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architecture is the art of building according to certain proportions and rules. A-be'na. A Latin word, originally meaning sarnie but applied to that part of the amphitheatre in which the gladiators fought, which was covered with sand, 94.

Ahi'on, an ancient Greek bard and per-
former on the cithern, or gittern, a stringed ,
instrument similar to the guitar. Iiw+t^^'jict
being threatened by pirates at sea, he is
fabled to have played on his cithern, and
then, with a prayer to the gods, to have
leaped into the sea, where a song-loving
dolphin received him on his back, and bore
him safely to the shore, 295.

Arista it'cuus, the greatest critic of anti-
quity. He flourished B. C. 156. His
criticisms were so severe that his name
has become proverbial, 342.

Aristotle, often called the Stagyrite, from Staglra, a town of Macedonia, where he was born, 384 B. C., was a pupil of Plato and a preceptor of Alexander the Great. lie was one of the most influential of the philosophers and writers of ancient Greece, and a good part of his works still exis.t. His doctrineS are sometimes styled the Aristotelian philosophy. He died 323 B. C. See p. 31i.

Arithmetic (Gr. arithmos, number), the science of numbers, 124.

Ahndt, from the German of, 360.

Articulation explained, 14, 27.

Aside. In dramatic writing, a character is supposed to utter a remark aside when he does not mean that the other persons of the drama, who may 1» present, shall hear it.

Asinine (as'i-nlne), resembling an ass.

Ass. The Ass and the Lamb, (yl.

Aspar'aous, a Greek wcrd, meaning the first bud or sprout now applied to a wellknown garden vegetable.

Assize (from a Latin word meaning to sit) is the periodical session held by the judges of the superior courts in the counties of England. The plural form, assizes, is popularly used.

Asthma (Gr. astkmaino, I breathe hard). A disease the leading symptom of which is difficulty of breathing.

Astonishrd (from the L. ad, to, and tono, I thunder) means originally struck with, thunder.

Astrongmy (Gr. astron, a star, and nomos, a law). The science which treats of the celestial bodies.

Astronomy and 1mmortality, 150, 224,

Asylum (Gr. a, without, suit, plunder). A place to which those who fled were free from harm; a sanctuary. The modern use of the word differs from the ancient.

Atheist (Gr. a, without, theos, God). One who mauly denies the existence of a God. "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God." Take away this belief in God wholly from man,— let Lim have been subjected to none of the influences from society and his fellow-men which the belief produces,— and " the man will have

vanished, and you hare it.stea.1 a ereafc. ure more subtle than any beast of the. field; upon the belly lcu^t it go, and dust must it eat all the days uf its life." Athens, the most celebrated city of Greece, once the great world metropolis of philosophy and art; mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. It is the capital of the

kingdom of Greece, 128. E'musphehe (Gr. atmost vapor, and sphai ro.i, a sphere). The fluid which surrounds the earth, and consists of air and vapor of water. The air is composed of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen, mixed in the proportion of one of the former to four of the latter. Animals cannot live in nitrogen, nor can flame barn in it, separated from oxygen. See pp. 206, 362, 404.

Atune. To be, or cause to be, at one ; to

reconcile; to make amends.
Audubun, John James, a native of Louisi-
ana, and celebrated for his published col-
lection of drawings, under the title of the
"Birds of America." He was educated in
art at Paris, under the great painter
David. Died 1851.

Disappearance of Indians, 302.
Auoust. The eighth month of the year; so

named from
Auoustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor.
He was born B. C. 63. Literature and
the arts flourished remarkably under bif

Aurora. In the ancient Mythology the

goddess of the morning.
Autumn. This word is said to be derived
from the Latin auctum, increased, be
cause the wealth of man is augmented by
the fruits of harvest.
Poetry of Autumn, 374.
Avalanche (from the French avaler, to
descend). A mass of snow sliding down a
Average, a mean number, or quantity.

