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architecture is the art of building according to certain proportions and rules. A-re'na. A Latin word, originally meaning sand, but applied to that part of the amphitheatre in which the gladiators fought, which was covered with sand, »4.

Iyri'on, an ancient Greek bard and per-
former on the cithern, or gittern, a stringed -
instrument similar to the guitar. UkrWtrylC
being threatened by pirates at sea, he is
Sib led to have played on his cithern, and
then, with a prayer to the gods, to have
leaped into the sea, where a song-loving
dolphin received him on his back, and bore
him safely to the shore, 2'*5.

Arista R'chcs, the greatest critic of anti-
quity. He flourished B. C. 156. His
criticisms were so severe that his name
has become proverbial, 342. Aristotle, often called the Stagyrite, from
Staglra, a town of Macedonia, where he
was born, 384 B. C, was a pupil of
Plato and a preceptor of Alexander the
Great- lie was one of the most influen-
tial of the philosophers and writers of
ancient Greece, and a good part of his
works still exist. His doctrines are some-
times styled the Aristotelian philosophy.
He died 323 B. C. See p. 3U .

Arithmetic (Gr. arithmos, number), the science of numbers, 124.

Arndt, from the German of, 360.

Aryiculation explained, 14, 27.

Aside. In dramatic writing, a character is supposed to utter a remark aside when he does not mean that the other persons of the drama, who may be present,shall hear it.

Asinine (as'i-nlne), resembling an ass.

Ass. The Ass and the Lamb, 67.

Aspar'aous, a Greek word, meaning the first bud or sprout; now applied to a wellknown garden vegetable.

Assize (from a Latin word meaning to sit) is the periodical session held by the judges of the superior courts in the counties of England. The plural form, assizes, is popularly used.

Asthma (Gr. asthmaino, I breathe hard). A disease the leading symptom of which is difficulty of breathing.

Astonished (from the L. ad, to, and /ono, I thunder) means originally struck with thunder.

Astronomy (Gr. astron, a star, and nomos, a law). The science which treats of the celestial bodies. Astronomy and Immortality, 150, 224.

Asylum (Gr. a, without, sule, plunder). A place to which those who fled were free from harm; a sanctuary. The modern use of the word differs from the ancient.

Atheist (Gr. a, without, theos, God). One who madly denies the existence of a God. "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God." Take away this belief in God wholly from man,— let 1 im have been subjected to none of the influences from society and his fellow-men which the belief produces,— and "the man will have

vanished, and you have Insteal a cre*V lire more subtle than any beast of th« field; upon the belly must it go, and dust must it eat all the days uf its life." Athens, the most celebrated city of Greece, once the great world metropolis of philosophy and art ; mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. It is the capital of the modern kingdom of Greece, 128. Sf'mOSPHRrE (Gr. atmos, vapor, and sphai ro.v, ,a sphere). The fluid which surrounds the earth, and consists of air and vapor of water. The air is composed of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen, mixed in the proportion of one of the former to four of the latter. Animals cannot live in nitrogen, nor can flame burn in it, separated from oxygen. See pp. 206, 362, 404.

Atune. To be, or cause to be, at one; to reconcile; to make amends.
Auduron, John James, a native of Louisi-
ana, and celebrated for his published col-
lection of drawings, under the title of the
"Birds of America." He was educated in
art at Paris, under the great painter
David. Died 1851. Disappearance of Indians, 302.
Auoust. The eighth month of the year; so named from
Auoustus Caesar, the first Roman emperor.
He was born B. C. 63. Literature and
the arts flourished remarkably under his

Aurora. In the ancient Mythology the goddess of the morning.
Autumn. This word is said to be derived
from the Latin auctum, increased, be
cause the wealth of man is augmented by
the fruits of harvest.
Poetry of Autumn, 374.
Avalanche (from the French avaler, to
descend). A mass of snow sliding down a
Average, a mean number, or quantity.

