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Cxxxii. Cromwell's Expulsion Of The Parliament,


1. At this eventful moment, big with the most important consequences both to himself and his country, whatever were the workings of Cromwell's" mind, he had the art to conceal them from the eyes of the beholders. Leaving the military in the lobby, he entered the Parliament" House, and composedly seated himself on one of the outer benches. His dress was a plain suit of black cloth, with gray worsted stockings. For a while he seemed to listen with interest to the debate; but when the speaker was going to put the question, he whispered to Harrison, "This is the time; I must do it;" and, rising, put oft his hat to address the house.

2. At first his language was decorous, and even laudatory. Gradually he became more warm and animated. At last he assumed all the ve'hemence of passion, and indulged in personal vituperation. He charged the members with self-seeking and profaneness, with the frequent denial of justice, and numerous acts of oppression; with idolizing the lawyers, the constant advocates of tyranny; with neglecting the men who had bled for them in the field, that they might gain the Presbyterians, who had apostatized" from the cause; and with doing all this in order to perpetuate their own power, and to replenish their own purses. But their time was come; the Lord had disowned them; He had chosen more worthy instruments to perform His work.

3. Here the orator was interrupted by Sir Peter Wentworth, who declared that he had never heard language so unparliamentary, — language, too, the more offensive, because it was addressed to them by their own servant, whom they had made what he was. At these words, Cromwell put on his hat, and, springing from his place, exclaimed, "Come, come, sir, I will put an end to your prating!" For a few seconds, apparently in the most violent agitation, he paced forward and backward, and then, stamping on the floor, added, " You are no parliament! I say you are no parliament! Bring them in, bring them in!" Instantly the door opened, and Colonel Worsley entered, followed by more than twenty musketeers.

4. "This," cried Sir Henry Vane,"" is not honest; it is against morality and common honesty." — " Sir Henry Vane," replied Cromwell; "O, Sir Henry Vane! The Lord deliver me from Sir Henry Vane! He might have prevented this. But he is a juggler and has not common honesty himself!" From Vane he directed his discourse to Whitelock, on whom he poured a torrent of abuse, then pointing to Chaloner, "There," he cried, " sits a drunkard;" and afterwards selecting different members in succession, he describDd them as dishonest and corrupt livers, a shame and scandal to the profession of the gospel. Suddenly however, checking himself, he turned to the guard, and ordered them to clear the house. At these words, Colonel Harrison took the Speaker by the hand, and led him from the chair; Algernon Sydney was next compelled to quit his seat; and the other members, eighty in number, on the approach of the military, rose and moved towards the door. , ^

5. Cromwell now resumed his discourse. "It is you," he exclaimed, " that have forced me to do this. I have sought the Lord both day and night, that He would rather slay me than put me on the doing of this work." Alderman Allan took advantage of these words to observe that it was not yet too late to undo what had been done; but Cromwell instantly charged him with peculation,1' and gave him into custody. When all were gone, fixing his eye on the mace," " What," said he, " shall we do with this fool's bauble? Here, carry it away." Then, taking the act of dissolution from the clerk, he ordered the doors to be locked, and, accompanied by the military, returned to Whitehall.

6. That afternoon the members of the Council assembled in their usual place of meeting. Bradshaw had just taken the chair, when the Lord-general entered, and told them that if they were there as private individuals, they were welcome; but if as the Council of State, they must know that the parliament was dissolved, and with it also the Council. "Sir," replied Bradshaw, with the spirit of an ancient Boman, " we have heard what you did at the house this morning, and, before many hours all England will know it. But, sir, you are mistaken to think that the parliament is dissolved. No power under heaven can dissolve them but themselves; therefore, take you notice of that."

7. After this protest they withdrew. Thus, by the parricidal hands of its own children, perished the Long Parliament, which, under a variety of forms, had, for more than twelve years, defended and invaded the liberties of the nation. It fell without a struggle or a groan, unpitied and unregretted. The members slunk away to their homes, where they sought by submission to purchase the forbearance of their new master; and their partisans— if partisans they had — reserved themselves in silence for a day of retribution, which came not before Cromwell slept io bis grave Lingard.