Babel, or Babylon, an ancient city and
province of Asia, on the Euphrates. The
city was probably on the site of the fam
ous tower of Babel; and its present ruins
consist of fused masses of brick-work, &c
It stood on a large plain; and its walls
formed an exact square, each side of
which was fifteen miles long. There were
one hundred gates, twenty-five in each of
the four shh-s, all of which were of solid
brass, as Isaiah bears witness, ch. 45. V
2. "I will break in pieces the gates of
brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron.1*
Babylon was taken by Cyrus, the Persian
monarch, B. C. 538; and the Babylonian
empire was destroyed, as the prophets
Isaiah and Jeremiah had predicted. Cy
rus, who was the destined conqueror of
Babylon, was foretold by name above
one hundred years before he was born.
Isaiah 45: 1—4. See pp. 164, 217.
Bacchanal, a drunken reveller ; from Bac-
chus, the deity of wine.
Bacon, Francis, Lord, was born in Londoa
in 1561; died 1626. He was a great

philosopher, and the most learned man of
his day; but his career teaches the moral
lesson that the tree of knowledge is not the
tree of life. Hp held the office of High
Chancellor, but showed himself morally
unfit for it, 312

Baillie, Joanna, tistinguished as a dramat-
ic writer ; b. in Scotland, 17(35; d. 1850.
First Voyage of Columbus, by, 191.

Baiazet, a warlike but tyrannical Sultan of
Turkey, who succeeded to the throne in
1389, having strangled his rival brother.
He died 1-103. See p. 255.

Bancroft, Ueo., extract from, 193.

Banyan. A very large tree of India. It
sends down roots from its branches, and
those roots, striking into the ground, them-
selves become trunks.
Lines on, by T. Moore, 311.

Bar, to prevent, obstruct.

Bvshan. In scriptural geography, the
land east of the Jordan, and north of Gil-
ead; celebrated for its rich soil and fat
cattle, especially its breed of bulls.

Bastile (basteel'), a noted fortress in Paris,
built in the fourteenth century, and de-
stroyed by the populace in 1789. See
p. 60.

Bayoner, So called from having been first
made at Bayonne, in France.

Bats, the plural of bay, the laurcl-tree ; ap-
plied to a crown or garland bestowed on
warlike or literary merit.

Beadle (from the root of to bid), a messen-
ger; in England a parish officer, whose
business is to punish petty offenders.

B. C. These initials attached to dates sig-
nify " before Christ."

Beouine. The Beguines were a class of
women in Germany and the Netherlands,
of pious and secluded habits, similar to
the nuns, except that they took no vows.

Belay, a nautical term, meaning to fasten
or make fast, as a rope.

Bellio'erent (from the Lat. bellum, war,
and gero, I carry on), waging war.

Bell. The derivation of this word is curi-
ous ; it is from the Anglo-Saxon bellan,
to bellow.

Belvihere (from the Lat. bellus, fine, and
video, I see). In Italy this name is given
to the cupolas on palaces, from which a
fine prospect may lie had. It is also the
name of a part of the Vatican (the ancient
palace of the Popes in ltome), where the
famous statue of Apollo, known under
the name of Belvidere, is placed. This
statue is believed to be the most perfect
ever made. The artist's name is un-
known. In Italian the word is pro-
nounced in four syllables, Bel-ve-da'-re.

Benefacton (from the L. bene, well, and
factor, a doer), one who confers a bene-

Bencal' (the a as in fall) is the most east-
ern province of Hindustan', lying on each
side of the Ganges.
Berlin A (ltfr-e-ze'na), a river of Russia.

The Passage of, by the French, 326.
Brs'tiary, one who fought with wild beasts
at the ancient spectacles.

Beactiful, The, a poem, 284.
Ministry of the, 317.

Billrts, pieces of wood, cut with a bill, or
beaked axe, so called from its resemblan"*
to the bill of a bird.

Bivouac (biv'wak). This word is derived
from the Ltit. bis, twice, and the German
wnche, a guard, and signified originally a
guard to keep watch during the ni<:ht.
To bivouac is to remain as a guard all
night, without tents or covering. The
word is sometimes spelled with a final k.

Blacxstone, Sir Win., an eminent lawyer,
b. at London 1723, d. 1780. His " Com-
mentaries on the Laws of England" is
still a legal text-book.

Boatswain' (in seamen's language b6'sn),
an officer on board of certain ships, who
has charge of the rigging, boats, &c.

Board of Health. The term board is ap
plied to any body of individuals iutrcsted,
for public or private purposes, with the
management of any business or specula-
tion. It is the province of the Board of
Health in cities to provide against con-
tagious diseases, &c.

