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COMPOUND VOWEL SOUNDS.
1. That oi i in pine, dine, &c. 3. That of ou in house, south, &o.
2. " # " cube, mute, &c. 4 “ oi « voice, noise, &o

COMPOUND CONSONANT SOUNDS.
1. That of ch in chest (aspirate). 2. That of j in jest (vocal).

REDUNDANT LETTERS. 22. As far as the representation of sounds is concerned, the letters C, q and x, are redundant (more than enough). C expresses only what is as well expressed by either s or k. The words city and can are pronounced sity and kon respectively. Q is only kw (or cw), and x is only ks (or cs). The words queen and box are pronounced cween (or kween) and boks (or bocks, or bocs) respectively. In the words Philip and fillip a single sound has a double sign.

DEFICIENT LETTERS. 23. Six of the simple, elementary sounds have no sign or letter corresponding to them in the English alphabet. These six sounds are,-1. The u in but. This is expressed by the letter u the proper sound of which is to express the vowel sound in words like bull. 2. The th in thin. 3. The th in thine. 4. The sound of the sh in shine. 5. The sound of z in azure. 6. The sound of the ng in king.

QUESTIONS.-11. What are the Vowels? 12. What do you understand by Cognate Consonant Sounds ? the Aspirate letter? the Liquids ? the redundant signs ? 13, 14. What other classifications are there of Consonant Sounds ? 15. What is a Diphthong? Name the distinction between a proper and improper diphthong. What is a Triphthong . 16. What is a Letter ? 17. What is the peculiarity of Consonant Sounds? Why are they so called ? Why are Vowels so called ? 18. Name the distinction. 19. What is meant by explosive Consonant Sounds ? What by continuous ? 20. How are elementary sounds classified ? 21. Name the Compound Vowel Sounds. The Compound Consonant Sounds. 22. What do you understand by the word redundant ? What are the redundant letters of the English Alphabet ? 23. What the deficient ?

LESSON III.

RELATIONS OF THE VOWEL LETTERS TO THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.

24. A. - It has been seen that a represents four elementary sounds : 1. The ancient or Italian sound, as in father. 2. The short sound, as in mặt. 3. The long sound, as in māte. 4. The broad sound, as in full. These sounds are variously modified, according to their combinations with other sounds; as in the following words : liar, care, what, many.

25. The sound of a interchanges with o in salt, wash, &c., where the a has nearly the sound of o in nut. It interchanges with the sound usually

of the organs of speech, originating a sound within the month. BruU animals utter Vowel sounds. Man only can utter Consonant sounds.

19. A part of the Consonant sounds are Continuous, and a part art Explosive. If you place a short e before each of the following letters, — p, b, t, d, k and g, — you will find, in enunciating them, that you hava no power of prolonging their Consonant sounds or of resting on them. They escape with the breath at once. It is not so with/, v, sh, zh, s, l, m, n, r. Sound them with a short e (as in ebb) prefixed, and you will find that the breath is transmitted by degrees, and the sound can be pro longed. The first class are Explosive ; the second, Continuous.

20. The following table gives the classification of elementary sounds adopted by two of the most distinguished grammarians and orthoepista of our day, Professor Latham, of King's College, Cambridge, in England, ani Professor Fowler, of Amherst, Massachusetts.

TABLE OF THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. VOWEL SOUNDS.

[table]

VOWEL OR CONSONANT SOUNDS.

13. That of w in woe. 14. That of y in yes

CONSONANT SOUNDS.

15. That of h in hot, an aspirate or simple breathing.

16. "ng " king*, a nasal consonant sound.

17. "m " man, a liquid nasal consonant sound.

18. " n « not, " " ""

19. " I " Jet, a liquid consonant sound.

20. " r " run" ""

COGNATe CONSONANT SOUNDS.

21. That of p in pan, ) aspirate. 29. That of k in kind, > aspirate

22. " b " bag,J vocal. 30. " g" gun,} vooal.

23. " /" /an,) aspirate. 31. " s" »in, 1 aspirate.

24. " v" uan,J vooal. 32. " z" real, J vooal.

