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CowscraNCe ; derivation explained, 125.

Consentaneous, agreeing, accordant.

Consonants ; derivation of, &c., 15, 16, 21.
""constance', a lake between Germany and
Switzerland, ten leagues long, and three in
its greatest breadth.

Constella'tion (from the Latin con, to-
gether, and stella, a star), a group or
cluster of fixed stars.

ConTEm'PlAtE. TheLat. word templum,&
temple, a place set apart for meditation,
enters into the derivation of this word.

Conthm'porary, sometimes written cotem-
porary (from the Lat. con, together, and
tempus, time); living at the same time.

Contest (from con, and teneo, I hold).
He who is content is literally one who
contains; who holds enough; satisfied.

Continent (Lat. continent, containing),
that which contains or holds; hence, in
geography, a great extent of land not dis-
joined by the sea. The word is inuctf
us'^d by British writers to signify the
countries of Europe other than Great
Britain and Ireland.

Contrary. This word should not be used
as if the same in meaning as opposite.
"Opposites " complete, while " contraries"
exclude each other. Opposite qualities
may meet in a person, but not contrary.

Conversation Spoilers, 248.

Copse (from the Qr.kopto,! fell, cut down),
a wood of small growth, because of being

. cUt.

Corduroy, a thick cotton stuff, corded or

Coronacb (kor'-o-nak), a wild expression of
lamentation among the Scotch Highland-
ers poured forth by mourners over the
dead body of a friend, 258.

Corncco'pia (L. cornu, a horn, copia,
plenty), the horn of plenty.

Coerei (kfir'ray), the hollow side of the hill,
where game usually lies.

Cortrge (kfir-ta'zjh), a train, a retinue.

Coterie (ko-te-ree'), a set, clan, circle of

Cottlr, Joshpn, a publisher and author, of
Bristol, Eng. His tribute to Henderson,
p. 167.

Coulter (kSl'ter), the sharp iron of a
plough. It is from the Latin cutter, a
plough-share, which is from colo, I culti-

Coup-de-main (koo-duhr-mang'), a bold stroke; literally a hand-stroke.
Courage, from the Lat. cor, the heart — the heart being the seat of courage, 242.
Courier, Pacl Locis, a witty French
writer, born 1773, ass-issiniited 1825.
An Adventure in Calabria, 305.
Cowper, W.M., one of the truest and best of
English poets, was bom 1731, died 1800.
Ode to Peace, 137.
Reciprocal Kindness, 197.
Extracts from, 177, 248, 311, 410, 414.
Craher, Rev. Gsoku1, a very original Eng-
lish poet; b. 1754, d. 1832. His de-
scriptions of life among the poor are
severely true. Practical Charity, by, 257

Craven, a coward; from to crave, I

supposed to crave his life.

Creasy-, E. S., on Demosthenes, 343.

Croly, Rev. George, a poet of great elegance and power of diction, born h,
Ireland about 1790. Extract from, 283.

Cromwell, Oliver, one of the greatest
characters in English history ; born 1599
died 1658. Being elected to Parliament,
he attached himself to the Puritans, be-
came one of the principal leaders against
King Charles I., and joined in bringing
that monarch to the block. As a military
leader, he obtained important victories,
which placed him at the summit of power,
so that he dissolved the Long Parliament
(see p. 283), and, in 1653, assumed the
supreme authority in England, under the
title of Lord Protector. At one period of
his life he was on the point of emigrating
to Massachusetts.

Crucifix (from the Lat. cruci, to a crosf*,
and jixi, I have fixed), a cross on which
the body of Christ is fixed in eftigy.

Cumber, perplexity, distress.

Cumberlann, Richarn, a miscellaneous
writer, b. in England 1732, d. 1811.
Affectation, by, 144.

Curfew (from the French couvre-feu, cover
fire), a bell anciently rung at eight o'clock
in the evening, when people were obliged to
extinguish their fires and lights; accidents
from fire being then very frequent and
fatal, as houses were built mostly of wood.
King Alfred once ordained that, at the
ringing of the Curfew, or Cover-tire, Bell,
all the inhabitants of Oxford should cover
up their fires and go to bed. "The cur-
few tolls the knell of parting day." Sea
p. 272. There is no good authority for
the punctuation which would here make
tolls an intransitive verb.