Bodleian. The library of Oxford, England,
under this name, is so called from Sir
Thomas Bodley, who died in 1612, and
who did much for its foundation.

Bomeast. This word is of the same origin
as bombasin, and once meant linen sewed
together with flax between, to swell it
out. Hence it was applied to a tumid,
inflated style, in which sound predomi-
nates over sense.

Bonaparte, Napoleon, was born in Corsica,
an island in the Mediterranean, belonging
to France, on the fifteenth August, 1769
He was at the military school of Brienne
from 1779 to 1784, when he went to Paris.
In 1786 he commenced his military career,
which was the most wonderful of modern
times. In 1804 he became Emperor of
France. After remarkable reverses, he
was defeated by the allied armies under
Wellington, at Waterloo, June 18, 1815.
He surrendered himself to an English
squadron, and was brought to Plymouth,
whence he was removed to St. HelG'na, a
barren island in the Atlantic Ocean, where
he died May 5th, 1821.
An Early Riser, 226.
Character of, by Lamartine, 393.
Napoleon as a Student, 396.

Bonnivarn, Francois de, b. 1496, d. 1570,
was the prior of a convent near Geneva,
in Switzerland, and one of the most stren-
uous supporters of the liberty of his conn
try. He was seizeH and imprisoned by
the Duke of Savoy in the castle of Chillon,
at the eastern extremity of the Lake of
Geneva, where he remained from 1529
till 1536, when he was liberated by his
countrymen. The traces 'eft by his steps
on the pavement of his cell are still seen.
Account of, by A. Dumas, 142.

Bontm, the Latin for good; hummum
honum, the chief good.

Boncs, a premium for a privilege.

Boors. The inner bark of trees was ixtoe
used for writing on. In England, many

hundred years at;o, people used to write upon the bark of the beech-tree, which they called hoc. We have nut changed the word much. See Library. Thoughts on Books, 397.

Boom (from the Danish bnmme, a drum), to make a noise like the roar of the waves, or a distant (run.

Boons (from the Lat. bonus, or Fr. 6on), a gift, a favor.

Boulogne (lloo-lonOi a seaport of France on the English Channel.

Bouqurt (hoo-ka), a nosegay.

Bow, the curved part of a ship forward. When it has this meaning it is pronounced ■O as to rhyme with cow.

Bowning, John, his translation of DerzhaVin's ode, 153.

True Courage, by, 242.

Brahmin, the highest or priestly class, among the Hindoos.

Brave Man, The,.translated from the German of Burger, 165.

Bba/ier, an artificer in brass.

Bhhwster, Sir David, an eminent philosopher of Scotland, b. 1781. He was the inventor of that optical toy, the Kaleidoscope.

Barbarism of War, by, 303.

Bridewell, a house of correction for disorderly persons so called from the palace near Bridget's well in London, which was turned into a work-house.

Broore, Henry. The Lion, &c., by, 139.

Broors, C. T., Translations by, 83, 412.

Brougham, Henry, Lord, distinguished as a statesman, man of letters, and philosopher; born in Scotland. He entered Parliament in 1810. On Science, by, 441. The Schoolmaster Abroad, by. 269. On the Pleasures of Science, 441.

Browne, J. R.. The Whale Chase, by, 400.

Bruce, Robert, one of the most heruic of the Scottish kings, and the deliverer of Scotland from the English yoke; b. 1274, ti. 1329.

Bruin, a familiar name given to the bear, from the Fr. bran, brown.

Brutus, Lucius Junius, known as the first Brutus, received his surname of Brutus, or brute, from feigning idiocy in order to escape the tyranny of Tarquin, a king of ancient Rome. Lucretia, a lady of great yurity, having been grossly abused by Sextus Tarquin, Brutus threw off his pretended idiocy, and roused the Romans to expel their king and establish a republic. As consul, he afterwards sentenced his two sons to death for crimes against their country. See p. 308. Marcus Junius Brutus, celebrated by Shakspeare, was a descendant of the first Brutus, 350.

Bryant, Wm. Cullen, an eminent American poet, b. in Cuminingtoi>, Mass., Nov. 3, 1794.

Extracts from, 178, 205, 257, 338.