Barel, or Babylon, an ancient city and
province of Asia, on the Euphrates. The
city was probably on the site of the famous tower of Babel; and its present ruins
consist of fused masses of brick-work, &c
It stood on a large plain; and its walls
formed an exact square, each side of
which was fifteen miles long. There were
one hundred gates, twenty-five in each of
the four sides, all of which were of solid
brass, as Isaiah bears witness, ch. 45. v.
2. "I will break in pieces the gates of
brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron."
Babylon was taken by Cyrus, the Persian
monarch, B. C. 53S; and the Babylonian
empire was destroyed, as the prophets
Isaiah and Jeremiah had predicted. Cyrus, who was the destined conqueror of
Babylon, was foretold by name above
one hundred years before he was born-
Isaiah 45: 1—4. See pp. 164, 217.
Bapchanal, a drunken reveller from Bac-
chus, the deity of wine.
Bacon, Francis, Lord, was born in Londoq
in 1561 i died 1626. He was a great


i \' EXPLANATORY INDEX. 449philosopher, and the most learned man of his day; but his career teaches the moral
lesson that the tree of knowledge is not the
tree of life. He held the office of High
Chancellor, but showed himself morally
unfit for it, 312

Baillih, Joanna, n'stinguished as a dramat-
ic writer ; b. in Scotland, 1705; d. 1850.
First Voyage of Columbus, by, 191.

Bajazrt, a warlike but tyrannical Sultan of
Turkey, who succeeded to the throne in
1389, having strangled his rival brother.
He died 1403. See p. 255.

Bancroft, Geo., extract from, 193.

Banyan. A very large tree of India. It
sends down roots from its branches, and
those roots, striking into the ground, them-
selves become trunks.
Lines on, by T. Moore, 311.

Bar, to prevent, obstruct.

Ba'shan. In scriptural geography, the
land east of the Jordan, and north of Gil-
ead; celebrated for its rich soil and fat
cattle, especially its breed of bulls.

Bastile (basteel'), a noted fortress in Paris,
built in the fourteenth century, and de-
stroyed by the populace in 1789. See
p. 60.

Bayonet, So called from having been first
made at Bayonne, in France.

Bats, the plural of bay, the laurel-tree ; ap-
plied to a crown or garland bestowed on
warlike or literary merit.
- Beadle (from the root of to bid), a messen-
ger; in England a parish officer, whose
business is to punish petty offenders.

B. C. These initials attached to dates sig-
nify " before Christ."

Brgcine. The Beguines were a class of
women in Germany and the Netherlands,
of pious and secluded habits, similar to
the nuns, except that they took no vows.

Belay, a nautical term, meaning to fasten
or make fast, as a rope.

Bellio'erent (from the Lat. bellum, war,
and gero, I carry on), waging war.

Bell. The derivation of this word is curi-
ous j it is from the Anglo-Saxon bellan,
to bellow.

Brlvidrrr (from the Lat. bellus, fine, and
video, I see). In Italy this name is given
to the cupolas on palaces, from which a
fine prospect may be had. It is also the
name of a part of the Vatican (the ancient
palace of the Popes in Rome), where the
famous statue of Apollo, known under
the name of lielvidere, is placed. This
Statue is believed to be the most perfect
ever made. The artist's name is un-
known. In Italian the word is pro-
nounced in four syllables, Bel-ve-da'-re. Benefactor (from the L. bene, well, and
factor, a doer), one who confers a bene-

Bengal' (the a as in fall) is the most east-
ern province of Hindustan', lying on each
side of the (ranges.

Beresina (Her-e-ze'na), a river of Russia.
The Passage of, by the French, ^26.

Brs'tiary, one who fought with wild beasts
at the ancient spectacles.

Beautiful, The, a poem, 281.
Ministry of the, 317.

Billets, pieces of wood, cut with a bill, or
beaked axe, so called from its resemblance
to the bill of a bird.

Bivouac (blv'wak). This word is derived
from the Lat. bis, twice, and the German
tvache, a guard, and signified originally a
guard to keep watch during the night.
To bivouac is to remain as a guard all
night, without tents or covering. The
word is sometimes spelled with a final k.

Blacrstone, Sir Wm., an eminent lawyer,
b. at London 1723, d. 1780. His " Com-
mentaries on the Laws of England" is
still a legal text-book.

Boatswain (in seamen's language bft'sn),
an officer on board of certain ships, who
has charge of the rigging, boats, &c.

