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versal education? A camp of manoeuvres, an arsenal of weapons, a barrack of troops. All are trained to military service. Upon this martial regulation is founded the system of instruction. It supplies, of course, immense facilities for it. A thousand subalterns are ready to conduct it. Pedagogues are the orderlies and sentries. The drum and the drill are the notices and exercises. An elementary education, very complete as far as it goes, is confessedly afforded. But what is the national character which it can shape? It severs the proper sympathies of parent and child. It extinguishes the proud consciousness of free agency and personal accountability. It raises mind to one level: it as often sinks it to the same. A dull monotony succeeds. To this is a noble people made slave and victim. What high deeds can such discipline provoke? What are the excellencies which this culture can inspire? They who anticipate the reign of mind and of religion, can see, in all this mechanism, no preparatory process, no encouraging earnest, no prophetic hope! *
Moral motive should operate on the parent, and, as early as possible, on the child, in the work of instruction. But though there may be national provision in a free country without compulsion, in every despotic land, it is more or less coercive. The common practice in Germany is, for the schoolmaster to keep a list of the children who attend his school.
* See Laing's "Notes of a Traveller."
This must be certified by the clergyman of the parish, who remonstrates with the parents, if their children are not enrolled. If this have no effect, the names of the defaulters are forwarded to the commissioners of education, or to the Consistory, as the law may be; and they are then cited to the Court of Judicature, to which they are amenable, are fined, or imprisoned when they have not the means to pay the fine. It may be said, that recusancy seldom manifests itself, and that these punishments are rarely inflicted. But there is another sanction more concealed. The ceremony of Confirmation depends upon the attendance" of the children at the school, and their civil rights can only be obtained on receiving it. This proscription is only a disguise of the same harsh and overbearing force, which threatens the mulct or the dungeon.
Not disposed to take offence at a word, nor to indulge a fastidiousness of criticism, we have used, as a part of the common terminology, what is called training. But we disrelish it. It seems to treat man too much as the animal or the posturer: it reminds of the menege or the gymnasium. It is sufficiently well accommodated to the theory of man, as the creature of circumstances, as the proper quantity of flesh and spirit to fill up mercantile or military parallelograms. If there are those who think that they can make him just what they wish, we are sure that they have not planted that aim on any noble height. They would weld him to their end only, as more malleably subservient to them than the metals which they forge. But if we believe in the diversities of human intellect, that there lie deep in it the elements of various power, that education, as the word intends, is the appointed mode of drawing forth its mined stores, then, the system of batons and signals,—the fugle management of all, nothing discriminated, nothing adapted,—can only miserably fail in every exalted purpose, securing but the living machine and debased instrument. We seek to raise the individual, and the nation, to "glory and -virtue," to "honour and immortality," to "a heavenly calling," to "a divine nature." Training is a sorry word for such a destiny. A nobler evolution is supposed: a more celestial impulse is required.
In the classical ages of Greece and Rome, though the gymnastic exercises were recommended, they do not seem to have been enjoined. They were extolled, but not imposed. These and music were the rudiments of education. We know that the instruction of youth was most carefully studied, that the science of education was most diligently prosecuted; but government did not affect to legislate upon it. Once, and, perhaps, only once, was the liberty of teaching revoked. This is a sufficient proof that it was an understood and admitted right. In the 116th Olympiad, the period of Polyperchon, a decree was passed in Athens, by which teachers were forbidden to set up any school, unless the liberty of doing so had been granted by the senate and people. A certain Sopho
cles, the son of Amphicileda, bears the bad credit of instigating it. The very next year it was annulled, artd its author was accused, by Philo, of a wicked outrage on the laws, and amerced in five talents, though Demochares, the nephew of Demosthenes, pleaded his cause. That interval which saw the suppression of educational liberty, was marked by the indignant retirement of Theophrastus, and the other philosophers, from the city.* It is recorded, that during the consulate of Caius Fannius, Strabo, and of Cnoeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, (A. U. C. 630,) a persecution arose against the philosophers,—some accounts say, the Rhetoricians, and others, the Epicureans. But their perfect liberty would not have been denied, save on the allegation, that they were the corrupters of youth, to which their methods and opinions lent at least some colour of probability, f
* Bergmann. The author has done his utmost to obtain this work. He has failed. He is compelled to do that which he most dislikes, quote a quotation. He finds, however, the following account of the same fact in the Biographie Universelle: "Pour 1' atteindre plus surement, et lui oter les moyens d' une juste defense, une loi ferma toutes les ecoles, et interdit aux philosophes d' enseigner, soit publiquement, soit en particulier. En un instant, Athenes fut privee de toutes les voies de 1' instruction. Les philosophes s' eloignerent le meme jour; les rhe'teurs seuls eurent le privilege demeurer. L' effet de cette loi dura un an: elle fut alors rapportee, et son auteur condamne' a une amende de cinq talents. Les philosophes rentrerent aussitot dans Athenes."
+ Aulus Gellius, lib. xv. cap. 11. The author of the Attic Nights is evidently wrong in conjoining the name of Messala with Strabo.
How pleasing are the touches of domestic tenderness and order, which some incidental passage, in a classical author, unfolds, as marking the Roman common life. We are accustomed to think of it only in its severer forms. We call up hefore our minds unrelenting sternness and stoicism. But the parental character was not despoiled of its nature. It was beheld in the most ardent desire to train offspring for all social duties. While it assiduously prepared them for the State, it resigned not that business to it Thus, in the Adelphi of Terence, the wit of Syrus does not hide from us the parental influence in education: "Ut quisque suum vult esse, ita est." * Nor does the weakness of Demea conceal the indefatigable earnestness of that influence:
"Nil praetermitto: consuefacio: denique
An education not provided in this manner, an apparatus set up independently of all popular choice and control, can never be valued as it must be to be availing. If it be presented as a dole and boon, it will be depreciated by those who see in it no kind motive. If it be enforced by payments, the exaction
* "Parents make the character of the child."
+ "I omit nothing: I am always teaching: my chief injunction is, that he look into the lives of all, as in a mirror, and out of them select a pattern for himself."—Act 3, sc. 4.