The Hurricane, by, 211.

November, by, 075. Bcffon, born 1707, died 17S8 ; a famous naturalist, the eloquence of whose style gave a charm to his scientific works. He

was very methodical in his time ; but there is not much to praise in his pri\ ate char acter. 226. Buoy (from bors, the French for wood), a

piece of wood floating on the water, to in dicate shoals, &c. The adiective buoyant has the same origin.

Buroer, Godfrey Augustus, b. 1748, d. 1794; a German poet, celebrated for his spur:ted ballads. The Brave Man, by, 165.

Buhee, Edmund, a writer, orator, and statesman, of great eminence. Born in Ireland, 1780 ; died 1797. He was one of the greatest masters of English style; an amiable and religious man in private life, and exemplary in his domestic and social duties. See character of, by Hazlitt, and Grattan, 245, 240.

Extracts from his Speeches, 146, 268, 209.

Burnrt, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, waa born in Scotland, 1643 ; d. 1714. He waa the author of a History of the Reformation. 226.

Bueriscton, E. H., Lines by, 264.

Burton, W., Learning to Write, 87.

Bushmen. A name given by the Butch colonists to some roaming tribes akin to the Hottentots, in the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope. They are of a dark copper complexion, and small in stature. So deep are they sunk in barbarism, as to be unacquainted even with the construction of huts or tents, 119.

By and By. The proverb, p. 64, I 2, ia directed against the habit of procrastination; of putting off what ought be done at once till " by and by."

Byron, Lord George Gordon, an English
nobleman, of great but misapplied talents.
He was born in the year 1788, and died in
Greece, in 1824. See p. 148.
Ambition, by, 100.
The Guilty Conscience, 268.
Ancient Greece, 310.
A Storm on the Mountains, 33S.
The Colosseum, by, 388.

Carinrt, in politics, the governing council of a country ; so called from the cabinet or apartment in which the Chief Magistrate transacts public business, and assembles his privy council. In the United States the members of the President's Cabinet are th** Secretaries of State, of the Treasury, of War, of the Navy, the Interior, the Postmaster General, and the Attorney General.

Cadi (in Arabic, a judge). The Turks style their inferior judges Cadi.

Ca'lyx, a Gieek word, signifying a cup. It is the name given by botanists to the outermost of the enveloping organs of a flower.

Calabria, the southern part of the kingdom of Naples; traversed throughout by the Apennine Mountains.

Adventure in Calabria, 305.

Camera Obscura, or Dark Chamber, is an optical apparatus, by which the images of external objects are thrown on a white surface, and represented in a vivid man-
ner in their proper colors, shapes, &c.

Camilla, n ancient mythology, one of the
swift-footed servants of Diana, accustomed
to the chase and to war.

Campacna {kam-pan'-ya, the a pronounced
like a in father), a term applied to the
low lands of the Tiber about Rome in Italy.
The word simply means a flat, open
country. The Roman Campagoa is quite
unhealthy at certain seasons.

Campbell, Thomas, a great lyrical poet
(see Lyrical), was born in Glasgow, Sco*<
land, in 1777; died 1844. He wrote his ftua
poem of "The Pleasures of Hope" when
only twenty-two years of age.
Fr. "Pleasures of Hope," 309, 412,

Lord Ullin's Daughter, 276.

Canaan (Cr'nan), all that tract of land, on
each side of the Jordan in Palestine, which
God gave for an inheritance to the chil-
dren of Israel.

Cana'ries, thirteen islands in the Atlantic
Ocean, about sixty miles from the west
coast of North Africa; known to the
ancients as the Fortunate Isles. They
were re-discovered in 1402, and seized by
the Spaniards in 1420, who planted vines
there. The canary-bird is a native of
these isles.

Candor, from the Latin word canderi, to
be white, to shine, to glitter; hence sin-
cerity, purity. The word candle is of the
Same genealogy.

Candles, candlestick. See Candor.

Can'nibal, a person that devours human
flesh. The word is probably of Indian

Canning, George, a highly accomplished
orator and writer, born in London in 1770,
died in 1827. See p. 270.

Capacity (from the L. capio, I hold, or
take), the power of containing or taking.

Capb (from the L. caput, the head), a point
or head of land projecting from the main-
land into a sea or lake.

