults is not to hide them altogether, but to seek to diminish their guilt in part.

Palmy Ra, a Syrian city, mice called Tadmor (the city of palms), of which Palmy*' ra is a Latin translation. It was situated in a valley in the midst of a beautiful palm-grove in the desert, and was adorned with magnificent palaces, of which the ruins still excite admiration.

Pa'los, a small town in Spain, from which Columbus sailed on his first voyage of discovery, and where there is a convent at whioh he once begged bread for his child.

Panama', an ancient seaport city of New Granada, 8. America, on the gulf of the same name, which la an inlet of the Pacific ocean. It has been nearly Americanized, since the California!! emigration. Population, six thousand.

Panrgyric (pan-e-gyr'ic), an harangue in praise of some person or persons.

Pasora'ma (Gr. pan, all, and orama, view), a picture in which all the objects of nature and art that are visible from a certain point are represented on the interior surface of a round or cylindrical wall.

Pap'i'a, an extensive island separated southward by Torres Strait from the north point of Australia.

Par'ablb (<ir. paraballo, I compare), a comparison; in Scripture, a short tale conveying some moral or religious truth. It differs from the fable in being taken from the province of reality.

Paradise Lost, Extracts from, 348. See .Milton.

Par'adox (Gr. para, against, doxa, opinion), any proposition contrary to received opinion, or at variance with common sense.

Parallhi/ooram, a plain four-sided figure, of which the opposite sides are parallel.

Par'aphrase (Gr. para, beside, or near to, phrazein, to speak), an expos'.non that holds the sense, but changes the words of the thing expounded; a free or altered translation.

Par'asite (Gr. para, beside, sitos, food), one who takes food with another; hence, a flatterer, a fawner. Parasitical plants are those which feed on the juices of other plants or of trees. A parasitic animal is one that lives on Sc»me other body. ,,

Pahen'thesin, L'ses of the, 49, 54.

Parian, pertaining to faros, an island <f the Grecian Archipelago, famous for fta

white marble; whei.ee parian may mean,

in poetry, white, A delicate species of white porcelain of modern manufacture hi called Parian.

Paris, the capital of France, the second citj in Europe for population, and the fourth for extent.

Parr, Sir A., On Christianity, 313.

Paulry, to treat with by words ; the French word parler means to speak. The proverb (p. 60), Virtue that parleys, &c., imposes uI»on us tbe danger of treating with temptation for a moment. The only safety is in instant and final resistance.

Parliament (pir'le-mfcnt), from the French parler, Ui speak. The name of the supreme legislative assembly of Great llritain and Ireland.

Parlor. This word is also from the French parler, to speak; and originally infant the room out of which nuns used to speak through an iron grating.

Parnas'sus, in mythology, a mountain in ancient Greece, sacred to Apollo, the god of music and song, and to the Muses. From its side flowed the Castalian spring, the fancied source of inspiration to poets.

Paer, Tuomas, an extraordinary instance of longevity, was horn in England in 1483. He labored in the field after he was 130 years old. lie died at the age of 152, through the change and dissipation attendant on going to the court of Charles X.

Particular Lady, Tue, 133.

Pascal, Blaise, born in France 1623, died 1662. He was equally eminent as a geometrician, a writer, and a pious Christian.

Patricians (derived from patres, fathers) were the first order or nobility of the Roman people.

Peculation, the embezzlement of public money or goods by a public olticer.'

Prd'agogde ; a Greek word, from pais, boy, and agOgos, leader ; originally, at Athens, the slave who went with a boy from home to school and back again; in modern usage, an inferior teacher of boys.

Pelisse (pe-lees'), originally a furred robe; now a silk habit for ladies. The word is from the Latin pellis, a skin.

Pelting, in Shakspeare, paltry.

Penaelor. The Spanish pronunciation of this word is Pa-nyah-fior'.

Pr'nal (from the same root as pain), enact ing punishment.

Pend'ulous (bat. pendeo, I hang), hang ing, or swinging in suspense.

Peeprtu'ity, indefinite duration.

Phengmengn, a Greek word, the past participle of the verb phaincin, to appear. In Natural Philosophy, the terra is usually applied to those appearances of nature of which the cause is not immediately obvious. Remember that the plural of this word is phei-simena.- do not, as many blunderers do, use this as the singular form.

Philan'thropt (Gr. phileo, I love, and) antnropos, a man), a general term for a benevolent feeling towards the whole human race. It is opposed to misanthropy

(misos, hate).

Philcl'ogy (Gr. phiUo, I love, and logos,
speech), in its restricted sense, the knowl-
edge and study of languages.