25. " th" thin,) aspirate. 33. " sh " e7iiie,) aspirate

26. " th " thine, ) vooal. 34. " z "azure, »vocal

27. "' t" tin, 1 aspirate.

28. " d « din,) vooal.

21. Here ends the list of the simple, single, elementary sounds in the English language. But besides these there are six compound sounds. Of these, four are compounded by means of a vowel, and two by means of •

COMPOUND VOWEL SOUNDS. L That oi i in pine, dine, Ac. 3. That of on in house, south, Ac. 2. " « " cube, mute, &o. i " oi " Toioe, noise, <to

COMPOUND CONSONANT SOUNDS.

1. That of ch in ciest (aspirate). 2. That of j in jest (vocal).

REDUNDANT LeTTEhS.

22. As far as the representation of sounds is concerned, the letters c, q and x, are redundant (more than enough). C expresses only what is as well expressed by either s or k. The words city and can are pronounced tity and ken respectively. Q is only kw (or cw), and x is only ks (or cs). The words queen and ooz are pronounced cween (or kween) and oofcs (or bocks, or 6ocs) respectively. In the words Philip and./iMip a single sound has a double sign. ,

DEFICIENT LETTERS.

23. Six of the simple, elementary sounds have no sign or letter corresponding to them in the English alphabet. These six sounds are, — 1. The u in but. This is expressed by the letter u the proper sound of which is to express the vowel sound in words like bull. 2. The th in ttin. 3. The th in fAine. 4. The sound of the sA in sAine. 5. The sound of z in azure. 6. The sound of the ng in kireg.

Questions.—11. What art the Vowels? 12. What do you understand by Cognate Consonant Sounds? the Aspirate letter? the Liquids ? the redundant signs? 13, 14. What other classifications are there of Consonant Sounds? 15. What is a Diphthong f Name the distinction between a proper and improper diphthong. What is a Triphthong . 16. What is a Letter? 17. What is the peculiarity of Consonant Sounds? Why are they so called? Why are Vowels so called? 18. Name the distinction. 19. What is meant by exploitive Consonant Sounds? What by continuous? 20. How are elementary sounds classified? 21. Name the Compound Vowel Sounds. The Compound Consonant Bounds. 22. What do you understand by the word redundant? What are the redundant letters of the English Alphabet f 23. What the deficient f

LESSON III.

RELATIONS OF THE VOWEL LETTERS TO THE ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.

24. A.— It has been seen that a represents lour elementary sounds: 1. The ancient or Italian sound, as in father. 2. The short sound, as in mitt. 3. The long sound, as in mate. 4. The broad sound, as in fall. These sounds are variously modified, according to their combinations with other sounds; as in the following words : liar, care, what, many.

26. Hie sound of a interchanges with o in salt, wash, &c., where the a has nearly the sound of o in net. It interchanges with the sound usually RELATIONS OF VOWELS TO ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.

represented by short e in many, any, says, &o. The change from a to a takes place most especially before l, as in wall, call. When the liquid I is followed by another Consonant, the l is generally sunk in the pronunciation, as in falcon, salmon, pronouncedfaucon, sammon.

26. M, an Improper Diphthong, is borrowed from the Latin, in which language it is always long. In English it is used only in words of Latin origin or formation ; and it is sometimes long, as in pSan, and sometimes short, as in catera.

27. Ai, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long a, as in pail; to short a, in plaid, raillery ; and sometimes to short e, as in said, again, against. It has the sound of long i in aisle, and of short i in fountain, curtain, &c.

28. Au, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to broad a in cause, and sometimes to the^talian a, as in aunt, and to long a in gauge. In hautboy (the I mute) it has the sound of long o. Aw, an Improper Diphthong, has the sound of broad a, as in maw. Ay, a Proper Diphthong in the word ay, is elsewhere an Improper Diphthong, and is equivalent to long a as in day, except in quay, which is pronounced ke.

29. E.— E represents two elementary sounds, the Fifth and the Sixth. 1. The long sound, as in mete. 2. The short sound, as in met. It has an obtuse sound in her. It is sometimes equivalent to long a, as in there, where ; but were is properly pronounced wer (the e as in Aer). E is sometimes equivalent to short i, as in England.

