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architecture is the art of building according to certain proportions and rules. A-re'na. A Latin word, originally meaning sand, but applied to that part of the amphitheatre in which the gladiators fought, which was covered with sand, »4.
Iyri'on, an ancient Greek bard and per-
Arista R'chcs, the greatest critic of anti-
Arithmetic (Gr. arithmos, number), the science of numbers, 124.
Arndt, from the German of, 360.
Aryiculation explained, 14, 27.
Aside. In dramatic writing, a character is supposed to utter a remark aside when he does not mean that the other persons of the drama, who may be present,shall hear it.
Asinine (as'i-nlne), resembling an ass.
Ass. The Ass and the Lamb, 67.
Aspar'aous, a Greek word, meaning the first bud or sprout; now applied to a wellknown garden vegetable.
Assize (from a Latin word meaning to sit) is the periodical session held by the judges of the superior courts in the counties of England. The plural form, assizes, is popularly used.
Asthma (Gr. asthmaino, I breathe hard). A disease the leading symptom of which is difficulty of breathing.
Astonished (from the L. ad, to, and /ono, I thunder) means originally struck with thunder.
Astronomy (Gr. astron, a star, and nomos, a law). The science which treats of the celestial bodies. Astronomy and Immortality, 150, 224.
Asylum (Gr. a, without, sule, plunder). A place to which those who fled were free from harm; a sanctuary. The modern use of the word differs from the ancient.
Atheist (Gr. a, without, theos, God). One who madly denies the existence of a God. "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God." Take away this belief in God wholly from man,— let 1 im have been subjected to none of the influences from society and his fellow-men which the belief produces,— and "the man will have
vanished, and you have Insteal a cre*V lire more subtle than any beast of th« field; upon the belly must it go, and dust must it eat all the days uf its life." Athens, the most celebrated city of Greece, once the great world metropolis of philosophy and art ; mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. It is the capital of the modern kingdom of Greece, 128. Sf'mOSPHRrE (Gr. atmos, vapor, and sphai ro.v, ,a sphere). The fluid which surrounds the earth, and consists of air and vapor of water. The air is composed of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen, mixed in the proportion of one of the former to four of the latter. Animals cannot live in nitrogen, nor can flame burn in it, separated from oxygen. See pp. 206, 362, 404.
Atune. To be, or cause to be, at one; to reconcile; to make amends.
Aurora. In the ancient Mythology the goddess of the morning.
Barel, or Babylon, an ancient city and
i \' EXPLANATORY INDEX. 449philosopher, and the most learned man of his day; but his career teaches the moral
Baillih, Joanna, n'stinguished as a dramat-
Bajazrt, a warlike but tyrannical Sultan of
Bancroft, Geo., extract from, 193.
Banyan. A very large tree of India. It
Bar, to prevent, obstruct.
Ba'shan. In scriptural geography, the
Bastile (basteel'), a noted fortress in Paris,
Bayonet, So called from having been first
Bats, the plural of bay, the laurel-tree ; ap-
B. C. These initials attached to dates sig-
Brgcine. The Beguines were a class of
Belay, a nautical term, meaning to fasten
Bellio'erent (from the Lat. bellum, war,
Bell. The derivation of this word is curi-
Brlvidrrr (from the Lat. bellus, fine, and
Bengal' (the a as in fall) is the most east-
Beresina (Her-e-ze'na), a river of Russia.
Brs'tiary, one who fought with wild beasts
Beautiful, The, a poem, 281.
Billets, pieces of wood, cut with a bill, or
Bivouac (blv'wak). This word is derived
Blacrstone, Sir Wm., an eminent lawyer,
Boatswain (in seamen's language bft'sn),
Board of Health. The term board is ap
Bodleian. The library of Oxford, England,
Bomrast. This word is of the same origin
Bonaparte, Napoleon, was born in Corsica,
Bonnivard, Francois de, b. 1496, d. 1570,
Boni'm, the Latin for good; summum
Bonus, a premium for a privilege.
Boors. The inner bark of trees was a»oe
need for writing on. In England, many
hundred years ago, people used to write upou the bark of the beech-tree, which they called boc. We have not changed the word much. See Library. Thoughts on Books, 397.
Room (from the Danish bomme, a drum), to make a noise like the roar of the waves, or a distant gun. Boons (from the Lat. bonus, or Fr. &on), a gift, a favor.
Boulogne (Boo-lon'), a seaport of France on the English Channel.
Bouquet (boo-ka'), a nosegay.
Bow, the curved part of a ship forward. When it has this meaning it is pronounced Bo as to rhyme with cow.
Bo Wring, John- his translation of Derzhavin's ode, 153. True Courage, by, 242.
Brahmin, the highest or priestly class, among the Hindoos.
Brave Man, The,.translated from the German of Burger, 165.
Brazier, an artificer in brass.
Brewster, Sir David, an eminent philosopher of Scotland, b. 1781. He was the inventor of that optical toy, the Kaleidoscope.