Curses. The proverb (p. 64) simply means
that the heart that can give vent to a
curse against another is cursing itself
most, by giving strength and development
to evil and malignant feelings.

Cl'rcle (from the Lat. currus, a chariot).
The curule chair, among the Romans, was
a stool without a back, conveyed in a
chariot, and used by public officers.

Cyule, a circle ; in chronology, a periodical
space of time.

Cylinder, a long, circular body, of uniform
diameter. Adj., cylindrical.

Daffodils (Gr. asphod'elos), a species of
Narcissus, with beautiful flowers of a deep
yellow hue. It flowers in April or May.
Some of the more hardy species grow
wild. The Daffodils, a poem, 70.
Daoueereotype (da-geV'ro-type), so called
from M. Daguerre (dah-ghair'), a French
artist, who gave publicity to his invention
in 1839. An apparatus somewhat similar
to his was contrived about the same time
by M. Niepci, also a Frenchman, with
whom the honor should be partially
shared, see p. 373.

Dahlia- a well-known plant, which receives

its name from DahL a Swedish botanist. Dante (Dan-te), thesublimestofthe Italian poets, was burn at- Florence, 1205; died 1321.

Daeling, Gi ten, an heroic girl, daughter of the keeper of the North Sunderland lighthouse, on the coast of England. A steam-vessel having been wrecked in 1838 on the rocks known as the Great Harkars, Grace, who was then twenty-two years old, persuaded her father to go with her to the rescue of the crew in an open boat. There was a raging sea; but they went, and saved nine persons, who otherwise would have perished. Grace died a few years after this event. See Wordsworth's poem on her, p. 201.

Dacpuis ; formerly the title of the eldest son of the King of France. The editions of the classics which were made for the use of the dauphin are entitled- in usum delphini.

Davy, Sir Iiumphrry, an eminent chemist, b. in England 1778, d. 1829. He was an agreeable writer and poet. 317. Death, Thoughts on, 309, 318.

Decemrer, the twelfth month of our year, from the Latin decem, ten, because in the Roman year it constituted the tenth month, the year beginning with March.

Deflect, to turn aside, deviate.

Drgerando, a French writer, author of an excellent work on self-education. He died in 1842. He was a distinguished member of ihe French Institute.

The Mind its own Educator, 322.

Deist, one who believes in the existence of
God, but not in revealed religion.

Demos'tiiexes, Character of, 243.
Democracy of Athens, 266.

Demure (from the French des maeurij of good manners), sober, downcast.

Da Qcincry, Thomas, a powerful but eccentric writer, born in England about 1790. The account of Joan of Arc (p. 259) is chiefly taken from his masterly review of Michelet's (Meesh-la's) narra tive in his History of France. Derivative (from the Lat. de, from, and rivus, a small stream), flowing or proceeding from. A derivative word is one which takes its origin in another word.

Der'vis, a Persian word, meaning poor; in Mahom'etau countries, a religious person leading an austere life.

Derzha'vin, Garriel, a Russian poet and statesman, born 1743, died 1819. His Ode to the Deity (see p. 153), as we learn from the translator, Dr. Bowring, has been translated into Japanese, by order of the emperor, and is hung up, embroidered with gold, in the Temple of Jeddo. It has also been translated into the Chinese and Tartar languages, written on a piece of rich silk, and suspended in the imperial palace at Pekin'.

De'um, the accusative case of the Latin word Deuij God. "Te Deum" are the first word* of a celebrated Latin hymn, begin

ning ** Te Deum laudamus," We praise

thee, O God. Dewrv, Rev. Orville. on Death, 318. Dialogue (from the Gr. dio, and lecein, to discourse together), a conversation be tween two or more persons. The following are dialogues:Adam and Orlando, 319. A Sister Pleads for a Brother, 320. Gil Bias and the Archbishop, 340. The Trade of War, 343. Brutus and Cassius, 350. Franklin and the Gout, 355. From Hamlet, 371. Wolsey and Cromwell, 421. Diam'eter, from the Gr. diat through, and me/ro.?, measure % a straight line passing through the centre of a circle, and dividing it into two equal parts. Diamond, the most valuable of gems. The word is pronounced either in three syllables (dl'-a-mond) or in two (di'mond). Diapa'son (Gr. diat through, and pasdn, all), in music, the octave or interval which includes all the tones. By a bold metaphor, Dryden has beautifully availed himself of this expression in his Ode, p 416.