Philos'ophy (Gr. phileo, I love, and sdphla,
wisdom), a general term, signifying the
sum toKil of systematic human knowledge.
The philosopher is distinguished from
the sophist; the former is a seeker of
wisdom, the latter presumptuously con-*
ceives himself to be in the possession of"\

Photoo'raphy (Gr. ph5s, photos* light,
grapho, I write, or I describe), the art
by which daguerreotypes are procured.
See p. 379.

Phxase (Gr. phrasiS) speech), a mode or
form of speech; an expression, or combi-
nation of words.

Physiql'ogy (Gr. phusis, nature, and Ugoy
I discourse), the science of things gener-
ated or alive; the doctrine of vital phe-

P<ang-forte (pe-an'o-for-te), a well-known
musical instrument, invented by Schroe-
dcr, a German, and introduced into Eng-
land in 1760. The name is compounded
of two Italian words, signifying soft and

Picheoru (pronounced P*-sh-gru), Charles,
a French general, born 1761 ; arrested in
1804 for attempting the overthrow of the
consular government, and soon afterwards
found dead by strangulation in his bed.

Pilate, Pontius, the Roman governor of
Judaia in the time of our Saviour. He
and his wife both endeavored to deliver
Jesus from the Jews; and when the lat-
ter persisted in claiming his life, Pilate
caused water to be brought, washed his
hands before all the people, and publicly
declared himself innocent of the blood of
that just person. Yet, at the same time,
be delivered Jesus up to the soldiers, that
they might crucify him.

Pil'orimage, a long journey; properly a
journey undertaken to some spot for de-
votional purposes. The Scholars Pil-
grimage (p. 61) is a playful allegorical
description of the progress of the school-
boy, first through the small and capital
letters of the alphabet, then through spell-
ing, writing, ciphering, grammar, be, in
the direction of the Temple of Learning.

Pil'lory (Fr. pillier, a pillar), a wooden
engine on which offenders were formerly
exposed to public view and insult.

Pistole' (pistSle'), a gold coin of Spain,
worth about $3.60.

Pizar'ro, Francis, the conqueror of Peru,
was born in 1475, at Truxillo, in Spain;
-was assassinated in 1541. See p. 417.

Place De La Concorde, pronounced plas
de la Cdng-cdr-d: the a as in father,
the e as in her. A public square in

Plain'tiff (from the Fr. plaintif, com-
plaining), one who commences a law-suit.

Plangent (plan'jent). The Latin word
plangens means beating striking. It

has not yet been introduced into Eag

Pla'to, an illustrious Grecian philosopher
who taught the immortality of the soul
He was born 430 B. C.; died 347 B. C
His system of philosophy is known as the
Platonic. He was the disciple of Soc-

Pleas Acnce, an ancient form of the word

Ple-be'ian (Lat. plebs, the common peo-
ple). The plebeians were the free citizen!
of Rome, not belonging to the patrician

Ploughman, The, a poem, 265.

Plutarch (Plu'tark), a Greek biographer,
born A. D. 50, died about 120. Hia
"Lives of Illustrious Men," though not
scrupulously accurate, may always be
read with profit

Poems, Misceulaneous, 358.

Poetry. The origin of the word is tha
Greek poieo, I make; so that poets are
makers. Genuine poetry must ever be
in accordance with the beautiful and the
true. It has a natural alliance with our
best affections; with our highest spiritual
aspirations ; and " through the brightness
of its prophetic visions, helps faith to lay
hold on the future life."
On Reading Poetry, 52.

Poictiers (the French pronunciation is.
pwah-tee-a', the first a as in water ; — on
p. 100, Miss Lamb would seem to mean to
have it pronounced as written). An
ancient town of France. See Edward.

Police (po-lees'). This word is from the
Gr. polis, a city, and means the system
for securing the health, order, &c., of a
city or town; also a body of city officers.

Pope, Alexander, a celebrated English
poet, born in London in 1688, died 1744.
He was deformed, and small in size. He
is at the head of what many critics call
the artificial school of poetry; but hifl
great merits are likely to be recognized
while the English language remains what
it is.

Extracts from, 286, 309, 411.
Epistle to Arbuthnot, 435.
Porson , Richarn, an eminent Greek tilbolar
and critic, b. in England, 1759; d. 1808.
Anecdote of, 86.
Por'tico, a projection supported by coiumns
placed before a building; also, a covered

Post'fix, in grammar a letter, syllable, or
word, added to the end of another word )
a suffix. The word is compounded of the
Latin post, after, and Jixi, I have fixed.
See prefix.

Post'humous (Lat. pbst, after, and humumt
the ground , after interment, or burial),
done, had, or published, after one's death.
Pronounced, pdst'humiis.

P. M., the initial letters of the Latin words
post meridiem, after noon.

P. S., the initial letters of the Latin words
post scriptum, after written. A post-
script is something added to a letter after
it is signed by the writer.

Pocttds, John, Account of, 115.

