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CowscraNCe ; derivation explained, 125.
Consentaneous, agreeing, accordant.
Consonants ; derivation of, &c., 15, 16, 21.
Constella'tion (from the Latin con, to-
ConTEm'PlAtE. TheLat. word templum,&
Conthm'porary, sometimes written cotem-
Contest (from con, and teneo, I hold).
Continent (Lat. continent, containing),
Contrary. This word should not be used
Conversation Spoilers, 248.
Copse (from the Qr.kopto,! fell, cut down),
Corduroy, a thick cotton stuff, corded or
Coronacb (kor'-o-nak), a wild expression of
Corncco'pia (L. cornu, a horn, copia,
Coerei (kfir'ray), the hollow side of the hill,
Cortrge (kfir-ta'zjh), a train, a retinue.
Coterie (ko-te-ree'), a set, clan, circle of
Cottlr, Joshpn, a publisher and author, of
Coulter (kSl'ter), the sharp iron of a
Coup-de-main (koo-duhr-mang'), a bold stroke; literally a hand-stroke.
Craven, a coward; from to crave, I
supposed to crave his life.
Creasy-, E. S., on Demosthenes, 343.
Croly, Rev. George, a poet of great elegance and power of diction, born h,
Cromwell, Oliver, one of the greatest
Crucifix (from the Lat. cruci, to a crosf*,
Cumber, perplexity, distress.
Cumberlann, Richarn, a miscellaneous
Curfew (from the French couvre-feu, cover
Curses. The proverb (p. 64) simply means
Cl'rcle (from the Lat. currus, a chariot).
Cyule, a circle ; in chronology, a periodical
Cylinder, a long, circular body, of uniform
Daffodils (Gr. asphod'elos), a species of
Dahlia- a well-known plant, which receives
its name from DahL a Swedish botanist. Dante (Dan-te), thesublimestofthe Italian poets, was burn at- Florence, 1205; died 1321.
Daeling, Gi ten, an heroic girl, daughter of the keeper of the North Sunderland lighthouse, on the coast of England. A steam-vessel having been wrecked in 1838 on the rocks known as the Great Harkars, Grace, who was then twenty-two years old, persuaded her father to go with her to the rescue of the crew in an open boat. There was a raging sea; but they went, and saved nine persons, who otherwise would have perished. Grace died a few years after this event. See Wordsworth's poem on her, p. 201.
Dacpuis ; formerly the title of the eldest son of the King of France. The editions of the classics which were made for the use of the dauphin are entitled- in usum delphini.
Davy, Sir Iiumphrry, an eminent chemist, b. in England 1778, d. 1829. He was an agreeable writer and poet. 317. Death, Thoughts on, 309, 318.
Decemrer, the twelfth month of our year, from the Latin decem, ten, because in the Roman year it constituted the tenth month, the year beginning with March.
Deflect, to turn aside, deviate.
Drgerando, a French writer, author of an excellent work on self-education. He died in 1842. He was a distinguished member of ihe French Institute.
The Mind its own Educator, 322.
Deist, one who believes in the existence of
Demos'tiiexes, Character of, 243.
Demure (from the French des maeurij of good manners), sober, downcast.
Da Qcincry, Thomas, a powerful but eccentric writer, born in England about 1790. The account of Joan of Arc (p. 259) is chiefly taken from his masterly review of Michelet's (Meesh-la's) narra tive in his History of France. Derivative (from the Lat. de, from, and rivus, a small stream), flowing or proceeding from. A derivative word is one which takes its origin in another word.
Der'vis, a Persian word, meaning poor; in Mahom'etau countries, a religious person leading an austere life.
Derzha'vin, Garriel, a Russian poet and statesman, born 1743, died 1819. His Ode to the Deity (see p. 153), as we learn from the translator, Dr. Bowring, has been translated into Japanese, by order of the emperor, and is hung up, embroidered with gold, in the Temple of Jeddo. It has also been translated into the Chinese and Tartar languages, written on a piece of rich silk, and suspended in the imperial palace at Pekin'.
