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1. That 02 i in pine, dine, Ac. 3. That of ou in house, south, Ac

2. " u cube, mute, &o. 4 " oi " voice, noise, &0

COMPOUND CONSONANT SOUNDS. 1. That of ch in cAest (aspirate). 2. That of j invest (vocal).


22. As far as the representation of sounds is concerned, the letters c, q and x, are redundant (more than enough). C expresses only what is as well expressed by either s or k. The words city and can are pronounced sity and kan respectively. Q is only kw (or cw), and x is only ks (or cs). The words queen and box are pronounced cween (or kween) and boks (or bocks, or bocs) respectively. In the words Philip and fillip a single sound has a double sign. _


23. Six of the simple, elementary sounds have no sign or letter corresponding to them in the English alphabet. These six sounds are, — 1. The u in but. This is expressed by the letter u the proper sound of which is to express the vowel sound in words like bull. 2. The th in thin. 8. The th in fAine. 4. The sound of the sh in sAine. 5. The sound of z in azure. 6. The sound of the ng in Mng.

Questions.—11. What are the Vowels? 12. What do you understand by Cognate Consonant Sounds? the Aspirate letter? the Liquids? the redundant signs? 13, 14. What other classifications are there of Consonant Sounds? 15. What is a Diphthong? Name the distinction between a proper and improper diphthong. What is a Triphthong . 16. What is a Letter? 17. What is the peculiarity of Consonant Sounds? Why are they so called? Why are Vowels so called? 18. Name the distinction. 19. What is meant by explosive Consonant Sounds? What by continuous? 20. How are elementary sounds classified? 21. Name the Compound Vowel Sounds. The Compound Consonant Sounds. 22. What do you understand by the word redundant? What are the redundant letters of the English Alphabet.' 23. What the deficient f



24. A.—It has been seen that a represents four elementary sounds: 1. The ancient or Italian sound, as in father. 2. The short sound, as in mat. 3. The long sound, as in mate. 4. The broad sound, as in full. These sounds are variously modified, according to their combinations with other sounds; as in the following words: liar, care, what, many.

25. The sound of a interchanges with o in salt, wash, &c, where the a has nearly the sound of o in not. It interchanges with the sound usually represented by short e in many, any, says, &c. The change from a to e takes place most especially before I, as in wall, call. When the liquid I is followed by another Consonant, the I is generally sunk in the pronunciation, as in faicon, sa/mon, pronounced/aucon, sammon.

26. JE, an Improper Diphthong, is borrowed from the Latin, in which language it is always long. In English it is used only in words of Latin origin or formation; and it is sometimes long, as in pSan, and sometimes short, as in c&tera.

27. Ai, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long a, as in pail; to short a, in plaid, raillery; and sometimes to short e, as in said, again, against. It has the sound of long i in aisle, and of short i in fountain, curtain, &c.

28. An, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to broad a in cause, and sometimes to the/talian a, as in aunt, and to long a in gauge. In hautboy (the t mute) it has the sound of long o. Aw, an Improper Diphthong, has the sound of broad a, as in maw. Ay, a Proper Diphthong in the word ay, is elsewhere an Improper Diphthong, and is equivalent to long a as in day, except in quay, which is pronounced ke.

29. E.— E represents two elementary sounds, the Fifth and the Sixth. 1. The long sound, as in mete. 2. The short sound, as in met. It has an obtuse sound in her. It is sometimes equivalent to long a, as in there, where; but were is properly pronounced toer (the e as in her). E is sometimes equivalent to short i, as in England.

30. Before an unaccented final syllable, when it precedes I or n,e sometimes has an indistinct, short sound, and is sometimes suppressed altogether. It is sounded in chapel, flannel, travel, chicken, vessel, kitchen, sudden, woollen, &c.; and it is suppressed in drivel, gravel, heaven, &c. At the end of words it is always mute, except in monosyllables which have no other vowels, and in some proper names, as Tempe, Lethe, &c.

31. The sound of e is generally suppressed in the preterites of verbs, and in participles, in ed, when the e is not preceded by d or t; as feared, praised, tossed, &c, pronounced feard, praisd, tost. In poetry, the sound of the e is sometimes retained ; and to signify this, it may have over it the mark of the Dite'rZsis (a Greek word, meaning division or separation), as in praised, blessed, which when thus marked ought to be pronounced as words of two syllables. The acute or grave accent is sometimes used for the same purpose.