Car'icatdhe (from the Italian caricare, to
charge, to load), a distorted, exaggerated
likeness of any thing or person.

Carlyle, Thomas, an eccentric writer, born
in Scotland in 17U6. His style, at first
simple and eloquent, latterly became af-
fected and grotesque, though often vigor-

The Sword and Press, by, 255.
, Carnival (from two Latin words, carni and
val?, meaning, fare well to Jlesh), a fes-
tival celebrated with merriment and
revelry in Roman Catholic countries, dur-
ing the week before Lent.

Oarniv'orodb, feeding on flesh.

Caerier-pioron, The, a poem by Moore,
137. The carrier-pigeon flies at an ele-
vated pitch, in order to surmount every
obstacle between her and the place to
which she is destined.

Cashier (ft. casser, to break), to dismiss
from service.

Castlb-bcii.ding, forming visionary proj-
ects; building '* castles in the air," 71

Castle of Indolence, the title of a ccltorated

poem by Thomson, written in the manner
of Spenser, and containing many obsoleU

Cass, Lewis, On Labor, 427.

Catacomrs (from the Greek words, kata,
down, and kumbos, a hollow), a cave for
the burial of the dead.

Catiline, a Roman of groat talents, but dis-
solute habits. He conspired against hit
country, and was denounced by Cicero la
his most celebrated oration.

Catseill Mountains are in the vicinity of
Catskill, Green county, N. Y., on the
Hudson. They received their name from
the great number of catamounts formerly
killed there, 111.

Cavern by the Sea, The, 183.

Cecilia. There are several saints of this
name in the Catholic church. The most
celebrated, who has been erroneously re-
garded as the inventress of the organ, suf-
fered martyrdom A. D. 220. How Cecilia
came to be the patron-saint of music is not

Ode on Cecilia's Day, 416. ^
Cenis, Mount, a mountain of the Alps in
Savoy. It is eight thousand six hundred
and seventy feet above the level of the

Century (from the Latin centum, a hun-
dred), in a general sense, anything con-
sisting of a hundred parts; a period of a
hundred years.
Chalmers, Thomas, a celebrated Scotch
divine, born 1780, died 1847.

Planets and Heavenly Bodies, 224.
Ministry of the Beautiful, 317.
Chambers, Robert, a distinguished Scottish
writer and publisher, born 1801.
Complaint of a Stomach, 157.
Self-killing, 171.

Kindness to Brute Animals, 195.

Best Kind of Revenge, 213.

Sound and Sense, 236.

Passage of Beresina, 326.

Idleness, Jesting, &c., 370.

Common Errors, 408.
Channing, Wtn. Ellery, a celebrated Ameri-
can clergyman and writer, born at New-
port, R. I., 1780; died 1842.

On the Teacher's Calling, 186.

The Free Mind, 277.

Effects of Irreligion, 316.

The Worth of Books, 398.
Chase on the Ice, 131.
Chatham, Wm. Pitt, Earl of (or Lord), was
one of tne greatest orators and statesmen
of England, and a stanch friend of the
American colonies in their difficulties with
the British government. He was born
1708, died 1778.

Descrilied by Hazlitt, Grattan, 245, 6.

On Taxing America, 207.
Cha-me'-leon, a species of lizard, found in
Asia and Africa. It has the remarkable
power of changing its ;olor, producing a
succession of rich and varied tints over
the whole body. On this peculiarity
Merrick's admirable fable (see p. 413) is

CHAPMAN, a trafficker, a cheapener.

Extract from his Speeches 271. CHAPS (chops), the mouth of a beast.

CLEAVE ; as used p. 265, this is an inCHAPTER (irom the Lat. caput, a head), a transitive verb, or one in which the action

division of a book or treatise ; as Genesis is confined to the agent, and does not pass contains fifty chapters.

over to an object. CHARLATAN, a quack; from an Italian CLERK ; the English pronunciation of this word, meaning to prate.

word (as if clark) is now repudiated. CHARLEMAGNE (Shăr-le-man), King of the CLEVER, dexterous, expert ; the meaning

Franks, and subsequently Emperor of the good-natured seems peculiar to Amer West, was boru 7+2, died 814. His ica. name means Charles the Great. Although Cliff (now generally spelt clef), a charac he did not know how to write, he was a ter in music ; from the L. clavis, a key. friend to learning. See p. 395.

