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New York, in the most simple terms. He has adopted the plan of several popular historical works, in giving two sizes of type, the principal features being in large, and inferior details in smaller, type. He has also, to avoid swelling the size of the volume, inserted a few articles in a still smaller type.
It will be seen by the references, that the compiler has made free use of the works of various authors; he pretends to little originality and offers his production to the public in the sincere hope that it may prove useful.
It is perhaps proper to make one further remark. In a work of this nature, it seemed that the Compiler should not seek minutely to detail the policy or exhibit the springs and motives of government, but should in general restrict himself to a plain exhibition of facts and events. It would be in vain to make a pupil comprehend the tangled maze of politics, even if it could be developed within the limits necessarily assigned to the present volume. The intricacies of the machine of government form a study which belongs to riper years, and more mature minds, and is therefore left for some other historian.
It is probable that some inaccuracies may be noticed. If the work is well received, it will be the compiler's care to render future editions more worthy of public favòr.
HISTORY OF NEW YORK.
Situation and Extent.
SEC. 1. Boundaries. New York is bounded by Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Long Island Sound on the South. Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, and Lake Champlain on the East. Lower Canada, the St. Lawrence, Lake Ontario, Niagara river, Lake Erie, and Pennsylvania on the North and West.
SEC. II. Situation and Extent. This state is situated between Lat. 409 40′ and 45° North, and between Long. 73° and 79° 55' West. The length of the state on the parallel of 420 is 340 miles, and the greatest breadth from north to south 304. It contains, exclusive of islands, about 45,000 square miles. It is one of the largest of the United States, and the only one, which extends from the Atlantic to the western Lakes.
1. How is New York bounded?
II. How is it situated? What is its extent? How many square miles does it contain ?—— -What is its size compared with the
SEC. III. Climate. New York, extending through more than four degrees of latitude, presents a considerable diversity of climate. It is cold in the north towards the St. Lawrence; but milder in the southeast, and in the country lying on the shore of Lake Ontario. The greatest range of the thermometer is from 24° below to 95° above the cipher of Farenheit.
The climate of the counties between Lake Ontario and Pennsylvania is much warmer, than that of those farther east in the same latitude. The earliest forest trees in this tract put forth their leaves about the first of May; and the oak and other late trees by the 20th.
The shallow ponds and brooks usually freeze in October, and snow commonly falls by the last of November, but seldom during the winter exceeds a foot in depth. Cattle are sometimes kept in pastures till January, and on the Genesee flats nearly the whole winter.
The fever and ague is the most common disease throughout the state. It prevails on the Hudson, lake Champlain, on the Mohawk and the St. Lawrence, on the Chenango and the Oswego, on the Genesee and the Niagara. This disease is however becoming less frequent, than formerly, and in many places, where but a few years since, its prevalence was severely felt, it now very seldom oc
The country, between Pennsylvania and lake Ontario, is the most unhealthy part of the state. Malignant bilious fevers are common, and prove extremely prejudicial to strangers. This is particularly true on the banks of the Genesee, and on the low lands in the vicinity of the lakes. They sometimes occur between the Champlain and the St. Lawrence.
III. What is said ofthe climate?—— Of the counties between Lake Ontario and Pennsylvania ?— What is the most common disease? Where does it prevail?- What is said of this disease?--What is the most unhealthy part of the state ?common?- -In what other parts do they occur?
What fevers are
SEC. IV. Face of the Country. The face of the country exhibits an interesting variety, but is less mountainous, than many other parts of America. The Catskill Mountains in the eastern part of the state are the principal range. The western part generally presents a level, or moderately undulating surface.
The southeastern part of the state particularly between the Hudson and Chenango, may be characterized as mountainous. A narrow tract near the Pennsylvania line is generally hilly. From this to lake Ontario the country is mostly level, and contains no elevation deserving the name of a mountain.
The northwestern part of the state, between lakes Erie and Ontario, presents a remarkable singularity of surface. Lake Erie is more than 300 feet above lake Ontario, and the country around proportionably higher. The descent towards lake Ontario is not irregular and imperceptible; but is made by three successive pitches, or steeps, with a wide interval of level land between them.
The upper, or southern pitch commences at Buffalo, at the mouth of lake Erie, and runs north of east stretching round the mouth of Canandaigua lake to the west side of the Seneca, thence south to the high grounds of the Tioga.
The middle pitch commences at the Falls of Niagara, and, after an eastern course of about 50 miles, takes a southerly direction to the Genesee; thence north of the Seneca, Cayuga, Skeneateles, and Otisco lakes, and in an eastern direction to the hills, from whose southern declivities, flow the Chenango and Unadilla.
The northern, or lower pitch branches from the middle one near the Eighteen Mile Run, (a stream, which empties eighteen miles east of the Niagara,) and diverg
IV. What is said of the face of the country?- -What is the principal range of mountains?- -What is said of the western part of the state?- What part of the state is mountainous? What part is hilly, and what level?- What singularity of surface in the northwestern part ?- -Describe the southern pitch.--The middle.
ing northward, proceeds with a progress sometimes i distinct to the lower falls of the Genesee, thence eastwa to the falls of the Oswego, 12 miles from its mouth.
The northeastern part of the state is generally hilly and the height of land betwen Champlain, and the S Lawrence ents a range of mountains of considerabl elevation. A tract about 30 miles wide on the banks the St. Lawrence is uneven. At that distance it become rough and broken.
SEC. v. Soil and Productions. The soil o New York is generally fertile, and well adapted to the purposes of agriculture. The country between the Seneca and Cayuga lakes, the valley of the Chenango, the extensive flats o the Genesee, and the lands along Black river in richness of soil are second, perhaps, to none in America.
West of the Genesee the soil is less uniformly good That near lake Ontario is the best. An extensive tract in the eastern part of the state, including the counties o Rensselaer, Columbia, Green, Schoharie, Albany and Schenectady is but indifferent. The country along the Mohawk west of the Oneida village is very rich. The plains of Herkimer, have long been justly celebrated fo their fertility.
Wheat is the most important production, and is extensively cultivated throughout the state It is raised on the flats of the Genesee with unparalleled facility, and in quality surpassed by none. Many parts of the state are well adapted to grazing. Maize, rye, and barley are generally cultivated with suc
What is said of the northeastern part? v. What is the character of the soil?fertile ?
What parts remarkably -What is said of the soil west of the Genesee?— part is best?- -What part is mentioned as indifferent?— What is said of the country along the Mohawk ?
What is the most important production?