, The shades of night were falling fast
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, 'mid allow and ioe,
"A banner with the strange device,

His brow was sad; his eye beneath
Flashed like"a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of thafunknown tongue,

3. In happy homes he saw the light

Of household fires gleam warm and bright,
Above, the spectral glaciers* shone,
A"nd from his lipFescaped a groan,
Excelsior! *» **

4 "Try not the pass!" the old man said,
"Dark lowers tTie tempest overhead,""
Thefoaring torrent is deep and wtfle!"
And loud that clarion voice replied,
* Excelsior!

5. "Beware the pine-tree's withered branch!
Beware the awful avalanche ! '.'
This was the peasant's last.good-night, —
A voice replied, far up the height,

6. At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of St. Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,

7. A traveller, by the faithful hound,
Half buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner, with the strange device

8. There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,

Excelsior' Longfellow. CXXXIV. — APOLOGUES IN VERSE.

The Preacher Who Failed In Practice. Congreve

I've read, or heard, a learned person onee,
Concerned to find his only son a dunce,
Composed a book in favor of the lad,
Whose memory, it seems, was very bad.
This work contained a world of wholesome rules
To help the frailty of forgetful fools.
The careful parent laid the treatise by,
Till time should make it proper to apply.
. Simon at length the looked-for age attams
To read and profit by his father's pains;
And now the sire prepares the book to impart,
Which was ycleped," " Of Memory the Art."
But, ah! how oft is human care in vain!
For now he could not find his book again:
The place where he had laid it he'd forgot,
Nor could himself remember what he wrote.

2. The Silent Teacher Of Humanity. Fratzel.

As evening clothed the world again in shadows,

A sultan walked with proud and stately pace, And, midst his groves of palm, and vines, and aloes,

Looked suddenly a dervis" in the face, Who.calmly sat, m earnest contemplation

And lost in thought, upon the mossy ground; It seemed to be his only occupation

To turn a human skull around and round. The sultan at this meeting was surprised,

And coldly asked, with an expressive mien, As if the humble thinker he despised,

What in the empty bone was to be seen. "I found, my liege, when day was scarcely breaking,

Replied the priest, " the skull you here behold;
But, howsoe'er my brains I've since been raking,

Cannot succeed its problem to unfold.
What, spite of all my thoughts and calculation,

I cannot fathom, sire, is simply this:
Did a proud sultan own this decoration,

Or a poor dervis only call it his?"

3. Justice And The Oyster. Pope.

Once (says an author, where, I need not say),
Two travellers found an oyster in their way;
Both fierce, both hungry, the dispute grew strong,
While, scale in hand, dame Justice passed along; —-
Before her each with clamor pleads the laws,
Explains the matter and would win the cause.
Dame Justice, weighing long the doubtful right,
Takes, opens, swallows it, before their sight;
The cause of strife, removed so rarely well,
There take, says Justice, take you each a shell.
We thrive at Westminster" on fools like you;
'T was a fat oyster, live in peace; adieu


1. Basis Of Our Political System. Geo. Washington.

The basis of our political system is, the right of the people to make and to alter their constitutions of government; but, the constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government. All obstructions to the execution of the laws,— all combinations and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract,.or awe, the regular deliberations and action of the constituted authorities,—are destructive of this fundamental principle, and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize faction, to give it an artificial and extraordmary force, to put in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of party, often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous proj'ects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans, digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests.

2. A Republic The Strongest Government. Jefferson.

I know, indeed, that some honest men fear that a republican government cannot be strong,— that this government is not strong enough. But would the honest patriot, in the full tide of suo cessful experimont, abandon a government which has so far kept us free and firm, on the theoretic and visionary fear that this government — the world's best hope — may, by possibility, want energy to preserve itself? I trust not; I believe this, on the contrary, the strongest government on earth; I believe it the only one where every man, at the call of the law, would fly to

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