Dicrens, Charles, a popular English author, born in Portsmouth, 1812. The World of Watefs. 206.

The Wind and Rain, 208. Alfred the Great, 244. Dilemma (Gr.), a puzzling situation, where each alternative is bad. 1/iogenes (Di-oj'e-nfts). surnamed the Cynic, was a philosopher of ancient Greece; oorn 414 B. C. He is said to have had an interview with Alexander the Great at Corinth, at which, on the king's asking him if he could oblige him in any way, the Cynic replied, " Yes, you can stand out o! the sunshine." The Cynics weresoealled from the Greek word kunikos, dog-like, because of their morose, snarling mode of speech.

Diplo'ma (from the Gr. diplod, I fold up), a document, signed and sealed, conferring some privilege, right or honor. Thus a letter or writing of an university, conferring a degree, is called d> diploma.

Diph'thongs. See p. 16.

Disc, or Disr (from the Gr. diakos, a round plate, a quoit; diskos being derived from dikein, to throw, whence its application to the form of the thing thrown. The word disk has a similar derivation). Disk, in astronomy, means the face of the sua and moon, as they appear to observers on the earth.

Discharge. A debtor is said to have his discharge when he has a release or acquittance in full from his debt.

Disciple (from the Lat. disco, I learn), a learner; a follower.

Discover, literally, to uncover. Mark the distinction between this word and to invent. We discover what already existed; we invent when we make something to be which hitherto was not. Harvey "tit

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covered * the circulation of the blood; but
Watt " invented" the steam-engine.

Docr, the place where a criminal stands in
court ; also, a ship-builder's yard. A
dty dock has flood-gates to admit the
tide, or prevent its influx, as occasion
may require.

Dogma, au opinion ; that which seems true
to one (from the Gr. dokein^ to seem).
Dogmatism, positive assertion, without

Dourloon, a Spanish coin of the value of two pistoles.
Dragoon', to force to submit.
Drama (dra'ma, or dram-a). This word is
from the Gr. drao, I act or do; and
means a composition in which the action
or narrative is not related, but represent-
ed. Adj.t dra-m&t'ic. See extracts, p.
383; also Dialogues.
Drawing-room, a room to which the com-
pany withdraw from the dining-room.
Dryden, John, a celebrated English poet.
Born 1563; died 1631.
Futurity, by, 113.
Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416.
Dumas, Alexander, a French miscellaneous
writer, very voluminous. Inconvenient Ignorance, 181.
Fall of a Mountain, &c, 106.
Imprisonment of Bonnivard, 142.
Dumps, a gloomy, depressed state of mind. It is not an elegant word.
Dymond, Jonathan, on Duelling, 330.

Eagle. The figure of an eagle was the
standard of the Romans; and has been
adopted as the emblem of the United

Early Rising, Thoughts on, 225.

Echo (Gr.), the return or reverberation of a
sound. Plural, echoes.

Eulat (fck-kla', the a as in father), a burst-
ing forth; hence, applause, pomp, show.

Eulipse (Gr. ekteipo, I cease, faint away,
or disappear), the obscuration of the light
of a heavenly body, 174.

Euliptic, the sun's path in the heavens. It
has been called the ecliptic because eclips-
es only happen when the moon is on the
same plane, or very near it.

Economy (Gr. oikos, a house, andnAnM, a
law), originally, the thrifty management
of a family; hence applied to individual
and public concerns. Education. This important word is traced
to the Latin e, from, and duco, I lead.
Thus education must educe; and that
(says Trench) is to draw out, and not to
put in. To draw out what is in the
child, —the immortal spirit which is
there, — this is the end of education ; and
so much the word declares.
Thoughts on, 184, 322. Edward, the Prince of Wales, surnamed
the Black Prince, son of Edward III. of
England, was born in 1330, died 1376.
While in France, in 1356. he won the great
battle of Poictiers (pronounced in French
Ptua-fe-d', the first a as in water).