CODE. With the ancient Romans that part CHARLES the Twelfth of Sweden; born 1682 ; of the wood of a tree next to the bark was

killed by a cannon-ball, 1718. He was a called codex; and the laws written on military hero, who was lavish of human this wood, smeared with wax, took its blood whenever his selfishness or ambi name; whence is our word code, a collection was to be gratified.

tion of laws. CHICANERY (she-kan-er-y), trickery, by Cognac (kon-yak), a French brandy.

which a cause is delayed or perplexed. COLERIDGE, Samuel Taylor, an English poet CHILLON (shillong), 142. See Bonnivard. and philosopher, b. 1770, d. 1843. CHIROGRAPHY (kiroy'rafy), the art of writ Translation from Schiller, by, 343.

iny ; from the Gr. cheir, the hand, and COLOSSAL, gigantic, like a Colossus ; an grapho, I write.

ancient statue of Apollo, which stood CAock, a wedge used to secure anything across the entrance of the harbor at

with, or for anything to rest on. The Rhodes, being so called. It was of brass, lony-boat, when it is stowed, rests on two one hundred and five feet high, so that large chocks.

ships could pass under its legs. CHOʻRUS, a number of singers ; verses of a COLOSSEUM (col-os-se'um), The, 386. gong, in which all present join.

COLLINS, Wm., an English poet, b. 1720, d. CHRISTENDOM, all the countries of the world, 1756. His odes, written when he was

the people of which profess Christian quite young, show great genius. ity.

Ode to the Passions, 402. CHRISTIANITY, Obligations to, 313.

COLUMBUS, Christopher, was born at Genoa, CHRONOM'ETER (Gr. chronos, time, and 1437 ; died 1506. See America.

metros, measure), an instrument to COMBUSTIBLE, capable of burning

measure time with great exactness. | COMET (from the Gr. komē, hair), a celes CHUM, a chamber-fellow.

L tial body, with a luminous train. CICERO, the most famous of Roman orators; COMMONS. In countries having kings and born 106 B. C., murdered by soldiers 43 nobles, the common people, or their repB. C.

resentatives, are thus called. Compared with Demosthenes, 243. COMPANION (from the Lat. commu'nis, Extract from, 267.

common, and panis, bread), literally, CINCINNATUS, a consul of ancient Rome ; | one with whom we share bread.

he was repeatedly taken from his CONCAVE, hollow ; opposed to conver, plough and farm to assume the highest spherical. offices of the state. A socieży of Ameri CONCIERGERIE (kon-se-airzh'-re), the name can revolutionary officers took their name of a prison in Paris. from him, calling themselves Cincinnati, 1 CONCISE (from the Lat. conci'do, to cut whence the great city of Ohio has its | down), brief, containing few words. name.

CONCRETE (Lat. concres-ce-re, to grow toCIRCUMFERENCE (from the Lat. circum, gether, to coalesce in one mass). As an

around, and fero, I carry), a line that adj., formed by coalition of separate bounds the space of a circle.

particles in one body. In logic, existing CIRCUMSTANCE (from circum, around, and in a subject ; not abstract; as the white

stans, standing), an incident, a state of snow. As a noun, a compound, a mass atrairs.

formed by concretion. CIVILIZATION, Progress of, 338.

CONFUSED. As used by Heywood, p. 294, CLASSICS (from the Latin classis). The the accent is on the first syllable. In his

Romans were divided into six classes, and day, usage had not settled the accent of a classici was the name given to the first large class of English words. class; whence the best Greek and Roman CONGREVE, WM., an English dramatist and authors have been, in modern times, poet, b. 1672, d. 1729. His reputation,

called classics, that is, first-class writers. very great in his day, has deservedly CLASS Opinions ; those of a certain set or dwindled. class of mutual admirers and supporters, The Preacher who Failed, &c., 286 72.

CONJURE ; when it means to call on solemnly CLAY, Henry, an American orator and (as on p. 372), the accent is on the last

statesman, born in Va. 1777, died 1852. syllable ; when it means to affect by magic, For many years he represented Kentucky or to practise the arts of a conjurer, the in Congress.

accent is on the first syllable.


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