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their own property with perfect spontaniety, and in a manner wholly divested of every appearance of constraint, is their indispensable birthright. This exalted blessing they are resolutely determined to defend with their blood, and to transfer, uncontaminated, to their posterity." They professed their readiness to submit cheerfully to a regula tion of commerce, by the legislature of the parent country, excluding in its nature every idea of taxation.

They gave assurance, "That America was grown so irritable by oppression, that the least shock in any part was, by the most powerful and sympathetic affection, instantaneously felt through the whole continent. That while the whole continent were ardently wishing for peace on such terms, as could be acceded to by Englishmen, they were indefatigable in preparing for the last appeal." Near the close they observe-"We speak the real sentiments of the confederated colonies on continent, from Nova Scotia to Georgia, when we declare, that all the horrors of a civil war will never compel America to submit to taxation by authority of parliament."

An association was the next day signed by above a thousand of the principal inhabitants of the city and country. They in the most solemn manner declared, that they associated to endeavor carrying into execution whatever measures might be recommended by the continental congress, or be resolved upon by their own provincial convention, for the purpose of preserving their constitution, and opposing the execution of the oppressive acts of the British parliament, until a reconciliation between Great Britain and America, on constitutional principles, could be obtained; and they would in all things follow the advice of their general committee, respecting the purposes aforesaid, the preservation of peace and good order, and the safety of individuals and private property.

SEC. VI. It was deemed of importance, for putting the country in a posture of defence, to secure the fortresses at Ticonderoga, and

* Gordon.


What association was the next day formed?What did they declare?

VI. What military operations in May?


Crown Point. Col. Ethan Allen, with a party of "Green Mountain Boys," on the morning of the tenth of May, took possession of Ticonderoga by surprise. On the same day, Crown Point was surrendered to another party under Col. Warner. A third party surprised Skeensborough, (at present Whitehall,) and secured that important harbor. The capture of an armed sloop at St Johns, soon after, gave to the Americans the entire command of Lake Champlain.

When Allen arrived at Ticonderoga, he demanded the surrender of the fort. "By what authority do you require it," said De la Place, the commander. "I demand it," said Allen," in the name of the great Jehovah, and the Continental Congress." The fort was in no situation for defence, and was immediately surrendered. By these enterprises above two hundred pieces of cannon, and large quantities of ammunition and military stores fell into the hands of the Americans.

SEC. VII. Gov. Tryon, who had been some time absent on a visit to Europe, arrived at New York on the 24th of June. He was much esteemed by a large portion of the citizens, and received a complimentary address from the city authorities. His exertions to promote the royal cause soon rendered him extremely unpopular. In October, he became alarmed for his personal safety, and retired on board the Halifax packet.

The few troops, that were stationed at New York, had been withdrawn some time previous to the arrival of Gov. Tryon. On the same

* Troops from the New Hampshire Grants, so called.

Give some account of the seizure of Ticonderoga. VII. What is said of the return of Gov. Tryon ?him unpopular? Why did he leave the city?

What rendered

day, on which the address was presented to him, all the king's stores, of various kinds, at Turtle Bay, were seized, and removed.

SEC. VIII. A regular system of military opposition having been resolved upon by the Continental Congress, George Washington, of Virginia, was appointed commander in chief of the American army. Amongst other appointments, Philip Schuyler, of New York, was appointed major general, and Richard Montgomery, brigadier general.

While Washington was engaged in organising the main body of the army in Massachusetts, an important expedition was planned against Canada, the command of which was assigned to generals Schuyler, and Montgomery.

For this expedition, it was proposed to raise two thou sand men, two regiments of which were to be raised in New York, and the remainder from the New England colonies. An armament was fitted out at Ticonderoga, and Crown Point, and, on September the fourth, Montgomery, with the forces that had arrived, moved down the lake. He was joined by Schuyler at Isle la Motte, when they both moved on to Isle aux Noix, and took measures to prevent the British vessels entering the lake.

On the sixth of September, the American army, consisting of about one thousand men, advanced towards St Johns; but finding the fort completely fortified and garrisoned, they resolved to return to Isle aux Noix, and await the arrival of artillery and reinforcements. Gen. Schuyler returned to Albany, to conclude a treaty with the Indians.

SEC. IX. The reinforcements having arrived,

What took place on the day the address was presented?

VIII. What was resolved upon by Congress?--Who was appointed commander in chief?- -What appointments are mentioned in New York?- -What expedition was planned?

Give some account of the operations?

Montgomery proceeded to St Johns, on the 17th of September, and began the siege. The fort at Chambly, situated farther down the river Sorel, was soon after invested by majors Brown and Livingston, assisted by the Canadians, who had joined the American forces, and compelled to surrender. Having obtained from this capture a large supply of military stores, the siege of St Johns was pressed with great vigor. After an obstinate resistance, this fortress, with about seven hundred prisoners of war, was surrendered to Montgomery, on the third of November.

Montreal was soon after surrendered without opposition. From this place, Montgomery rapidly advanced towards Quebec.

During the siege of St Johns, Gen. Carlton, with a force of eight hundred men, chiefly from Montreal, made an effort to relieve the place. While they were attempting to cross the St Lawrence, Col. Warner, who, with a body of three hundred men, was watching their movements, commenced a most spirited attack, and compelled them to retire in confusion. Upon the fall of St Johns, Carlton retired to Quebec.

In the mean time, a body of troops from Massachusetts, under the command of Col. Arnold, had been detached by Gen. Washington to cooperate against Quebec. Arnold, with seven hundred men, arrived at Point Levi, November 9th, and on the 19th, encamped at Point au Trembles, to await the arrival of Montgomery.

-What enter

IX. When was the siege of St Johns commenced?prise was soon after effected?- -What is said of the surrender of St Johns?- -What place surrendered soon after?--To what did Montgomery next dire


What attempt of Gen. Carlton during the siege of St Johns ?What is said of a body of troops from Massachusetts ?

SEC. X. Montgomery, with the New York troops, effected a junction with Arnold on the first of December, and on the fifth, with their united forces, appeared before Quebec. On the 31st, the Americans made an attempt to carry the city by storm. They were, however, repulsed, with the loss of Montgomery, their brave commander, and near half their troops. After this repulse, Arnold, with the remains of the army, retired about three miles from Quebec, where he encamped for the winter.

"The garrison of Quebec consisted, at the time of the above attack, of about one thousand five hundred men; the American forces were about eight hundred. The loss of the Americans, in killed and wounded, was about one hundred, and three hundred were taken prisoners.

"The death of Gen. Montgomery was deeply lamented, both in Europe and America. The most powerful speakers in the British parliament displayed their eloquence in praising his virtues, and lamenting his fall. Congress directed a monument to be erected to his memory, expressive of their sense of his high patriotism and heroic conduct."*

SEC. XI. 1776. Congress received information, that a large number of the inhabitants of Tryon county were disaffected to the American cause, and under the direction of Sir John Johnson, were making military preparations. It was resolved to disarm them, and the busi

* Goodrich.


x. Give some account of the progress of Montgomery.did he attempt to storm the city?- What success attended his at


What can you say of the garrison of Quebec?- -Of the American forces?- Of their loss?- Of the death of Montgomery?


XI. Of what did congress receive information in 1776?measures were taken?

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