Board of Health. The term board is ap
plied to any body of individuals intrusted,
for public or private purposes, with the
management of any business or specula-
tion. It is the province of the Board of
Health in cities to provide against con-
tagious diseases, &c.

Bodleian. The library of Oxford, England,
under this name, is so called from Sir
Thomas Bodley, who died in 1612, and
who did much for its foundation.

Bomrast. This word is of the same origin
as bombasin, and once meant linen sewed
together with flax between, to swell it
out. Hence it was applied to a tumid,
inflated style, in which sound predomi-
nates over sense.

Bonaparte, Napoleon, was born in Corsica,
an island in the Mediterranean, belonging
to France, on the fifteenth August, 1769
He was at the military school of Brierma
from 1779 to 1784, when he went to Paris.
In 1786 he commenced his military career,
which was the most wonderful of modern
times. In 1804 he became Emperor of
France. After remarkable reverses, he
was defeated by the allied armies under
Wellington, at Waterloo, June 18, 1815.
He surrendered himself to an English
squadron, and was brought to Plymouth,
whence he was removed to St. Helfi'na, a
barren island in the Atlantic Ocean, where
he died May 5th, 1821.
An Early Riser, 226.
Character of, by Lamartine, 393.
Napoleon as a Student, 396.

Bonnivard, Francois de, b. 1496, d. 1570,
was the prior of a convent near Geneva,
in Switzerland, and one of the most stren-
uous supporters of the liberty of his coun
try. He was seized and imprisoned by
the Duke of Savoy in the castle of Chillon,
at the eastern extremity of the Lake of
Geneva, where he remained from 1529
till 1536, when he was liberated by his
countrymen. The traces left by his steps
on the pavement of his cell are still seen.
Account of, by A. Dumas, 142.

Boni'm, the Latin for good; summum
bonum, the chief good.

Bonus, a premium for a privilege.

Boors. The inner bark of trees was a»oe

need for writing on. In England, many

hundred years ago, people used to write upou the bark of the beech-tree, which they called boc. We have not changed the word much. See Library. Thoughts on Books, 397.

Room (from the Danish bomme, a drum), to make a noise like the roar of the waves, or a distant gun. Boons (from the Lat. bonus, or Fr. &on), a gift, a favor.

Boulogne (Boo-lon'), a seaport of France on the English Channel.

Bouquet (boo-ka'), a nosegay.

Bow, the curved part of a ship forward. When it has this meaning it is pronounced Bo as to rhyme with cow.

Bo Wring, John- his translation of Derzhavin's ode, 153. True Courage, by, 242.

Brahmin, the highest or priestly class, among the Hindoos.

Brave Man, The,.translated from the German of Burger, 165.

Brazier, an artificer in brass.

Brewster, Sir David, an eminent philosopher of Scotland, b. 1781. He was the inventor of that optical toy, the Kaleidoscope.

Barbarism of War, by, 303.

Bridewell, a house of correction for disorderly persons ; so called from the palace near Bridget's well in London, which was turned into a work-house.

Broore, Henry. The Lion, &c, by, 139.

Broors, C. T., Translations by, 83, 412. Brougham, Henry, Lord, distinguished as a statesman, man of letters, and philosopher; born in Scotland. He entered Parliament in 1810. On Science, by, 441. The Schoolmaster Abroad, by. 269. On the Pleasures of Science, 441.

Browne, J. R., The Whale Chase, by, 400.

Bruce, Robert, one of the most heroic of the Scottish kings, and the deliverer of Scotland from the English yoke; b. 1274, d. 1329.

Bruin, a familiar name given to the bear, from the Fr. brun, brown.

Brutus, Lucius Junius, known as the first Brutus, received his surname of Brutus, or brute, from feigning idiocy in order to escape the tyranny of Tarquin, a king of ancient Rome. Lucretia, a lady of great purity, having been grossly abused by Sextus Tarquin, Brutus threw off his pretended idiocy, and roused the Romans to expel their king and establish a republic. As consul, he afterwards sentenced his two sons to death for crimes against their country. See p. 308. Marcus Junius Brutus, celebrated by Shakspearc, was a descendant of the first Brutus, 350.