De'um, the accusative case of the Latin word Deuij God. "Te Deum" are the first word* of a celebrated Latin hymn, begin
ning ** Te Deum laudamus," We praise
thee, O God. Dewrv, Rev. Orville. on Death, 318. Dialogue (from the Gr. dio, and lecein, to discourse together), a conversation be tween two or more persons. The following are dialogues:Adam and Orlando, 319. A Sister Pleads for a Brother, 320. Gil Bias and the Archbishop, 340. The Trade of War, 343. Brutus and Cassius, 350. Franklin and the Gout, 355. From Hamlet, 371. Wolsey and Cromwell, 421. Diam'eter, from the Gr. diat through, and me/ro.?, measure % a straight line passing through the centre of a circle, and dividing it into two equal parts. Diamond, the most valuable of gems. The word is pronounced either in three syllables (dl'-a-mond) or in two (di'mond). Diapa'son (Gr. diat through, and pasdn, all), in music, the octave or interval which includes all the tones. By a bold metaphor, Dryden has beautifully availed himself of this expression in his Ode, p 416.
Dicrens, Charles, a popular English author, born in Portsmouth, 1812. The World of Watefs. 206.
The Wind and Rain, 208. Alfred the Great, 244. Dilemma (Gr.), a puzzling situation, where each alternative is bad. 1/iogenes (Di-oj'e-nfts). surnamed the Cynic, was a philosopher of ancient Greece; oorn 414 B. C. He is said to have had an interview with Alexander the Great at Corinth, at which, on the king's asking him if he could oblige him in any way, the Cynic replied, " Yes, you can stand out o! the sunshine." The Cynics weresoealled from the Greek word kunikos, dog-like, because of their morose, snarling mode of speech.
Diplo'ma (from the Gr. diplod, I fold up), a document, signed and sealed, conferring some privilege, right or honor. Thus a letter or writing of an university, conferring a degree, is called d> diploma.
Diph'thongs. See p. 16.
Disc, or Disr (from the Gr. diakos, a round plate, a quoit; diskos being derived from dikein, to throw, whence its application to the form of the thing thrown. The word disk has a similar derivation). Disk, in astronomy, means the face of the sua and moon, as they appear to observers on the earth.
Discharge. A debtor is said to have his discharge when he has a release or acquittance in full from his debt.
Disciple (from the Lat. disco, I learn), a learner; a follower.
Discover, literally, to uncover. Mark the distinction between this word and to invent. We discover what already existed; we invent when we make something to be which hitherto was not. Harvey "tit
covered * the circulation of the blood; but
Docr, the place where a criminal stands in
Dogma, au opinion ; that which seems true
Dourloon, a Spanish coin of the value of two pistoles.
Eagle. The figure of an eagle was the
Early Rising, Thoughts on, 225.
Echo (Gr.), the return or reverberation of a
Eulat (fck-kla', the a as in father), a burst-
Eulipse (Gr. ekteipo, I cease, faint away,
Euliptic, the sun's path in the heavens. It
Economy (Gr. oikos, a house, andnAnM, a
E'ra (fcr), a contraction for ever. Do not
CY INDEX. 455confound this contraction with Ere, which see.
Electricity (Gr. elektrortj amber), the
El'rgy, commonly a plaintive poem,- as is
Elementary Sounds, Table of, 17.
Elelsinian, from Eleusis, an ancient city of
Elizareth, Queen of England, was the
Elliott, Erenezer, sometimes called the
Woman's Mission, by, 359.
Ellipse, an oval fi gure \ the curve in
Elliptical, having the form of an ellipse.
Emerson, R. W., The Snow-storm, 433.
Emphasis, see pp. 39,40.
Emporium, a Greek word, meaning a trad-
Empyreuma, a Greek word, meaning the
Encyulopaedia (from the Gr. en, In, kyclos,
Endicott, John, governor of the colony of
Enghien, Due d' (Duke D'ang-ghe-ftng' j
Entrepot (adg-tre-po', the a as in father, the e as Id her), a warehouse for the deposit of goods.
Epurmeral (e-f£m'eral). This is from the Gr. ephi, for, and emira, a day; perishing with the day ; short-lived.
Ep'ic (Gr. epos, a word), a poem of the narrative kind, describing generally the exploits of heroes.
Ep'icntk, one given to luxury; so called from Epicu'rus, a Greek philosopher, whose doctrines did not, however, authorise the sensual construction which was wrested from them.
Epitome (e- pit'-o-me), an abridgment, an abbreviation, or compendious abstract.
Bfoch (pp-ok or E-pok). Tliis is from the Gr. epecho, I stop, and means a certain fixed point of time, made famous by some remarkable event, from whence ensuing years are numbered.
