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This period is distinguished only by the general, and almost unrivalled prosperity, that attended the public and private concerns of community; and its history would be little more than a detail of the successful pursuit of the various avocations of civil life. The passing of laws for regulating the general and local interests of society, the granting of lands, and organizing the new settlements, comprised the usual and ordinary business of the govern


In 1796, the Legislature passed an act, granting an annuity of five thousand five hundred and fiftytwo dollars to the Oneida Indians, in lieu of all former stipulations, for lands purchased in 1795; two thousand three hundred to the Cayugas, and two thousand to the Onondagas. An act was also passed for the relief of Indians, who were entitled to land in Brothertown. A general organization act, dividing the state into thirty counties, was passed in 1801.

SEC. VIII. 1804. Mr Clinton having been elected Vice President of the United States, Morgan Lewis was chosen to succeed him, as Governor of New York. Mr Lewis was succeeded by Daniel D. Tompkins in 1807. Albany was the same year made the capital of the state.

The contest between the two great parties, into which the country was divided, was still continued, and party feeling abated none of its violence. The measures of the general government and the appointment of civil officers,

What is said of this period?What comprised the usual business of government?

What acts of the legislature are mentioned?


VIII. Who was elected governor in 1804?- -In 1807?other event the same year?

What is said of the parties at this time ?What were the usual subjects of controversy?

constituted the usual subjects of controversy. In 1800, the republican party in New York obtained the ascendency. After a warmly contested election, Thomas Jefferson, the republican candidate, was chosen President of the United States in 1801. During his administration, commenced the series of encroachments on the American commerce, by the British, which resulted in a war with that country in 1812. Mr Jefferson retired from the office of President in 1809, and was succeeded by James Madison.

SEC. IX. 1810. An act was passed by the legislature, "for exploring the route of an inland navigation from Hudson's river to Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie ;" commissioners were appointed for this purpose, who made report the following year. The subject now began to excite very general interest, and a bill being introduced by Mr Clinton, an act was passed, "to provide for the improvement of the internal navigation of the State." Commissioners were again appointed, and authorized to solicit assistance from the Congress of the United States.

The commissioners appointed De Witt Clinton and Gouverneur Morris to lay the subject before the general government. They proceeded to Washington, exhibited their credentials, and presented a memorial to Congress; but were unsuccessful in their application to that body for assistance. In March, 1812, the commissioners again made report to the

Which obtained the ascendency ?- -Who was elected President of the United States in 1801?What was commenced during his administration ?- -By whom was he succeeded in 1809?

IX. What acts were passed in 1810, and the following year?For what were commissioners appointed?What success attended the application? -What report was made in 1812 ?

legislature, and insisted that now, sound policy imperatively demanded, that the canal should be made by the state, and for her own account, as soon as circumstances would permit. The subject was, however, soon after suspended* by the breaking out of the war with Great Britain.

The Western Inland Navigation Company, incorporated in 1792, had confined their views to the improvement of the navigation of the Mohawk river, the Oneida lake, and Seneca river as far as the Seneca lake. In 1795, the country was explored, under the direction of the company, as far west as the Seneca lake; and a report made, stating the practicability of considerable improvement in the navigation, by connecting those waters. The funds of the company, however, limited their operations to the improvements on the Mohawk river and Wood creek.

The subject remained in this posture until 1808, when Joshua Forman, Esq. a member of the legislature from Onondaga, made a motion in the assembly for a survey to be made under the surveyor general of the county, between Lake Erie and Hudson river, in order to ascertain the practicability of connecting the several waters. The resolution was adopted; but the survey was not made, and nothing further resulted from the motion.

In 1810, as before stated, the attention of the legislature was again called to the subject, and the resolution for causing the survey to be made, passed unanimously. The whole route was explored during the summer, and several surveys made the following year, the result of which was highly favorable to the prosecution of the enterprise. In the reports of the commissioners, the practicability of a canal navigation from the Hudson to Lake Erie, and the

* An act to this effect was passed on the report of the commissioners in 1814.

Why was the subject suspended?

To what were the operations of the Inland Navigation Company limited?What took place in 1808 ?When was the route explored? What was the result of these surveys ?

immense advantages which would result from the accomplishment of this object, were fully demonstrated. The public attention was aroused, and the importance of the work began to be in some measure appreciated.

In their report of 1812, the commissioners estimate the expense of undertaking at six millions of dollars; and affirm, as the result of their calculations, that should the canal cost even ten millions, the revenue which would accrue from it, would soon discharge the interest, and very soon afterwards, by natural and necessary increase, discharge the principal.

After adverting to the future importance of this work, they prophetically observe-" Even when, by the flow of that perpetual stream which bears all human institutions away, our constitution shall be dissolved, and our laws be lost, still the descendants of our children's children will remain. The same mountains will stand, the same rivers run. New moral combinations will be founded on the old physical foundations, and the extended line of remote posterity, after a lapse of two thousand years, and the ravage of repeated revolutions, when the records of history shall have been obliterated, and the tongue of tradition have converted (as in China) the shadowy remembrance of ancient events into childish tales of miracle, this national work shall remain. It shall bear testimony to the genius, the learning, the industry, and the intelligence of the present age.

Soon after this report was presented, an act was passed by the legislature, authorizing the commissioners, upon such terms and conditions as they should deem reasonable, to purchase, in behalf of the state, all the rights, interest, and estate of the "Western Inland Navigation Company,' and to take charge of the same. An act was also passed, authorizing the commissioners to borrow five millions of dollars in behalf of the state, for the prosecution of the canal. This act was, however, repealed in 1814.

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What estimate was made in the report of 1812?were soon after passed?- - Which was repealed in 1814?

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-What acts



War declared. Preparation for the Invasion of Canada. Battle of Queenstown. Capture of York and Fort George. Operations on the Lakes. Battles of Bridgewater, Chippewa and Plattsburg. Termination of the war. Commencement and Completion of the Northern and Erie Canals.

SEC. I. 1812. The encroachment of the British upon the maritime rights of the Americans, had for some time been a subject of controversy between the two countries. After repeated negotiations, in which no satisfactory concessions had been made by the British government, the depredations on the American commerce were still continued. At this crisis, the committee on foreign relations made report in concurrence with the message of the President, recommending, as the last resort for the defence of their rights, an appeal to arms. A bill for the declaration of war with Great Britian, was accordingly introduced,* and after

*The bill was passed by the House of Representatives on the 4th, and by the Senate, on the 17th.

1. What had for some time been a subject of controversy with Great Britain-What was the result of the negotiation on this subject? -What was recommended by the board on foreign relations?

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