Poverty, The Goddess of, p. 439. In this allegorical apostrophe, the author, resortlug to the mythological license of the ancient poets, under which they deified tin-quality or attribute which they would exalt, has made Poverty a goddess, and told us how much the world has been indebted for its great deeds to the stimulus she imparts. Then: is much truth in the thought. Whatever may be the obstacles and privations of the poor man's son, he may !te assured that they are less perilous to his successful fulfilment of the active purposes of life than the temptations to pleasure and inertness that beset on every side the youth brought up in affluence.

Practtal Jores, Danger of, 77.

Pramh (Prag), a city of Bohemia, on the river Moldau. It contains a fine Gothic cathedral, built in the middle of the fourteenth century; also a university, the oldest in Germany. "^praihih (pra're), a French word; meaning, in the U. States, an extensive tract of land, mostly level, and destitute of trees, and covered with tall, coarse grass.

Prayer, Efficacy Of, 318.

Precisian (pre-siz'yan), a person ceremoniously exact in the observance of rules.

Prefix, a letter, syllable, or word, put to the beginning of a word, usually to vary its signification, as un, not, in unseen, not seen; ex, out, in exclude, to shut out; mis, ill, wrong, as misconduct,.ill conduct; inter, between, as interpose, to place lx!tween. The English prefix pre is from the Latin prat, before.

Pre/udioe. The original meaning is simply a judgment beforchand; but so apt are we to judge harshly and unfavorably before knowledge, that a prejudice is almost always taken to signify an unfavorable anticipation about one.

Prerogative (Lat. prre, before, and rosro, I ask), an exclusive, peculiar, or prior privilege.

Prescott, Wm. Hicexing, a distinguished
American historian, born in 1706.
Pizarro in Peru, by, 417.

Prevent7 (Lat. prce, before, and venio, I come), to come before, anticipate; now more generally used to signify to hinder*

Priestlry, Josepn, an eminent theologian and experimental philosopher, b. in England in 1733 ; died at Northumberland, Pennsylvania, in 1804. He was a friend of Dr. Franklin.

phlm'mV1 Worn, an original word ; a word not derived from another.

Prisoner And Rats, Tue, 59.

Pror'lem (from the Gr. proballo, I throw or lay before), anything proposed; a question for solution.

Proncnciation (Lat. pro, before, and nimcius, a news-bearer, or announcer). The meaning of the word, in its modern use, ia limited to the act and mode of uttering or articulating syllables and worsts. See remarks on, p. 38.

Prop'ertt. The Latin root of this word ia prnpe, near ; whence property meamng a man's peculiar quality, possession, &c.

Provere. The explanation of the word "proverb" (says Trench) 1 believe to lie here. One who uses it uses it pro (for) verbo (a word); he employs, for and instead ot his own individual word, this more general word, which is every man's Proverbs of all Nations, 64. From Proverbs of Salomon, 443.

I Ulmist. The word psaim is from the Greek psalio, i twang or sing. The title of " the psalmist," and "the sweet psalmist of Israel," is applied to King David. Pronounced sam'ist (the a as in father^ or nal'miat.

Puffers, Tue, by Macaulay, 162.

Punctuation, Derivation of, kc., 49.

Pur'itan, the name by which the dissenters from the Church of England, about the year 1564. began to lie known. The term was assumed, as the word implies, from the superior purity of doctrine and discipline which they claimed.

Pyr'amid. The etymology of this word ia undecided. Some derive it from the Gr. pur, tire, because of the resemblance oj the form to a spire of flame; others derive it from Egyptian and Greek roots combined.

py-that.-o-sk/an. So the word is accented by Walker; but Webster makes it Pyth a-go're-an. The followers of Pythag'oras, a Greek philosopher, born B. C. 570, were thus called. The doctrine of ms* tem'psychosis, or the transmigration of souls through different orders uf animal existence, was held by them.

Quaint. This word is believed to be derived from the Lat. comptus, decked, dressed. In common use it means, odd, fanciful.

Quality (from the Latin qualis, of what sort ?), anything pertaining or belonging to a thing ; property, disposition, temper, rank.

Qi Antity Of Words, p. 25.

Qlaery, the game which a hawk or eagle ia pursuing or has killed; thought to be derived from the Lat quazro, I seek. The word also means a mine or pit.

Quar'tan (Lat. quartunus, the fourth), occurring every fourth day, as a quartan ague or fever.

Quarterly Review, London, On Educa
tlon, 184. On Shakspeare, 311.
On Milton, 146.
Extent of the Universe, 404.

Racr. This word, as used by Shakspeare (p. 237), is from to reek, like vapor or smoke ; hence it simply means, a vapor, an exhalation.

Rad'ical, having reference to the root of a matter; a primitive word; an uprooting politician.

Ra'dius, a Latin word, meaning a ray; ia geometry the semi-diameter of a circle.