E'ra (fcr), a contraction for ever. Do not

CY INDEX. 455confound this contraction with Ere, which see.

Electricity (Gr. elektrortj amber), the
substance in which the property of at-
traction after friction was first noticed.
Electric Telegraph, The, 378.

El'rgy, commonly a plaintive poem,- as is
implied by the Greek name, which signi
ties to cry alas! alas ! (E! E! iegciri)
Elegy in a Country Church-yard, 272.

Elementary Sounds, Table of, 17.

Elelsinian, from Eleusis, an ancient city of
Attica, north-west of Athens, and famous
for the celebration of certain heathen
religious rites, the chief design of which is
said to have been to inculcate a belief in
the immortality of the soul, and in the
unity of the Deity.

Elizareth, Queen of England, was the
daughter of Henry VIII. by his queen
Anne Boleyn. She was born 1533, died
1602. See pp. 145, 247.

Elliott, Erenezer, sometimes called the
"Corn-law rhymer" and "the poet of
the poor," was born in England in 1781;
died 1849.

Woman's Mission, by, 359.

Ellipse, an oval fi gure \ the curve in
which the planets perform their revolu-
tions about the sun. It presents to the
eye, at once, variety and regularity, and
is, therefore, preferred by painters to the
circle for the outline of their pictures.
For the grammatical use of the word, see
p. 54.

Elliptical, having the form of an ellipse.
Eloquence, the art of clothing thoughts in
the most suitable expressions, in order to
produce conviction or persuasion.
Eloquence of Statesmen, 266.
Moral and Religious Eloquence, 313.
Eloquence of Science, 404.
Emerald, a mineral of a beautiful green
color, obtained in greatest perfection from
Peru. In value it is rated next to the

Emerson, R. W., The Snow-storm, 433.

Emphasis, see pp. 39,40.

Emporium, a Greek word, meaning a trad-
ing-place. It is now adopted into Eng
lish, and signifies a city or place where
great commercial transactions are made.

Empyreuma, a Greek word, meaning the
offensive smell produced by fire applied
to organic matters, chiefly vegetable, in
close vessels. Empyreumat'ic oil is ob-
tained from various substances in this

Encyulopaedia (from the Gr. en, In, kyclos,
a circle, and paideiat instruction), a circle
of instruction ; a dictionary of science, the
arts, &c.

Endicott, John, governor of the colony of
Massachusetts, 1644.

Enghien, Due d' (Duke D'ang-ghe-ftng' j
the first a as in jather), son of the Duke
of Bourbon, was born in France in 1772.
Being accused of conspiracies against
Bonaparte as First Consul, although
nothing was proved against him, he
underwent sentence of death, 1804,

Entrepot (adg-tre-po', the a as in father, the e as Id her), a warehouse for the deposit of goods.

Epurmeral (e-f£m'eral). This is from the Gr. ephi, for, and emira, a day; perishing with the day ; short-lived.

Ep'ic (Gr. epos, a word), a poem of the narrative kind, describing generally the exploits of heroes.

Ep'icntk, one given to luxury; so called from Epicu'rus, a Greek philosopher, whose doctrines did not, however, authorise the sensual construction which was wrested from them.

Epitome (e- pit'-o-me), an abridgment, an abbreviation, or compendious abstract.

Bfoch (pp-ok or E-pok). Tliis is from the Gr. epecho, I stop, and means a certain fixed point of time, made famous by some remarkable event, from whence ensuing years are numbered.

Era differs from epoch in this: ffra is a point of time fixed by some nation or denomination of men; epoch- is a point fixed by historians and chrouologists.

Ere (ar), before; sooner than; supposed to be from the Saxon cer, signifying the morning. Being pronounced like £'er, this word is sometimes mistaken for it.

Es'say, in literature, a short treatise, or tract. Lord Bacon first used it in this sense.

Eurera (eu-rft'-ka) a Greek word, meaning, / have found. See p. 275.