32. Ea, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in tea; to short e, as in head ; to long a, as in break; to the Italian a, as in heart, hearth, &c. Ee, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in cel. Ei, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long a, as in veil; to long e, as in deceit; to long i, as in height; to short i, as in surfeit; and to short e, as in heifer.

33. Eo, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in people ; to Short e, as in leopard , to long o, as in yeoman ; and to short o, as in George. Eu and eu1 (except, according to Walker, when preceded by r) have the diphthongal sound of u, as in feud, dew. In sew, shew, and strew, ew sounds like long o.

34. Ey has the sound of long a, as in eyry. In key it has the sound of long e; and, when unaccented, it has the slight sound of e, as in galley, valley. Eye is equivalent to i. Eau has the sound of long o, as in beau; in beauty and its compounds, it has the sound of long u.

35. L—7 represents two sounds: 1. The diphthongal, sometimes called the long sound, as in pine. 2. The Seventh elementary sound, called the short sound, as in pit. Before r this is equivalent to short u, as in thirst. It is sometimes equivalent to long e, as in machine.

36. I, unaccented, readily blends with the succeeding Vowel, as in motion, physician, concession. Ie, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long i, as in die; to long e, as in fiend ; to short i, as in sieve ; and to short e, as in friend. In terminations, like twentieth, in fiery, in Orient, the Vowels should be separated in the pronunciation; also in variegate. leu and ieio, Triphthongs, have the sound of long u, as in lieu, review.

37. 0.— O represents two elementary sounds, namely, the Eighth and the Ninth: 1. The long, as in note. 2. The short, as in not. O is sometimes equivalent to oo, as in prove, and to u short, as in love, and to broad a, as in lord, and to short i in women, and to the u in full, as in wolf. When long, oo represents the Eleventh elementary sound.

38. Oa, an Improper Diphthong, is sometimes equivalent to long o, as in coal, boat, coat, soap, &c.; or to broad a, as in broad. Oe, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent sometimes to long o, as in foe, or to oo, as in canoe, or to long e, as in fetus. Oi is a Proper Diphthong, and equivalent to oy, except in tortoise, pronounced tor'liz, choir, pronounced kwir.

39. Ou is a Proper Diphthong. It is the most irregular in the language. It has the sound of short u in enough, country, flourish, &c.; the sound of oo in soup, group, tournament, uncouth, &c.; the sound of long o in though, soul, court, source, pour, &c.; the sound of short aui in cough, trough, &c.; the sound of broad a in ought, thought, &c.

40. U.— U represents three sounds: 1. The long or diphthongal, as in cube, mule, dupe, fume, student, due, stupid, constitution, resolution, &o. 2. The Tenth elementary sound, as in bull. 3. The Twelfth elementary sound, as in but. It is also equivalent to short i in busy, and to short e in bury. After r, long u has the sound of o in move; as rule.

41. Ua, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to the Italian a in guard; to short a, as in guarantee; to long a, or wa, in persuade. Ue is equivalent to long u, as in hue; to short e, as in guest; and is sometimes mute, as in league, antique, demagogue.

42. Ui, an Improper Diphthong, has the sound of long i, as in guide , rf short i, as in conduit; of long u, as in juice. Uy, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long i, as in buy.

43 W.— W, from being partly a Vowel and partly a Consonant in ita RELATIONS OF CONSONANTS TO ELEMENTARY SOUNDS. 21


ase, may be called a Semi-vowel. It has nearly the sound of oo, and represents the Thirteenth elementary sound, as in wet. With o and e it forms Diphthongs, as in now, new. It is always mute before r; as in write, wrist. It is often joined to o at the end of a syllable without affecting the sound, as in grow.

44. Y.— Y, from being partly a Vowel and partly a Consonant, may be called a Semi-vowel. It represents the Fourteenth elementary sound, as in yet. It is equivalent to u, as in youth ; to long i, as in cypress ; to short t, as in synod, tyranny, &c.; to short u, as in myrrh.

Questions.— 24, 25. What are the elementary sounds of the letter a 7 When does the sound of a most usually change to o? How do you pronounce f-a-l-c-o-n, a^d B-a-/-m-o-n 7 26. What is m 7 27. Ai 7 To what sounds equivalent? 28. Au 7 av- 7 ay 7 29. What of e and its equivalents? 30, 31. Mention instances in which the sound of e is suppressed. 31. What is said of the mark of the Diaeresis? 32. What are to, «e, and ei? 33. Eo, eu, etc 7 34. Ey, eau 7 35, 30. Mention a word in which tha .ong sound of i occurs. The short sound. What is ie 7 ieu and lew 7 37. Mention a word in which the long sound of o occurs. The short sound. 38. What are oa, 06, oi $ 89. Ou 7 40. Mention words in which the long sound of u occurs. The short sound. 41. (7a, ue. 42. Ui, uy. 43. What is w 7 V *



45. B. —B represents the Twenty-second elementary sound, as in Jag, MA, AulA, bribe, huAAuA, &o. In such words as deAtor, suAtle, redouAt, &c, and in lamA, comA, dumA, thumA, &c, the A is mute.