Bryant, Wm. Cullen, an eminent American poet, b. in Cummington, Mass., Nov. 3, 1794.

Extracts from, 178, 205, 257, 338. The Hurricane, by, 211.

-November, by, 375. Buffon, born 1707, died 1788; a famous naturalist, the eloquence of whose style gave a charm to his scientific works. He

was very methodical in his time ; bat there is not much to praise in his private char actor. 226. Buot (from bois, the French for wood), a piece of wood floating on the water, to indicate shoals, &c. The adjective buoyant has the same origin. Burger, Godfrey Augustus, b. 1748, d. 1794; a German poet, celebrated for his spurted ballads.

The Brave Man, by, 165. Burre, Edmund, a writer, orator, and statesman, of great eminence. Born in Ireland, 1780 ; died 1797. He was one of the greatest masters of English style; an amiable and religious man in private life, and exemplary in his domestic and social duties. See character of, by Hazlitt, and Grattan, 245, 246. Extracts from his Speeches, 146, 268, 269.

Burnet, Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury, was born in Scotland, 1643 ; d. 1714. He was the author of a History of the Reformation. 226. Buerington, E. H., Lines by, 264. Burton, W., Learning to Write, 87. Bushmen. A name given by the Dutch colonists to some roaming tribes akin to the Hottentots, in the vicinity of the Cape of Good Hope. They are of a dark copper complexion, and small in stature. So deep are they sunk in barbarism, as to be unacquainted even with the construction of huts or tents, 119. By and By. The proverb, p. 64, IT 2, is directed against the habit of procrastination; of putting off what ought be done at once till " by and by." Byron, Lord George Gordon, an English nobleman, of great but misapplied talents. He was born in the year 1788, and died in Greece, in 1824. See p. 148. Ambition, by, 100. The Guilty Conscience, 258. Ancient Greece, 310. A Storm on the Mountains, 333. The Colosseum, by, 388.

Carinet, in politics, the governing council of a country ; so called from the cabinet or apartment in which the Chief Magistrate transacts public business, and assembles his privy council. In the United States the members of the President's Cabinetare the Secretaries of State, of the Treasury, of War, of the Navy, the Interior, the Postmaster General, and the Attorney General.

Cadi (in Arabic, a judge). The Turks style their inferior judges Cadi.

Ca'lyn, a Gieek word, signifying a cup. It is the name given by botanists to the outermost of the enveloping organs of a flower.

Calarria, the southern part of the kingdom of Naples; traversed throughout by the Apennine Mountains. Adventure in Calabria, 305. Camera Obscura, or Dark Chamber, is an optical apparatus, by which the images i of external objects are thrown on a white surface, and represented in a vivid man-
ner in their proper colors, shapes, &c.

Camilla, n ancient mythology, one of the
swift-footed ser rants of Diana, accustomed
to the chase and to war.

Campaona (kam-pan'-ya, the a pronounced
like a in father), a term applied to the
low lands of the Tiber about Home in Italy.
The word simply means a flat, open
country. The Roman Campagna is quite
unhealthy at certain seasons.

Camprell, Thomas, a great lyrical poet
(see Lyrical), was born in Glasgow, Scofc
land, in 1777; died 1844. He wrote his fine
poem of "The Pleasures of Hope" when
only twenty-two years of age.
Jr. "Pleasures of Hope," 309, 412,
310. Lord ITIlin's Daughter, 276.

Canaan (Ca'nan), all that tract of land, on
each side of the Jordan in Palestine, which
God gave for an inheritance to the chil-
dren of Israel.

Cana'ries, thirteen islands in the Atlantic
Ocean, about sixty miles from the west
coast of North Africa; known to the
ancients as the Fortunate Isles. They
were re-discovered in 1402, and seized by
the Spaniards in 1420, who planted vines
there. The canary-bird is a native of
these isles.

Candor, from the Latin word candere, to
be white, to shine, to glitter; hence sin-
cerity, purity. The word candle is of the
same genealogy.

Candles, candlestick. See Candor.

Can'nibal, a person that devours human
flesh. The word is probably of Indian

Canning, George, a highly accomplished
orator and writer, born in London in 1770,
died in 1827. See p. 270.