Eurip'ides (U-rip'i-des), a Grecian tragic poet, b. 480 B. C. He was torn in pieces by the dogs of King Archela'us, whose guest he was. Soph'ocles, who survived him, publicly mourned his loss.

Evan'der is said to have built on the Tiber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, a town which was incorporated with Rome. He taught the arts of peace.

Etan'gel (from two Gr. words, meaning to tell well, to announce good tidings), the Gospel; the history of Christ's life and resurrection.

Evf.rett, Edward, h. in Massachusetts, 1794. Quoted pp. 185, 187, 249.

Examine; said to be from the Latin, examen, the tongue or beam of a balance.

Excel'sior, the comparative degree of the Latin adjective, excelsus, high ; so that it means higher. 285.

Excommunicate, to expel from the communion of the church.

Exile, The Poor, 82.

Exit, the third person of the Latin verb exeo, I go out; literally, he or it goes out; hence the departure of a player from the stage; a way of departure, passage out of a place.

Ex'odus, a way, or passage out; egress, departure; the title of the second book of Moses, which describes the journey from Egypt.

Ex'pletivr, a word not necessary to the sense; one used to fill a space.

Extempore (ex-tem'-po-re), on the spur of the moment, at the time; from the Lat. worii ex, from, and tempore, the time.

Avoid the blunder of pronouncing ibis

word (extempore) in three syllables. Extraordinary (eks-tror'-de-na-ry). Extrin'sic, external, outward.

Farle (Lat. fori, to speak). In Englistt it is applied to any feigned thing; generally a story inculcating a moral precept. See pp. 67, 71, 72, 92, 130, 286, 412.

Fall Of A Mountain, 105.

Fame. The root of this word meaning simply to speak or talk (good or ill), fame may be either favorable or the contrary. We often find that both praise and detraction are much exaggerated in men's mouths; hetice the proverb, "common fame is a common liar," 64, 309.

Faust. The au pronounced like ow in how.

Ferruary is from the lAt.februo, I cleanse; because on the fifteenth of this month the great feast of purification, called februa, was held among the Romans.

Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray ,in France, a great writer, and most amiable man, was b. 1651, d. 1715.

Fidelity in Little Things, 85.
Cicero and Demosthenes, 243.

Ferdinand And Isarella, 281.

Feera'ra, an ancient and famous city of Italy; once the capital of a sovereign duchy.

Feudally. The feudal system was that form of government anciently subsisting in Europe, under which a victorious leader allotted considerable portions of land, called fiefs, orfeuds, to his principal officers, who, in their turn, divided their possessions among their inferiors; the condition being that the latter should render military service both at home and abroad.

Field. This word (says Trench) properly means a clearing where the trees have been felled, or cut down, as in all our early English writers it is spelled without the t, "feld," and not "field."

Fiji (fe-jee), one of the S. Pacific islands.

Fire-water, the appropriate name given by the Indians to intoxicating liquors.

Fleecy Troops. By a figure known aa periph'rasis (circumlocution), the poet thus designates sheep, 136.

Flint, Timothy, an American writer, and a missionary to the Mississippi valley. He died in 1839. See pp. 299, 302.

Florence, capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and one of the finest cities in the world. The present population is 106,899.

Flures, the broad triangular plates at the extremity of the arms of an anchor. The fins of a whale, from their resemblance, are sometimes thus called.

Flying Fish, The 217.

Folio (Lat. folium, a leaf), a book of the largest size, formed by once doubling a sheet of paper.

Foolscap, a kind of paper, usually about seventeen inenes by fourteen. The derivation of the word is uncertain.

genos. kind), unlike or dissimilar In

kind; opposed to homogeneous.

Aexag'onal, having six angles.

Heywood, Thomas, an English dramatic writer, said to have written 220 plays between the years 1596 and 1640. Of these plays only twenty-four have been preserved. Extract from, 294.

Hioginson, Francis, an eminent preacher, born in England, but who emigrated to Salem, Mass., in June, 1629, when there were but seven houses in the place. He died in 1630. He had a son also named Francis.

Eillard, George S., an accomplished American writer, author of "Six Months in Italy."

Mural Influence, 399.
On a Literary Taste, 399.

