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operation, in October, 1825. The consummation of this most magnificent and glorious enterprise of the age, was celebrated by a great state jubilee, and the peal of cannon was heard from the shores of Lake Erie to those of the Atlantic.*

* Tribute.


Constitution and Laws. Political Divisions. Cities and Villages. Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, Canals. Banks. Militia. Education. Literary Institutions. Religion. Population. Character.

SEC. I. Constitution and Laws. On the abolition of the regal authority, the convention of the state, in 1777, established a Republican Constitution. It was revised, in 1821, by a convention at Albany, and underwent many important improvements. The new Constitution was presented to the people the following year, and accepted by a majority of more than thirtythree thousand votes. The Constitution secures to the citizens the right of suffrage, freedom of conscience in matters of religion, the privilege of habeas corpus, and trial by jury in all criminal cases, protection of private property, and freedom of the press.

The acts of the legislature of this state, with such parts of the common and statute laws of England and Great Britain, and such acts of the colonial assembly, as are not repugnant to the Constitution, and the acts of the State Legislature, constitute the Laws of the State of New York.

-When was it

SEC. I. What Constitution was adopted in 1777?revised? -What rights are secured to the citizens by the constitution? -What constitute the laws of New York?

The following is a copy of the Constitution, as formed by the Convention of 1821, and accepted by the people in January, 1822.

We the People of the State of New York, acknowledging with gratitude the grace and beneficence of God, in permitting us to make choice of our form of government, do establish the following Constitution :

ARTICLE I.-Legislature.

SECTION I. The legislative power of this state shall be vested in a senate and assembly.

SEC. II. The senate shall consist of thirtytwo members. The senators shall be chosen for four years, and shall be freeholders. The assembly shall consist of one hundred and twentyeight members, who shall be annually elected.

SEC. III. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business. Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and be the judge of the qualifications of its own members. Each house shall choose its own officers; and the senate shall choose a temporary president, when the lieutenant governor shall not attend as president, or shall act as governor.

SEC. IV. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same, except such parts as may require secrecy. The doors of each house shall be kept open, except when the public welfare shall require secrecy. Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than two days.

SEC. V. The state shall be divided into eight districts, to be called senate districts, each of which shall choose four


The first district shall consist of the counties of Suffolk, Queen's, King's, Richmond, and New York.

The second district shall consist of the counties of Westchester, Putnam, Dutchess, Rockland, Orange, Ulster, and Sullivan.

The third district shall consist of the counties of Greene,

ART. 1. In what is the legislative power of the state vested?-Of what must the senate consist?—The assembly?--What constitutes a quorum to transact business?-Give some account of the rules of the house?-How is the state divided for the election of senators?

Columbia, Albany, Rensselaer, Schoharie, and Schenectady.

The fourth district, shall consist of the counties of Saratoga, Montgomery, Hamilton, Washington, Warren, Clinton, Essex, Franklin, and St Lawrence.

The fifth district, shall consist of the counties of Herkimer, Oneida, Madison, Oswego, Lewis, and Jefferson.

The sixth district, shall consist of the counties of Delaware, Otsego, Chenango, Broome, Cortland, Tompkins, and Tioga.

The seventh district shall consist of the counties of Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and Ontario.

The eighth district shall consist of the counties of Steuben, Livingston, Monroe, Genesee, Niagara, Erie, Alleghany, Cattaraugus, and Chattauque.

And as soon as the senate shall meet, after the first election to be held in pursuance of this constitution, they shall cause the senators to be divided by lot into four classes of eight in each, so that every district shall have one senator of each class; the classes to be numbered one, two, three, and four. And the seats of the first class, shall be vacated at the end of the first year; of the second class, at the end of the second year; of the third class, at the end of the third year; of the fourth class, at the end of the fourth year, in order that one senator be annually elected in each senate district.

SEC. VI. An enumeration of the inhabitants of the state shall be taken, under the direction of the legislature, in the year one thousand eight hundred and twentyfive, and at the end of every ten years thereafter; and the said districts shall be so altered by the legislature, at the first session after the return of every enumeration, that each senate district shall contain, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants, excluding aliens, paupers, and persons of color not taxed; and shall remain unaltered until the return of another enumeration; and shall at all times consist of contiguous territory, and no county shall be divided in the formation of a senate district.

SEC. VII. The members of the assembly shall be chosen

How are the senators divided?

by counties, and shall be apportioned among the several counties of the state, as nearly as may be, according to the numbers of their respective inhabitants, excluding aliens, paupers, and persons of color not taxed. An apportionment of members of assembly shall be made by the legislature, at its first session after the return of every enumeration; and when made, shall remain unaltered until another enumeration shall have been taken. But an apportionment of members of the assembly shall be made by the present legislature, according to the last enumeration taken under the authority of the United States, as nearly as may be. Every county heretofore established, and separately organized, shall always be entitled to one member of the assembly, and no new county shall hereafter be erected, unless its population shall entitle it to a member.

SEC. VIII. Any bill may originate in either house of the legislature, and all bills passed by one house may be amended by the other.

SEC. IX. The members of the legislature shall receive for their services, a compensation to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the public treasury; but no increase of the compensation shall take effect during the year in which it shall have been made. And no law shall be passed increasing the compensation of the members of the legislature beyond the sum of three dollars a day.

SEC. X. No member of the legislature shall receive any civil appointment from the governor and senate, or from the legislature, during the term for which he shall have been elected.

SEC. IX. No person, being a member of congress, or holding any judicial or military office under the United States, shall hold a seat in the legislature. And if any person shall, while a member of the legislature, be elected to congress, or appointed to any office, civil or military, under the government of the United States, his acceptance thereof shall vacate his seat.

SEC. XII. Every bill which shall have passed the senate

How are the members of the assembly chosen?-What is said of the compensation of members ?-Of their receiving civil appoint


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