-capacity (from the L. capio, I hold, or
take), the power of containing or taking.

Cape (from the L. caput, the head), a point
or head of land projecting from the main-
land into a sea or lake.

Car'icaturr (from the Italian caricare,to
charge, to load), a distorted, exaggerated
likeness of any thing or person.

Carlyle, Thomas, an eccentric writer, born
in Scotland in 1796. His style, at first
simple and eloquent, latterly became af-
fected and grotesque, though often vigor-
ous. The Sword and Press, by, 255.
.carnival (from two Latin words, carni and
valt, meaning, farewell to Jlesk), a fes-
tival celebrated with merriment and
revelry in Roman Catholic countries, dur-
ing the week before Lent.

Carnivorous, feeding on flesh.

Caerier-pioeon, The, a poem by Moore,
137. The carrier-pigeon flies at an ele-
vated pitch, in order to surmount every
obstacle between her and the place to
which she is destined.

Cashier (Fr. causer, to break), to dismiss
from service.

Castle-rl'ilding, forming visionary proj-
ects ; building castles in the air," 71

Castle of Indolence, the title of a celeoratecl

poem ty Thomson, written in the manner
of Spenser, and containing many obsolete
words. Cass, Lewis, On Labor, 427.

Catacomrs (from the Greek words, kata,
down, and kumbos, a hollow), a cave for
the burial of the dead. Catiline, a Roman of great talents, but dis-
solute habits. He conspired against his
country, and was denounced by Cicero in
his most celebrated oration.

Catsrill Mountains are in the vicinity of
Catskill, Green county, N. Y., on the
Hudson. They received their name from
the great number of catamounts formerly
killed there, 111. Cavern by the Sea, The, 183. Cecilia. There are several saints of this
name in the Catholic church. The most
celebrated, who has been erroneously re-
garded as the inventressof the organ, suf-
fered martyrdom A. D. 220. How Cecilia
came to be the patron-saint of music is not
agreed. ¥ fOde on Cecilia's Day, 416." ^'

Cenis, Mount, a mountain of the Alps in
Savoy. It is eight thousand six hundred
and seventy feet above the level of the

Century (from the Latin centum, a hun-
dred), in a general sense, anything con-
sisting of a hundred parts; a period of a
hundred years.
Chalmers, Thomas, a celebrated Scotch
divine, born 1780, died 1847.
Planets and Heavenly Bodies, 224.
Ministry of the Beautiful, 317.
Chamrers, Robert, a distinguished Scottish
writer and publisher, born 1801.
Complaint of a Stomach, 157.
Self-killing, 171.

Kindness to Brute Animals, 195. Best Kind of Revenge, 213. Sound and Sense, 236. Passage of Beresina, 326. Idleness, Jesting, &c, 370.

Common Errors, 408.
Channing, Wm, Ellery, a celebrated Ameri-
can clergyman and writer, born at New-
port, R. I., 1780; died 1842. On the Teacher's Calling, 186. The Free Mind, 277. Effects of Irreligion, 316. The Worth of Books, 398.
Chase on the Ice, 131.
Chatham, Wm. Pitt, Earl of (or Lord), was
one of the greatest orators and statesmen
of England, and a stanch friend of the
American colonies in their difficulties with
the British government. He was born
1708, died 1778.

Described by Hazlitt, Grattan, 245, 6.

On Taxing America, 267.
Cha-ms'-leon, a species of lizard, found ia
Asia and Africa. It has the remarkable
power of changing its ^olor, producing a
succession of rich and varied tints over
the whole body. On this peculiarity
Merrick's admirable fable (see p. 413) ia

Chapman, a trafficker, a cheapener.

Chaps (chops), the mouth of a beast.

Chapter (iroiu ihe Lat. caputs a head), a division of a hook or treatise; as Genesis contains fifty cdapters.

Chaelatan, a quack; from an Italian word, meaning to prate.

Chaelrmagxe (Shar-le-inan), King of the Franks, and subsequently Emperor of the West, was born 742, died 814. His name means Charles the Great. Although he did not know how to write, he was a friend to learning. See p. 395.