Raffaelle (sometimes spelled Raphael) the most celebrated of Italian painters, born 1483, died 1620.


Randolpn, Thomas, an English poet, who died 1634, before his thirtieth year, 256.

Raven, a large bird of a black color, having its name from ravenous, because of its greedy disposition. The proverb (p. 65) is directed against those who would pull out the mote from a brother's eye before heeding the beam in their own.

Reading, Remarks on, 13, 52, 399.

Record. On page 320, Sbakspeare places the accent of the noun on the last syllable. It should be on the first, to distinguish it from the verb. To suit the measure of the verse, however, an exception may here be made.

Record'er, a species of flageolet, in Shakspeare's time.

Rectilin'e-ar, right-lined, straight.

Rrdundance (Lat. redundans, streaming over, overflowing), superabundance.

Reef, a range of rocks seeming to be reft or rift from the main land.

Rb-enforce'ment, an increase of strength or force by something added.

Religion. This word is believed to be from the Latin rel'igo, I bind back or fast; whence it means, an acknowledgment of our bond or obligation as created beings to God, our Creator. See pp. 279, 313.

Rrseryoir (rez-er-vwor'), literally a place where anything is reserved or kept; a tank or pond in which water is collected and preserved in order to be conveyed by pipes where it is needed.

Rrtribution (Lat. retribuo, I give back), repayment, requital. The proverb, " the feet of retribution are shod with wool" (p. 66), indicates how silently and surely punishment must come to the transgressor. "Thy sin shall find thee out," — if not to-day, at some future time. Thou mayest have long credit, but thou must pay at length with interest.

Republic (Lat. respublica, public wealth, or commonwealth), that form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people.

Ou the American Republic, 287.

Rrtrospective (Lat. retro, back, and specto, I look at), looking back on past events.

A Retrospective Review, 127.

Revore' (Lat. revGco, I call back). In card-playing a revoke is when a party does not follow suit, though in his power to do so.

Revenge, Best Kind Of, 213.

Rheims, an ancient city of France, where most of the French kings have been crowned. Pronounced R&ngz.

Rhine, a celebrated river of Europe, which, rising in Switzerland, flows into the North Sea. Its distance, following its windings, is- about six hundred miles. Lines on, 359.

Richter (pronounced Rechk'tur), a cele-
brated German novelist, b. 1763, d. 1825.
The Two Roads, by, 92.
Rill From The Town Pump, 231.
Rite, a customary ceremony or obaerv-

ance, applied chiefly to religion* coremonies.

Ri'val (Lat. rivus, a river). Rivals, in the primary sense of the word, were dwellers on the banks of the same river, contenders for its water privileges ; whence the word came to be applied to any who were on any grounds in more or less unfriendly competition with one another.

Rorertson, Wm., a celebrated historian, ta-
in Scotland, 1721, d. 1793.
Discovery of America, 188.
Mary, Queen of Scots, 244.

Rogers, Hhnry, a distinguished contributor to the Edinburgh Review in 1849—53. Vanity, &c., of Literature, 345.

Rogers, Samuel, a highly-esteemed English poet, b. 1760, and alive 1854. In Rome, 307.

Roland (pronounced Rolang'; the a as in father), Madame, the wife of a French statesman, was born in Paris, in 1754. She was remarkable for her beauty and intellectual gifts. She was one of the victims of the French revolution. See an account of her execution, p. 291.

Rome, a city of Italy, formerly the metrop'olis of the greater part of the world known to the ancients. Its present population is estimated at one hundred and eighty thousand, including about nineteen thousand foreigners, 307, 386.

Rom'ulus, the reputed founder of the city of Rome. He is supposed to be a mythical personage.

Root. The root of a word is the primary signification to which it can be traced.

Ro'sary (Lat. rosarium, a rose-garden). A Catholic devotional practice, consisting in repeating certain prayers a certain number of times. As the computation ti made by beads, the string of beads used for this purpose has acquired the popular name of a rosary.

Rouen (pronounced Roo-ang'; the a as in father), an ancient city of France on the river Seine. *

Route (pronounced rout or root), the way of a journey ; a course.

Routine (roo-tecn'), a round or course of occupation. It is from the Lat. rota, % wheel.

Ru'ricunn, inclining to redness.

Ruby, a crystallized gem of various shades of red, found chiefly in the sand of rivers in Ceylon, Pegu, and Mysore.

Rudder. "He who will not be ruled by the rudder must be ruled by the rock" (p. 65). He who will not be guided by the restraints of conscience, enlightened by the monitions of religion and experience, is likely to make a wreck of his happiness.

Rusein, John, an eloquent English writer,
author of a work on " Modern Painters."
The Sky, 263.
Russell, M., Hebrew Literature, 389.

Sao'amore, a name for a chief among some of the North American Indian tribes.

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