Era differs from epoch in this: ffra is a point of time fixed by some nation or denomination of men; epoch- is a point fixed by historians and chrouologists.
Ere (ar), before; sooner than; supposed to be from the Saxon cer, signifying the morning. Being pronounced like £'er, this word is sometimes mistaken for it.
Es'say, in literature, a short treatise, or tract. Lord Bacon first used it in this sense.
Eurera (eu-rft'-ka) a Greek word, meaning, / have found. See p. 275.
Eurip'ides (U-rip'i-des), a Grecian tragic poet, b. 480 B. C. He was torn in pieces by the dogs of King Archela'us, whose guest he was. Soph'ocles, who survived him, publicly mourned his loss.
Evan'der is said to have built on the Tiber, at the foot of the Palatine Hill, a town which was incorporated with Rome. He taught the arts of peace.
Etan'gel (from two Gr. words, meaning to tell well, to announce good tidings), the Gospel; the history of Christ's life and resurrection.
Evf.rett, Edward, h. in Massachusetts, 1794. Quoted pp. 185, 187, 249.
Examine; said to be from the Latin, examen, the tongue or beam of a balance.
Excel'sior, the comparative degree of the Latin adjective, excelsus, high ; so that it means higher. 285.
Excommunicate, to expel from the communion of the church.
Exile, The Poor, 82.
Exit, the third person of the Latin verb exeo, I go out; literally, he or it goes out; hence the departure of a player from the stage; a way of departure, passage out of a place.
Ex'odus, a way, or passage out; egress, departure; the title of the second book of Moses, which describes the journey from Egypt.
Ex'pletivr, a word not necessary to the sense; one used to fill a space.
Extempore (ex-tem'-po-re), on the spur of the moment, at the time; from the Lat. worii ex, from, and tempore, the time.
Avoid the blunder of pronouncing ibis
word (extempore) in three syllables. Extraordinary (eks-tror'-de-na-ry). Extrin'sic, external, outward.
Farle (Lat. fori, to speak). In Englistt it is applied to any feigned thing; generally a story inculcating a moral precept. See pp. 67, 71, 72, 92, 130, 286, 412.
Fall Of A Mountain, 105.
Fame. The root of this word meaning simply to speak or talk (good or ill), fame may be either favorable or the contrary. We often find that both praise and detraction are much exaggerated in men's mouths; hetice the proverb, "common fame is a common liar," 64, 309.
Faust. The au pronounced like ow in how.
Ferruary is from the lAt.februo, I cleanse; because on the fifteenth of this month the great feast of purification, called februa, was held among the Romans.
Fenelon, Archbishop of Cambray ,in France, a great writer, and most amiable man, was b. 1651, d. 1715.
Fidelity in Little Things, 85.
Ferdinand And Isarella, 281.
Feera'ra, an ancient and famous city of Italy; once the capital of a sovereign duchy.
Feudally. The feudal system was that form of government anciently subsisting in Europe, under which a victorious leader allotted considerable portions of land, called fiefs, orfeuds, to his principal officers, who, in their turn, divided their possessions among their inferiors; the condition being that the latter should render military service both at home and abroad.
Field. This word (says Trench) properly means a clearing where the trees have been felled, or cut down, as in all our early English writers it is spelled without the t, "feld," and not "field."
Fiji (fe-jee), one of the S. Pacific islands.
Fire-water, the appropriate name given by the Indians to intoxicating liquors.
Fleecy Troops. By a figure known aa periph'rasis (circumlocution), the poet thus designates sheep, 136.
Flint, Timothy, an American writer, and a missionary to the Mississippi valley. He died in 1839. See pp. 299, 302.
Florence, capital of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and one of the finest cities in the world. The present population is 106,899.
Flures, the broad triangular plates at the extremity of the arms of an anchor. The fins of a whale, from their resemblance, are sometimes thus called.
Flying Fish, The 217.
Folio (Lat. folium, a leaf), a book of the largest size, formed by once doubling a sheet of paper.
Foolscap, a kind of paper, usually about seventeen inenes by fourteen. The derivation of the word is uncertain.
genos. kind), unlike or dissimilar In
kind; opposed to homogeneous.
Aexag'onal, having six angles.
Heywood, Thomas, an English dramatic writer, said to have written 220 plays between the years 1596 and 1640. Of these plays only twenty-four have been preserved. Extract from, 294.