Barbarism of War, by, 303.
Bridewell, a house of correction for disorderly persons ; so called from the palace near Bridget's well in London, which was turned into a work-house.
Broore, Henry. The Lion, &c, by, 139.
Broors, C. T., Translations by, 83, 412. Brougham, Henry, Lord, distinguished as a statesman, man of letters, and philosopher; born in Scotland. He entered Parliament in 1810. On Science, by, 441. The Schoolmaster Abroad, by. 269. On the Pleasures of Science, 441.
Browne, J. R., The Whale Chase, by, 400.
Bruce, Robert, one of the most heroic of the Scottish kings, and the deliverer of Scotland from the English yoke; b. 1274, d. 1329.
Bruin, a familiar name given to the bear, from the Fr. brun, brown.
Brutus, Lucius Junius, known as the first Brutus, received his surname of Brutus, or brute, from feigning idiocy in order to escape the tyranny of Tarquin, a king of ancient Rome. Lucretia, a lady of great purity, having been grossly abused by Sextus Tarquin, Brutus threw off his pretended idiocy, and roused the Romans to expel their king and establish a republic. As consul, he afterwards sentenced his two sons to death for crimes against their country. See p. 308. Marcus Junius Brutus, celebrated by Shakspearc, was a descendant of the first Brutus, 350.
Bryant, Wm. Cullen, an eminent American poet, b. in Cummington, Mass., Nov. 3, 1794.
Extracts from, 178, 205, 257, 338. The Hurricane, by, 211.
-November, by, 375. Buffon, born 1707, died 1788; a famous naturalist, the eloquence of whose style gave a charm to his scientific works. He
was very methodical in his time ; bat there is not much to praise in his private char actor. 226. Buot (from bois, the French for wood), a piece of wood floating on the water, to indicate shoals, &c. The adjective buoyant has the same origin. Burger, Godfrey Augustus, b. 1748, d. 1794; a German poet, celebrated for his spurted ballads.
The Brave Man, by, 165. Burre, Edmund, a writer, orator, and statesman, of great eminence. Born in Ireland, 1780 ; died 1797. He was one of the greatest masters of English style; an amiable and religious man in private life, and exemplary in his domestic and social duties. See character of, by Hazlitt, and Grattan, 245, 246. Extracts from his Speeches, 146, 268, 269.
Burnet, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, was born in Scotland, 1643 ; d. 1714. He was the author of a History of the Reformation. 226. Buerington, E. H., Lines by, 264. Burton, W., Learning to Write, 87. Bushmen. A name given by the Dutch colonists to some roaming tribes akin to the Hottentots, in the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope. They are of a dark copper complexion, and small in stature. So deep are they sunk in barbarism, as to be unacquainted even with the construction of huts or tents, 119. By and By. The proverb, p. 64, IT 2, is directed against the habit of procrastination; of putting off what ought be done at once till " by and by." Byron, Lord George Gordon, an English nobleman, of great but misapplied talents. He was born in the year 1788, and died in Greece, in 1824. See p. 148. Ambition, by, 100. The Guilty Conscience, 258. Ancient Greece, 310. A Storm on the Mountains, 333. The Colosseum, by, 388.
Carinet, in politics, the governing council of a country ; so called from the cabinet or apartment in which the Chief Magistrate transacts public business, and assembles his privy council. In the United States the members of the President's Cabinetare the Secretaries of State, of the Treasury, of War, of the Navy, the Interior, the Postmaster General, and the Attorney General.
Cadi (in Arabic, a judge). The Turks style their inferior judges Cadi.
Ca'lyn, a Gieek word, signifying a cup. It is the name given by botanists to the outermost of the enveloping organs of a flower.
Calarria, the southern part of the kingdom of Naples; traversed throughout by the Apennine Mountains. Adventure in Calabria, 305. Camera Obscura, or Dark Chamber, is an optical apparatus, by which the images i of external objects are thrown on a white
surface, and represented in a vivid man-
Camilla, n ancient mythology, one of the
Campaona (kam-pan'-ya, the a pronounced
Camprell, Thomas, a great lyrical poet
Canaan (Ca'nan), all that tract of land, on
Cana'ries, thirteen islands in the Atlantic
Candor, from the Latin word candere, to
Candles, candlestick. See Candor.
Can'nibal, a person that devours human
Canning, George, a highly accomplished
-capacity (from the L. capio, I hold, or
Cape (from the L. caput, the head), a point
Car'icaturr (from the Italian caricare,to
Carlyle, Thomas, an eccentric writer, born
Carnivorous, feeding on flesh.
Caerier-pioeon, The, a poem by Moore,
Cashier (Fr. causer, to break), to dismiss
Castle-rl'ilding, forming visionary proj-
Castle of Indolence, the title of a celeoratecl
poem ty Thomson, written in the manner
Catacomrs (from the Greek words, kata,
Catsrill Mountains are in the vicinity of
Cenis, Mount, a mountain of the Alps in
Century (from the Latin centum, a hun-
Kindness to Brute Animals, 195. Best Kind of Revenge, 213. Sound and Sense, 236. Passage of Beresina, 326. Idleness, Jesting, &c, 370.