30. Before an unaccented final syllable, when it precedes I or n, e sometimes has an indistinct, short sound, and is sometimes suppressed altogether. It is sounded in chapel, flannel, travel, chicken, vessel, kitchen, sudden, woollen, &c.; and it is suppressed in drivel, gravel, heaven, &c . At the end of words it is always mute, except in monosyllables which have no other vowels, and in some proper names, as Tempe, Lethe, &c.

31. The sound of e is generally suppressed in the preterites of verbs, and in participles, in erf, when the e is not preceded by d or I; as feared, praised; tossed, &c., pronouncedfeard, praisd, tost. In poetry, the sound of the e is sometimes retained ; and to signify this, it may have over it the mark of the Dice'resis (a Greek word, meaning division or separation) , as in praised, blessed, which when thus marked ought to be pronounced as words of two syllables. The acute or grave accent is sometimes used for the same purpose.

32. Ea, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in tea; to short e, as in head ; to long a, as in break ; to the Italian a, as in heart, hearth, &c. Ee, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in cel. Ei, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long a, as in veil; to long e, as in deceit; to long i, as in height; to short i, as in surfeit; and to short e, as in heifer.

33. Eo, an Improper Diphthong, is equivalent to long e, as in people ; to short e, as in leopard , .to long o, as in yeoman ; and to short p, as m the real sound of d is that of t. Words like the following, stuffed, ti ipped, plucked, &c., are all pronounced stuft, iript, pluckl, &o. D is mute in handsome, Wednesday, starftholder.

49. F. — F represents the Twenty-third elementary sound, as in /ell, fop. In of it is soft, having the sound of v.

50. G. — Before a, o, u, l and r, g represents the Thirtuith elementary sound, as in gap, gone, gun, glory, grip. Before e, i and y, it generally represents the sound of/, as in gem, gibbet, gyration. There are several exceptions to this, however, among which are the following words, in which the sound of g hard (as in go, gap) is preserved, namely: get, gear, gewgaw, finger, linger, gibber, gibberish, gibbous, giddy, giggle, gimp, gird, girl, give; also syllables added to words ending in g; as fog, foggy. G is mute before m or n in the same syllable, as in phlegm, gnaw, gnome, impugn, condign, apothegm, &o.

51. The sound of ng in king, throng, &c., when at the end of a word, or in singer, ringing, &c., in the middle of a word, is not the natural sound of the combination n and g, each letter retaining its natural power and sound, but is a simple elementary sound, for which the combination 7i g is a conventional * mode of expression.

52. GA, at the beginning of a word, retains the sound of g in gave, with the exception of a slight aspiration represented by the A; as in gAost, gAerkin. In other situations, gh is generally mute ; as in higA, figAt. It is sometimes equivalent to /; as in laugh, cough, trougA, draugAt ; and sometimes to g hard, as in burgA.

53. OugA is sometimes equivalent to ooA, as in throttgA; also to owA, as in bougA, plougA, drougAt, drougAty; also to uf, as in enougA, rough; and to awf as in trough. In slougA it sometimes has the sound of uf, and sometimes of ou. See this word in the Index.

54. H. — H represents the Fifteenth elementary sound, as in hat. It is mute at the beginning of a number of words ; as in Aeir, Aonor, Aour, Sc. By some orthoepists it is incorrectly said to be mute in Aospital, Aostler, Aumble, Aurnor, Aumorous, &c., ex/iale, exAibit, exAort, &o. In such words as wAale, wAat, wAist, wAither, the A should be distinctly aspirated. It should be but slightly aspirated after r, as in rAeum, rAubarb, rAetoric, rAapsody, &c.

55. J. — / represents a compound sound, and is equivalent to dzh, as in .;'est. In hallelu;ah it has the sound of y. It was formerly identified with the vowel f, and mingled with it in English dictionaries.

56. K. — K represents th Twenty-ninth elementary sound, as in kid. It never comes before a, o, or w. It is used before c, i and y, because in that position c Wdum run the chance of being sounded as s. Thus in kid, if this word were written with a c, it would be liable to be sounded sid. As a general rule, k is never used where c would serve the purpose. Before n, k is always mute, as in /enow, kneei knife.

* Cenventional meanH agreed upon, or settled by custom.

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