Chaeles the Twelfth of Sweden ; born 1682; killed by a cannon-ball, 1718. He was a military hero, who was lavish of human blood whenever his selfishness or ambition was to be gratified.

Chicanery (she-kan-er-y), trickery, by which a cause is delayed or perplexed.

Chillon (sinlloug), 142. See Bonnivard.

Chirouraphy (kirog'rafy), the art of writing; from the Gr. cheir, the hand, and grapho, I write.

Chucr, a wedge used to secure anything with, or for anything to rest on. The long-boat, when it is stowed, rests on two large chocks.

Cho'rgs, a number of singers; verses of a song, in which all present join.

Christendom, all the countries of the world, the people of which profess Christianity.

Christianity, Obligations to, 313.
Chronom'eter (Gr. chronos, time, and metros, measure), an instrument to measure time with great exactnt
Chum, a chamber-fellow.
Ciceeo, the most famous of Roman orators

born 106 B. C, murdered by soldiers

B. C.

Compared with Demosthenes, 243. Extract from, 267. Cincinna'tus, a consul of ancient Rome j he was repeatedly taken from his plough and farm to assume the highest offices of the state. A society of American revolutionary officers took their name from him, calling themselves Cincinnati, whence the great city of Ohio has its name.

Circumference (from the Lat. circum, around, and fero, I carry), a line that bounds the space of a circle. Circumstance (from circum, around, and stans, standing), an incident, a state of affairs.

Civilization, Progress of, 338.

Classics (from the Latin class is). The Romans were divided into six classes, and classici was the name given to the first class; whence the best Greek and Roman authors have been, in modern times, called classics, that is, first-class writers.

Class Opinions; those of a certain set or class of mutual admirers and supporters, 72.

Clay, Henry, an American orator and statesman, born in Va. 1777, died 1852. For many years he represented Kentucky in Congress.

Extract from his Si*eches 271.

Cleave ; as used p. 265, this is an in. transitive verb, or one in which the action is confined to the agent, and does not pass over to an object.

Clerr ; the English pronunciation of this word (as if dark) is now repudiated. Clever, dexterous, expert; the meaning good-natured seems peculiar to America.

Cliff (now generally spelt clef), a character in music; from the L. clavis, a key. ObdE. With the ancient Romans that part of the wood of a tree next to the bark was called codex; and the laws written on this wood, smeared with wax, took its name; whence is our word code, a collection of laws. Cognac (kftn-yak), a French brandy. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, an English poet and philosopher, b. 1770, d. 1843. Translation from Schiller, by, 343. Colossal, gigantic, like a Colossus; an ancient statue of Apollo, which stood across the entrance of the harbor at Rhodes, being so called. It was of brass, one hundred and five feet high, so that ships could pass under its legs. Colosseum (col-os-se'um), The, 386. Collins, Wm., an English poet, b. 1720, d. 1756. His odes, written when he was quite young, show great genius. Ode to the Passions, 402. Columrus, Christopher, was born at Genoa, 1437 ; died 1506. See America. Comrustirle, capable of burning. Comet (from the Gr. koine, hair), a celes lal body, with a luminous train. Commons. In countries having kings and nobles, the common people, or their representatives, are thus called. Companion (from the Lat. commu'nis, common, and pan is, bread), literally, one with whom we share bread.» Con'cave, hollow j opposed to convex, spherical.

Conciergerie (kon-se-airzh'-re), the name of a prison in Paris.

Concise (from the Lat. conci'do, to cut down), brief, containing few words.

Concrete (Lat. concres-ce-re, to grow together, to coalesce in one mass). As an adj., formed by coalition of separate particles in one body. In logic, existing in a subject; not abstract; as the white snow. As a noun, a compound, a mass formed by concretion.

Confused. As used by Heywood, p. 294, the accent is on the first syllable. In his day, usage had not settled the accent of a large class of English words.

Congreve, Wm., an English dramatist and poet, b. 1672, d. 1729. His reputation, very great in his day, has deservedly dwindled. The Preacher who Failed, &c, 28«

Conjure ; when it means to call on solemnly (as on p. 372), the accent is on the last syllable ; when it means to affect by magic, or to practise the arts of a conjurer, tofl accent is on the first syllable.

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