Common Errors, 408.
Described by Hazlitt, Grattan, 245, 6.
On Taxing America, 267.
Chapman, a trafficker, a cheapener.
Chaps (chops), the mouth of a beast.
Chapter (iroiu ihe Lat. caputs a head), a division of a hook or treatise; as Genesis contains fifty cdapters.
Chaelatan, a quack; from an Italian word, meaning to prate.
Chaelrmagxe (Shar-le-inan), King of the Franks, and subsequently Emperor of the West, was born 742, died 814. His name means Charles the Great. Although he did not know how to write, he was a friend to learning. See p. 395.
Chaeles the Twelfth of Sweden ; born 1682; killed by a cannon-ball, 1718. He was a military hero, who was lavish of human blood whenever his selfishness or ambition was to be gratified.
Chicanery (she-kan-er-y), trickery, by which a cause is delayed or perplexed.
Chillon (sinlloug), 142. See Bonnivard.
Chirouraphy (kirog'rafy), the art of writing; from the Gr. cheir, the hand, and grapho, I write.
Chucr, a wedge used to secure anything with, or for anything to rest on. The long-boat, when it is stowed, rests on two large chocks.
Cho'rgs, a number of singers; verses of a song, in which all present join.
Christendom, all the countries of the world, the people of which profess Christianity.
Christianity, Obligations to, 313.
born 106 B. C, murdered by soldiers
Compared with Demosthenes, 243. Extract from, 267. Cincinna'tus, a consul of ancient Rome j he was repeatedly taken from his plough and farm to assume the highest offices of the state. A society of American revolutionary officers took their name from him, calling themselves Cincinnati, whence the great city of Ohio has its name.
Circumference (from the Lat. circum, around, and fero, I carry), a line that bounds the space of a circle. Circumstance (from circum, around, and stans, standing), an incident, a state of affairs.
Civilization, Progress of, 338.
Classics (from the Latin class is). The Romans were divided into six classes, and classici was the name given to the first class; whence the best Greek and Roman authors have been, in modern times, called classics, that is, first-class writers.
Class Opinions; those of a certain set or class of mutual admirers and supporters, 72.
Clay, Henry, an American orator and statesman, born in Va. 1777, died 1852. For many years he represented Kentucky in Congress.
Extract from his Si*eches 271.
Cleave ; as used p. 265, this is an in. transitive verb, or one in which the action is confined to the agent, and does not pass over to an object.
Clerr ; the English pronunciation of this word (as if dark) is now repudiated. Clever, dexterous, expert; the meaning good-natured seems peculiar to America.
Cliff (now generally spelt clef), a character in music; from the L. clavis, a key. ObdE. With the ancient Romans that part of the wood of a tree next to the bark was called codex; and the laws written on this wood, smeared with wax, took its name; whence is our word code, a collection of laws. Cognac (kftn-yak), a French brandy. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, an English poet and philosopher, b. 1770, d. 1843. Translation from Schiller, by, 343. Colossal, gigantic, like a Colossus; an ancient statue of Apollo, which stood across the entrance of the harbor at Rhodes, being so called. It was of brass, one hundred and five feet high, so that ships could pass under its legs. Colosseum (col-os-se'um), The, 386. Collins, Wm., an English poet, b. 1720, d. 1756. His odes, written when he was quite young, show great genius. Ode to the Passions, 402. Columrus, Christopher, was born at Genoa, 1437 ; died 1506. See America. Comrustirle, capable of burning. Comet (from the Gr. koine, hair), a celes lal body, with a luminous train. Commons. In countries having kings and nobles, the common people, or their representatives, are thus called. Companion (from the Lat. commu'nis, common, and pan is, bread), literally, one with whom we share bread.» Con'cave, hollow j opposed to convex, spherical.
Conciergerie (kon-se-airzh'-re), the name of a prison in Paris.
Concise (from the Lat. conci'do, to cut down), brief, containing few words.
Concrete (Lat. concres-ce-re, to grow together, to coalesce in one mass). As an adj., formed by coalition of separate particles in one body. In logic, existing in a subject; not abstract; as the white snow. As a noun, a compound, a mass formed by concretion.
Confused. As used by Heywood, p. 294, the accent is on the first syllable. In his day, usage had not settled the accent of a large class of English words.
Congreve, Wm., an English dramatist and poet, b. 1672, d. 1729. His reputation, very great in his day, has deservedly dwindled. The Preacher who Failed, &c, 28«
Conjure ; when it means to call on solemnly (as on p. 372), the accent is on the last syllable ; when it means to affect by magic, or to practise the arts of a conjurer, tofl accent is on the first syllable.