46. C. — Before another c, and before a, o, u, I, r, t, the sound of c is hard, and equivalent to k; as in can, come, cub, accurate, clip, crop, act; also where it ends a syllable, as in public. Before e, i and y,c is soft and equivalent to s; as in accent, flaccid, vacillate, cymbal, &c, except in sceptic, scirrhus, and their derivatives, where the c is hard, like k.

47. Ce and ci, followed by another vowel, often blend into the sound of sh, as in ocean, social. C is mute in arbuscle, corpuscle, muscle, czar, victuals, indict, Connecticut, &c Followed by the letter A, c sometimes serves to express the sound of tsh; as in cAurcA, cAivalry, bircA; the sound of k, as in cAorus, c/iimSra, scheme, cAirog'raphy, disticA, &o.; the sound of sh, in macAine, cAagrin, cAaise. Ch is sometimes mute, as in scAism (pronounced sixm), yacAt (pronounced yot), dracAm. Where the Latin word drachma, however, is used, the cA should be sounded £ke k.

48. D. — D represents the Twenty-eighth elementary sound, as in did, xnddj, &c. w hen ed is preceded by a hard consonant, and the e is mute. the real sound of d is that of i. Words like the following, stuffed, ti ipped, plucked, &c, are all pronounced stuft, tript, pluckt, &c. D is mute in handsome, Wednesday, starftholder.

49. F. — F represents the Twenty-third elementary sound, as in /ell, fop. In of it is soft, having the sound of v.

50. G. — Before a, o, u, I and r, g represents the Thirtieth elementary sound, as in gap, gone, gun, glory, grip. Before e, i and y, it generally represents the sound of?', as in gem, gibbet, gyration. There are several exceptions to this, however, among which are the following words, in which the sound of ghard (as in go, gap) is preserved, namely: get, gear, gewgaw, finger, linger, gibber, gibberish, gibbous, giddy, giggle, gimp, gird, girl, give; also syllables added to words ending in g; as fog, foggy. G is mute before m or n in the same syllable, as in phlegm, gnaw, gnome, impugn, condign, apothegm, &c.

51. The sound of ng in king, throng, &c, when at the end of a word, or in singer, ringing, &c, in the middle of a word, is not the natural sound of the combination n and g, each letter retaining its natural power and sound, but is a simple elementary sound, for which the combination ng is a conventional * mode of expression.

52. Gh, at the beginning of a word, retains the sound of g in gave, with the exception of a slight aspiration represented by the A; as in gAost, gAerkin. In other situations, gh is generally mute; as in higA, figAt. It is sometimes equivalent to /; as in laugA, cougA, trougA, draugAt ; and sometimes to g hard, as in burgA.

53. Ough is sometimes equivalent to ooA, as in throngA; also to owh, as in bough, plougA, drougAt, drougAty; also to uf, as in enougA, rough; and to auf as in trough. In slough it sometimes has the sound of uf, and sometimes of ou. See this word in the Index.

54. H. — H represents the Fifteenth elementary sound, as in hat. It is route at the beginning of a number of words ; as in Aeir, Aonor, Aour, &C. By some orthoepists it is incorrectly said to be mute in Aospital, Aostler, Aumble, Aumor, Aumorous, &c, exAale, exAibit, exAort, &c. In such words as wAale, wAat, wAist, wAither, the A should be distinctly aspirated. It should be but slightly aspirated after r, as in rAeum, rAubarb, rAetoric, rAapsody, &c.

55. J. — / represents a compound sound, and is equivalent to dzh, as in jest. In hallelu/'ah it has the sound of y. It was formerly identified with the vowel i, and mingled with it in English dictionaries.

56. K. — Krepresents th Twenty-ninth elementary sound, as in kid. It never comes before a, o, or w. It is used before e, i and y, because in that position c would run the chance of being sounded as s. Thus in kid, if this word were written with a c, it would be liable to be sounded sid. As a general rule, k is never used where c would serve the purpose. Before n, k is always mute, as in fcnow, kneel knife.

* Conventional mean* agreed upon, or settled by custom.

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