Hippoc'rates (Ilip-poc'ratCs), the most famous among the Greek physicians, b. 456 B. C. In his method of cure, precepts as to diet take the first rank.

History (Gr. istoreo, I know by inquiry), an account of facts; not only of such as relate to the political annals of nations and states, but to their manners and customs, literature and great men. Natural history treats of the works of nature generally.

Historical Characters, 144, 243.

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, an American physician and a gifted poet, 265, 337.

Homer, the great poet of the Greeks. He flourished in the ninth century before the Christian era, and is supposed to have been a strolling bard, poor and blind. His Iliad is a poem descriptive of the siege of Troy, in Asia Minor; and his Od'yssey describes the wanderings of Ulysses. These poems have been translated by Pope; but Cowper's version of the Iliad is the most faithful.

Homily, a discourse or sermon read or pronounced to an audience.

Ho-mo-ge'neous (Gr. omos, the same, and genos, kind), of the same kind. See Heterogeneous.

Hood, Thomas, an English poet, comic and
pathetic, b. 1798, d. 1845.
Ode to his Son, by, 45.
Retrospective Review (abridged), 127.
The Lee-shore, 359.

Hooded Bell. By this striking image of a bell covered with a hood, Grahame describes the effect of the snow in hiding it.

Horace, one of the most popular Latin poets; b. 65 B. C, d. 9 B. C.

Hori'zon (Gr. orizo, I limit), the line which terminates the view on all sides.

Horne, George, an English bishopj b. 1730, d. 1792. The Government of the Thoughts, 97.

Housewife. By Walker and Worcester pronounced huz'wif; by Webster, as spelled.

Household. Used (p. 426) as an adjective, in the sense of familiar.

Howard, John, a celebrated English philanthropist, b. 1726, and d. 1790, from a malignant fever caught in visiting a suf

ferer. He did much to reform the prisons and hospitals of Europe. His deathhour was so serene, that he said to a friend who tried to divert his thoughts from the subject, "Death has no terrors for me: it is an event I have always looked to with cheerfulness, if not with pleasure; and be assured that it is to me a more grateful subject than any other.* See Burke's eulogy, 146.

Howitt, Mary, Lines by, 297.

Hudson, or Noryh River, a river of New York, rising in a mountainous country west of Lake Champlain, and flowing into the Atlantic below New York city. The tide flows up as far as Troy. Its scenery is very beautiful.

Hulrs ; old, dismasted ships, formerly used as prisons in England.

Hume, David, author of a celebrated history of England, b. at Edinburgh in 1711. d. 1776. In his history he generally favors the side of power against the people ; and his insidious hostility to the Christian religion leads him to undervalue the labors and sufferings of many illustrious martyrs, religious and political. Extract from, 145.

Humility. The root of this word is the Latin humus, the ground.

Huericane, The, by Bryant, 211.

Husrand, according to the Saxon derivation, is house-band, the binder of the household by his labor and his government of love.

Hydrostatical, relating to the science of weighing fluids.

Hyperrol'ical (Gr. uperballo, I throw beyond, overshoot), in rhetoric, exaggerated, tumid. The hy-per'bo-le" is a figure, which may be extravagant either from its expressing too little or too much.

Hypoth'esis (Gr.), a supposition. PL, ses.

Irid, or Ir, a contraction of the Lat., indent, meaning, in the same place, or also there.

Idea, a Gr. word, from idein, to see; literally the image or resemblance of any object conceived by the mind.

Ides, one of the three epochs or divisions of the ancient Roman month. The calends were the first days of the different months; the ides, days near the middle of the months, and the nones, the ninth day before the ides. Brutus reminds Cassius of the ides of March (43 B. C.) as the time when Julius Caesar fell beneath their daggers and those of the other conspirators. "Tu quoque Brute !" (tho i, too, Brutus!) was Caesar's exclamation on seeing Brutus stab. Cassius was married to the half-sister of Brutus.

Iliad. See Homer.

Immortality Of The Soul, Thoughts on the, 150, 314, 315, 412. Impeach, to accuse; to bring charges against a public officer uetbre the proper tribunal.

Impress', to compel to enter the public sex , vice as a seaman.

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