Hioginson, Francis, an eminent preacher, born in England, but who emigrated to Salem, Mass., in June, 1629, when there were but seven houses in the place. He died in 1630. He had a son also named Francis.
Eillard, George S., an accomplished American writer, author of "Six Months in Italy."
Mural Influence, 399.
Hippoc'rates (Ilip-poc'ratCs), the most famous among the Greek physicians, b. 456 B. C. In his method of cure, precepts as to diet take the first rank.
History (Gr. istoreo, I know by inquiry), an account of facts; not only of such as relate to the political annals of nations and states, but to their manners and customs, literature and great men. Natural history treats of the works of nature generally.
Historical Characters, 144, 243.
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, an American physician and a gifted poet, 265, 337.
Homer, the great poet of the Greeks. He flourished in the ninth century before the Christian era, and is supposed to have been a strolling bard, poor and blind. His Iliad is a poem descriptive of the siege of Troy, in Asia Minor; and his Od'yssey describes the wanderings of Ulysses. These poems have been translated by Pope; but Cowper's version of the Iliad is the most faithful.
Homily, a discourse or sermon read or pronounced to an audience.
Ho-mo-ge'neous (Gr. omos, the same, and genos, kind), of the same kind. See Heterogeneous.
Hood, Thomas, an English poet, comic and
Hooded Bell. By this striking image of a bell covered with a hood, Grahame describes the effect of the snow in hiding it.
Horace, one of the most popular Latin poets; b. 65 B. C, d. 9 B. C.
Hori'zon (Gr. orizo, I limit), the line which terminates the view on all sides.
Horne, George, an English bishopj b. 1730, d. 1792. The Government of the Thoughts, 97.
Housewife. By Walker and Worcester pronounced huz'wif; by Webster, as spelled.
Household. Used (p. 426) as an adjective, in the sense of familiar.
Howard, John, a celebrated English philanthropist, b. 1726, and d. 1790, from a malignant fever caught in visiting a suf
ferer. He did much to reform the prisons and hospitals of Europe. His deathhour was so serene, that he said to a friend who tried to divert his thoughts from the subject, "Death has no terrors for me: it is an event I have always looked to with cheerfulness, if not with pleasure; and be assured that it is to me a more grateful subject than any other.* See Burke's eulogy, 146.
Howitt, Mary, Lines by, 297.
Hudson, or Noryh River, a river of New York, rising in a mountainous country west of Lake Champlain, and flowing into the Atlantic below New York city. The tide flows up as far as Troy. Its scenery is very beautiful.
Hulrs ; old, dismasted ships, formerly used as prisons in England.
Hume, David, author of a celebrated history of England, b. at Edinburgh in 1711. d. 1776. In his history he generally favors the side of power against the people ; and his insidious hostility to the Christian religion leads him to undervalue the labors and sufferings of many illustrious martyrs, religious and political. Extract from, 145.
Humility. The root of this word is the Latin humus, the ground.
Huericane, The, by Bryant, 211.
Husrand, according to the Saxon derivation, is house-band, the binder of the household by his labor and his government of love.
Hydrostatical, relating to the science of weighing fluids.
Hyperrol'ical (Gr. uperballo, I throw beyond, overshoot), in rhetoric, exaggerated, tumid. The hy-per'bo-le" is a figure, which may be extravagant either from its expressing too little or too much.
Hypoth'esis (Gr.), a supposition. PL, ses.
Irid, or Ir, a contraction of the Lat., indent, meaning, in the same place, or also there.
Idea, a Gr. word, from idein, to see; literally the image or resemblance of any object conceived by the mind.
Ides, one of the three epochs or divisions of the ancient Roman month. The calends were the first days of the different months; the ides, days near the middle of the months, and the nones, the ninth day before the ides. Brutus reminds Cassius of the ides of March (43 B. C.) as the time when Julius Caesar fell beneath their daggers and those of the other conspirators. "Tu quoque Brute !" (tho i, too, Brutus!) was Caesar's exclamation on seeing Brutus stab. Cassius was married to the half-sister of Brutus.
Iliad. See Homer.
Immortality Of The Soul, Thoughts on the, 150, 314, 315, 412. Impeach, to accuse; to bring charges against a public officer uetbre the proper tribunal.
Impress', to compel to enter the public sex , vice as a seaman.